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Public Baking on the Sabbath.


work on the seventh day, but it for- , for housekeepers to take their meat bids also all their dependents. And to the bakers, as in the warmer scathough works of piety, works of sons of the year; and hence in those mercy, and works of necessity, are places where the number of articles not included in this prohibition, yet is not enough to pay for fire and with none of these exceptions can trouble, it is customary to suspend we rank cooking for epicurean pur- public baking, until the heat of the poses.

weather renders it inconvenient for That it is not giving to this com- people to cook at home. When this mandment a greater latitude than is the case, the baker is informed of God intended, by extending it to the it, and he generally resumes his pious unnecessary dressing of food, is evi- work of sending his customers to dent, I think, from Exodus xvi. 5. church or chapel, according as their and xxxv. 3. From the former of judgments may incline them. And these passages we learn, that the should he, as is sometimes the case, Israelites were commanded to gather hint to them, that it is his intention a double portion of manna on the to decline Sunday baking altogether, sixth day, that they might keep these religious gentry tell him very holy the seventh. And in the latter, plainly, that they who bake for them that fires were forbidden to be kindled on the Sunday, shall do it during the in their habitations on the Sabbath-week. This intimation generally reday; consequently, cooking in all its moves all his scruples, and away he modes was prohibited.

goes to his work, and they to their The general plea urged in defence worship. of dressing food on Sundays is,“ that As dressing food on the Sabbathit is very hard if we may not be | day for common uses is unnecessary allowed a good hot dinner on that work, and as all unnecessary work is day ;” and because it is deemed a a direct violation of the express comgreat hardship to be without one, it mand of God ; every person who acts is concluded that there is no harm in in this manner has reason to expect preparing one. It was, no doubt, a a curse from God on his exertions, similar mode of reasoning that led rather than a blessing. See Nehethe Sabbath-breaker, mentioned in miah xiii. 15, 16, 17, 18. and Isaiah Numbers xv. 32, 33, 34, 35. to gather lviii. 13, 14. sticks on the Lord's day; and his This practice has, however, its adawful fate should induce others to vocates; and what indeed has not? submit to the authority of God, in- A learned commentator, who, no stead of regulating their actions by doubt, was a man of taste, reasons their own notions of fitness.

thus on the subject. “The lawfulIf it be unlawful for families to ness of dressing meat may be collectdress their food on the Sabbath, it ed from the Scripture, inasmuch as follows, that it is so for bakers to our Saviour was present at a feast do it for them. Bakers indeed never on the Sabbath-day, Luke xiv. 1. pretend that heating and cleaning where, no doubt, meat was dressed for the oven, setting in, turning, and so many guests as were there bidden; drawing dinners, is not work; but then and when we are allowed to provide they have a very religious excuse for food for our cattle on the Sabbaththeir conduct. They tell us, that in day, surely we may lawfully dress consequence of their baking, fifty or meat for ourselves.This gentlesixty persons are enabled to attend man's appetite, I suspect, had blinded a place of worship, who would other- his judgment. It is a well-known wise be obliged to stop at home to fact, that the Jews were very rigid in cook; and hence they infer that their their adherence to the letter of their conduct is not only right, but meri- law, and especially to that part torious. Now, if this were the mo- which related to the Sabbath-day; it tive that influenced them, it would be is not, therefore, probable that any no justification, as we are not to do evil thing would be prepared for that that good may come. This, however, feast, which might have been preis not the case; interest is their ob- pared the day preceding. And if it ject, and when this end is not an- had, it is nearly certain that our Lord Bwered, the practice is discontinued. would not have countenanced such

During winter, it is not so common conduct by his presence. And though 355

Poetry: The Resurrection Edwin's Grave.


we are allowed to feed our cattle on Th'affrighted soldiers rais'd their eyes the Sabbath, we are not allowed to To angry Heav'n in fear-form'd pray'r; provide food which might be as well Bat, lo! new terror in the skies!

A mighty spirit in the air ! procured the day before. The same observation may be applied to food Like lightning's fire his count'nance beam'd, for ourselves.

His garments glitter'd white as snow:

Wrapp'd in a blaze of light, he seemd There are some pious families, who

Descending tow'rds the earth below. conscientiously abstain from all un

They sunk, in terror overwhelm'd necessary labour on the Sabbath;

Strack to the quaking ground with dread: and as they know cooking to be un- The iron warrior, mail'd and helm’d, necessary, all food is prepared on Lay pale and senseless as the dead. the Saturday. By this arrangement Soon to the earth the seraph came, their dependents are able to attend

Soon was the rocky door thrown wide, the house of God, without distraction The quick-returning vital flame or confusion. This, however, is by no Re-animates the Crucified ! means common with the professors with radiant glory compass'd round, of religion; the servants in some Forth walks the Conqueror girt with might; families are almost broiling, while the prostrate seraph licks the ground, their master and mistress are praying. Eclips'd in his Creator's light. And if after dinner they should all How chang’d the scene!--of late, the mirth attend a place of worship, they gene- And passive scorn of soldiers rude; rally sleep the greater part of the But now, while they lie stretch'd on earth, time; the servants from heat and fa

He walks, too glorious to be view'd. tigue, and their employers from an Behold yon tyrant! stript and bare, overloaded stomach.

In his own fetters bound, he lies; It would be easy to expatiate on

His sceptre broken, while the air

Is troubled with his wailing cries. this evil. It is presumed, however, that enough has been written to sa

Well may'st thou wail! the time draws nigh, tisfