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Observations on New Zealand.



may be circumstances to cause the the sting is blunted, if sympathy exvariations. Prosperity elates us; we tend her aid. But for the assistance should, therefore, remember that we of kind friends, many a one could do not exceed proper bounds; nor hardly have sustained the heavy burindulge so much in our joy, that we den. So strong is the desire of symshould be unable to bear sorrow when- pathy, that we often hear people reever it may come. Adversity depres-count their troubles, I could almost ses us; Christians can bear it with say, with a sort of satisfaction. In patience, knowing that this world is fact, the desire of it is inherent in hunot their home and resting place : man nature ; and all must allow its others can tell better than we can, how beauty. We have those two golden they endure it.

sentences recorded in the Scriptures : People are too often apt to lay their Weep with them that weep;" and, losses and gains to fortune: I think “ Rejoice with them that rejoice." that a good and wise Providence or- What is in opposition to this senti. dains what shall befall a man; that ment is disagreeable to both the parthere is no acting at random. Some-ties. Who, that has experienced the times a man has to blame his own burden of ill-timed mirth, would wish negligence, when adversity overtakes to feel it again? There is a season him. Act with a good conscience in for every thing, both for mirth and all things; humbly rely on the Al- sorrow. Nature will have her way in mighty; act up to the great doctrines this imperfect state. Perfection will of Christianity, and the precepts of not arrive till the immortal spirit, our blessed Redeemer; and you will unfettered from the shackles of flesh be bis care, and he will give you need and sense, shall enjoy its primitive ful things for body and soul. Those freedom and blessedness. who despise our holy religion, have no

Α. Η. consolation afforded them in the season of adversity: they are worse off than even the Roman moralist, who was a heathen. He could with rapture adopt those words so consoling

London, Feb. 28th, 1821. to his mind, “O præclanum diem,

MR. EDITOR. cum ad illud divinam animorum, con- Many of the New-Zealanders with silium coelumque proficiscar; cumque whom I am acquainted, possess fine ex hac turba et colluvione discedam.” | tempers and natural dispositions.

It would be too much to contem- From this, we, as having a concern for plate at present the difference of mo- their souls, and breathing a missionary tive, occupation, and workings, which spirit, may derive greatencouragement exists between the mind of one indi- to labour among them, and for their vidual and that of another. The vari- benefit, both in temporal and spiritual eties which are evident within one in- subjects. The awful customs, and dividual mind, are enough to astonish. cruel superstitions, with which the At one time eager after one pursuit, minds of this people are enveloped, it climbs its difliculties with agility: call aloud for Christian zeal and then comes the moment of reflection ; benevolence, in order to rescue them this object is not worth its considera- from the grand enemy of man's tion; or another starts up in its salvation. place, which is liked better, and New Zealand must rise in importance which pleases, perhaps, merely on in the eyes of the nations of Europe. account of its novelty. And, when Its situation is favourable. Its cliold age comes to sum up the time it mate and soil are very encouraging. has occupied, taking into the account Its natural productions are inviting; all the events intervening between the and the noble inhabitants are calcuday in which the man was born and lated to inflame the hearts of Christhe present, it appears like a dreamtians with spirits of enterprise, espeit is scarcely believed to have been cially in the missionary department, tealized.

which has for its object the universal There is one passion so closely knit spread of the gospel of peace, and the with the human heart, that I cannot salvation of every tribe and race of forbear mentioning it; viz. sympathy. men. In misfortunes, as they are called, half| New Zealand is, and will be more


Letter from New South Wales.-Fooleries of Olden Time.


and more, a place of importance to road will be clear in a month. The the South-sea whalers. While I con- country is beautiful, and fully equal tinued in the island, a ship came to my most sanguine expectations, into harbour to procure provision for for all the necessary purposes of colotheir passage home; which was done nization. Picture to yourself large without any difficulty, and at a very extensive downs, not plains, some as small expense. This was a saving of large as from fifty to sixty thousand 150 pounds, if not 200; for if the acres, without a tree, and well watercaptain had gone to Sydney in New ed, partly by rippling streams, partly South Wales, he would have had by chains of ponds in all directions. barbourage to pay, and provision to There are many plains of different procure at a dear rate; besides, the sizes, and the hills and broken counship being at New Zealand, the captain try around are thickly clad with exwas a fortnight's sail nearer home, cellent timber. It is in fact a most then he would have been bad he put desirable country; and before next into Port Jackson; and provided the Christmas I confidently anticipate, ship had not been full, she was within we shall prove that the snow and rain one day's sail of the whaling district. which fall on the mountains and high

I have no doubt of the safety of country seen to the S. W. have an ships, when lying at anchor at New- outlet to the sea. The lake is called Zealand, provided captains and crews by the natives Warrewaa, and is stated treat the natives with humanity and by them to empty its waters in a kindness; if they do not so, the New- southerly direction, where we perZealanders will be revenged. If a ceive an opening in the high land, on European should kill a native man, its west margin, by a river they call the brethren of his tribe will demand Murrum-hid-gee. The lake runs from an European to be put to death on his N. to S. about 30 miles, and extends account. However, I can say, that in breadth from two to ten miles, its the great kindness and hospitality of margin abounding in the most picthis people towards me, during my turesque bays and points." stay among them, far surpassed my most sanguine hopes and expectations. They are in my view a noble race of people.

I am Sir, your's, &c. MR. Editor.
SAMUEL Leigh, Missionary. Sir, -The following extract from

Evelyn's Memoirs will show that the
art of rope-dancing has not made a
great advance since the period in

which he wrote, although its profesLondon, Feb. 28th, 1821. sors at the present day belong nomiMR. EDITOR.

nally to a higher class of creation :The following is a letter lately re- Sept. 16th, 1660. I saw at Southceived from New South Wales. It wark, at St. Margaret's Fair, monkeys gives an account of the great exer- and apes dance and do other feats of tions of a gentleman I well know, activity on the high ropes; they were Mr. Throsby, who some time since gallantly clad a la mode, went upright, discovered a way to the fine country saluted the company, bowing and beyond the Blue Mountains. His pulling off their hats: they saluted last enterprise has been crowned with one another with as good a grace as great success. The letter is dated | if instructed by a dancing-master; the 5th of September, 1820.

they turned heels over head with a I am, Sir, your's, &c. basket having eggs in it, without SAMUEL LEIGH, Missionary. breaking any; also with lighted can

dles in their hands, without extinguishYou will see I am in a fair way of ing them ; and with vessels of water, verifying my prediction, that ere long without spilling a drop. I also saw a route would be continued as far to an Italian wench daunce and performe the southward on our continent, as all the triks on the high rope to adTwofold Bay. The lake now dis- miration: all the court went to see covered is full 140 miles S. S. W, of her.-Likewise here was a man who Sydney, to which an open carriage took up a piece of iron canyon of



Taste and Criticism.

404 about 4001b. weight, with the haire of imagination ; but they lose their relish his head onely.

gradually with their novelty; and are June 16th, 1670. I went with some generally neglected in the maturity of friends to the Beare Garden, where life, which disposes to more serious were cock-fighting, beare and dog- and more important occupations. To fighting and beare and bull-baiting; it those who deal in criticism as a regubeing a famous day for all those but-lar science, governed by just princicherly sports, or rather barbarous ples, and giving scope to judgment cruelties. The bulls did exceeding as well as to fancy, the fine arts are a well, but the Irish wolfe-dog greatly favourite entertainment; and in old exceeded, which was a tall grcy-hound, age maintain that relish which they a stately creature indeede, who beate produce in the morning of life. a cruel mastiff. One of the bulls A philosophical inquiry into toss'd a dog full into a lady's lap, as principles of the fine arts inures the she sat in one of the boxes at a consi- reflecting mind to the most enticing derable height from the arena. Two sort of logic; the practice of reasonpoor dogs were killed, and so all end- ing upon subjects so agreeable tends ed with the ape on horseback, and I to a habit; and a habit strengthening most heartily weary of the rude and the reasoning faculties, prepares the dirty pastime, what I had not seene, mind for entering into subjects more I think, in twenty years before.” difficult and abstract. To have in

Helor. this respect a just conception of the

importance of criticism, we need but

reflect upon the common method of OF TASTE AND CRITECISM. education; which, after some years The art of judging with propriety spent in acquiring languages, hurries concerning any object, or combina- us, without the least preparatory distion of objects, is what we call taste cipline, into the most profound philoand criticism. But in a more limited sophy. A more effectual method to sense, the science of criticism is con- alienate the tender mind from abstract fined to the fine arts. The principles science is beyond the reach of invenof the fine arts are best unfolded by tion; with respect to such speculastudying the sensitive part of our tions, the bulk of our youth contract nature, and by learning what objects a sort of hobgoblin terror, which is are naturally agreeable, and what are seldom, if ever, subdued. naturally disagreeable. The man who Those who apply to the arts are aspires to be a critic in these arts, trained up in a very different manner; must pierce still deeper: he must they are led, step by step, from the clearly perceive what objects are easier parts of the operation to those lofty, what low, what are proper or that are more difficult; and are not improper, what are manly, and what permitted to make a new motion till are mean or trivial. Hence a foun- perfected in_those which regularly dation for judging of taste, and for precede it. The science of criticism reasoning upon it: where it is confor- appears then to be a middle link, conmable to principles, we can pronounce necting the different parts of education with certainty that it is correct; into a regular chain. This science otherwise, that it is incorrect, and furnishes an inviting opportunity to perhaps whimsical. Thus the fine exercise the judgment : we delight to arts, like morals, become a rational reason upon subjects that are equally science; and, like morals, may be pleasant and familiar : we proceed cultivated to a high degree of refine- gradually from the simple to the more ment.

involved cases: and, in a due course A thorough acquaintance with the of discipline, custom, which improves principles of the fine arts redoubles all our faculties, bestows acuteness the entertainment these arts afford. upon those of reason, sufficient to To the man who resigns himself en- unravel all the intricacies of philotirely to sentiment or feeling, without sophy. interposing any sort of judgment, Nor ought it to be overlooked, that poetry, music, painting, are mere pas the reasonings employed upon the fine time; in the prime of life, indeed, arts are of the same kind with those they are delightful, being supported which regulato our conduct. Matheby the force of novelty and the heat of matical and metaphysical reasonings


Taste and Criticism.Jews.


have no tendency to improve social necessarily heightens our sensibility intercourse ; nor are they applicable of pain and pleasure, and of course to the common affairs of life: but a our sympathy, which is the capital just taste in the fine arts, derived branch of every social passion. Symfrom rational principles, furnishes pathy, in particular, invites a comelegant subjects for conversation, and munication of joys and sorrows, hopes prepares us for acting in the social and fears: such exercise, soothing state with dignity and propriety. and satisfactory in itself, is necessa

The science of rational criticism rily productive of mutual good-will tends to improve the heart not less and affection. than the understanding. It helps, in One other advantage of rational the first place, to moderate the selfish criticism is reserved to the last place, affections ; by sweetening and harmo- being of all the most important; which nizing the temper, it is a strong anti- is, that it is a great support to moradote to the turbulence of passion and lity. No occupation attaches a man violence of pursuit; it procures to a more to his duty than that of cultivatman so much mental enjoyment, that, ing a taste for the fine arts: a just in order to be occupied, he is not relish of what is beautiful, proper, tempted in youth to precipitate into elegant, and ornamental, in writing or bunting, gaming, drinking ; nor in painting, in architecture or gardening, middle age to deliver himself over to is a fine preparation for the same just ambition ; nor in old age to avarice. relish of these qualities in character

Pride and envy, two disgustful and behaviour. To the man who has passions, find in the constitution no acquired a taste so acute and accomenemy more formidable than a deli- plished, every action wrong or improcate and discerning taste: the man per must be highly disgustful: is, in upon whom nature and culture have any instance, the overbearing power bestowed this blessing, feels great of passion sway him from his duty, he delight in the virtuous disposition and returns to it, upon the first reflection, actions of others; he loves to cherish with redoubled resolution never to be them, and to publish them to the swayed a second time: he has now world : faults and failings, it is true, an additional motive tu virtue, a conare to hiin not less obvious; but these viction, derived from experience, that he avoids, or removes out of sight, happiness depends on regularity and because they give him pain. On the order, and that a disregard to justice other hand, a man void of taste, upon or propriety never fails to be punished whom the most striking beauties make with shame and remorse. but a faint impression, has no joy but in gratifying his pride or envy by the

JIN discovery of errors and blemishes. In a word, there may be other passions, IN a Tract lately published at Paris, which, for a season, disturb the peace by M. Bail, the following is given as of society more than those mentioned: a fair calculation of the number of but no other passion is so unwearied Jews in the different quarters of the an antagonist to the sweets of social globe:intereourse: these passions, tending In all parts of Poland, before the

1,000,000 assiduously to their gratification, put In Russia, including Moldavia and a man perpetually in opposition to


Wallachia, others; and dispose him more to In all the States in which the Ger

500,000 relish bad than good qualities, even man language is spoken, in a companion. How different that In Holland and the Netherlands, 80,000

5,000 disposition of mind, where every vir- in Sweden and Denmark,

50,000 tue in a companion or neighbour is, In England (of which London conby refinement of taste, set in its


tains 12,000) strongest light; and defects or ble- In the States in which Italian is

200,000 mishes, natural to all, are suppressed, spoken,

10,000 or kept out of view!

In Spain and Portugal,

3,000 Nor does delicacy of taste tend less In the Mohammedan States of Asia,

In the United States, to invigorate the social affections than


Earope, and Africa, to moderate those that are selfish. In Persia and the rest of Asia, in

500,000 To be convinced of this tendency, we cluding China and India, need only reflect, that delicacy of taste

Total 6,598,000


Fragment of a Day-Book.

408 FRAGMENT OF A DAY-BOOK. his having worn a monk's cowl during

his last illness. The king ascended (Continued from col. 370.)

the steeple of Iwan Welike (John the Moscow, 1st May, 1797.—The king Great) from whose top one can overhas profited by the absence of the look the whole immense city. There court, to look at all the curiosities of hangs a bell upon it, which was cast the Kremlin. Here one meets with under Elizabeth, and which is nine all the splendour of the ancient czaars Polish ells in diameter. It is still in and patriarchs. Amongst the dresses, use, but it is much smaller than that ricbly embroidered with pearls, there which the empress Anna had made, are some which weigh exactly as much and which, falling down, stuck so deep as the armour of the present knights in the earth, that one was obliged to of the imperial guard, viz. 60 pounds. dig around it, in order to show it to one showed also to the king a parch- the curious. By the piece which was ment rolled up in a cylindrical form, knocked off by the fall, one may perwhich contained a kind of law codex ceive the thickness of the metal, which of the czaar Alexei Michailowitch, amounts to more than half an ell; the father of Peter the Great, and which diameter is almost twelve ells, and the was preserved in a golden box, accord- height is fifteen: it must have cost at ing to the express command of Cathe- least 100,000 rubles. rina II. The same empress has be- “Not far from this buried bell is stowed many ecclesiastical ornaments a battery of seven immense cannons, and golden vases on the cathedral, and directed on the river, but long out of these objects are not only covered with use, for fear of shaking the neighbourprecious stones, but the enamel-paint- ing buildings. The largest amongst ing and the beauty of the workman- these cannons is said to date from John ship surpass every thing that France the Severe, and would fire a ball of produced of the kind. The monument 150 pounds. In the armoury one finds in silver, which she bad made for a amongst others, two swords of Peter lately canonized saint, and the picture the Great, whose length and weight and the surrounding ornaments, bear are in proportion with his size and the marks of a very different taste from strength; there are also a pair of his that which prevailed under the Grecian boots, and near them the boots and emperors. The king has also seen the the sword of his grandson Peter II. crown of Wladimir the Great, who laid whose property cuts, however, but a the foundation of the Russian mo- puny figure, as he died at the age of narchy at Kiew: the most antique fifteen. By the dress, which is accorddresses are ornamented with little bells, ing to the French fashion of that time, which remind one of Aaron's costume. one perceives, that the star of the Amongst the furniture of the czaars, order of Alexander was fastened on there are also long silver chains, with the waistcoat, and only that of Andreas which the horses were yoked to the

upon the coat. Amongst the numberchariots on days of ceremony. One less vases and pieces of furniture of of the largest rooms in the Kremlin is the ancient czaars, a clock may be disfilled with the model of a palace (by a tinguished, of which the grandson of Russian architect) which was to con- John the Severe is said to have made tain the whole of this kind of fortress, use, and another on which a cock crows with all its different courts and quite as well as that of gilded bronze churches ; because, according to the in the Taurish palace, which is looked laws of the Russian church, no temple upon as a curiosity." which has been once dedicated to God

6th May.-To-day the king rode on can ever be removed.

horseback up a bill, which is called “ The coronation took place in the Worobziwa "Gora (Sparrow-mount) largest of these churches, where and from which one has the best progone shows, amongst other curiosities, pect of the town. Catherine had wbich have been brought from Con- transported there a wooden palace, stantinople, one of the nails of the which had been erected in town to holy cross. Near to this church are serve during the celebration of the the tombs of the czaars, covered with festivities after the first peace with the rich stuffs : the grave of Iwan Wasile- | Turks, but which is now decaying witch, surnamed the Severe, is covered very fast: this is a pity ; because the with black velvet, in remembrance of declivity is so soft, and the situation

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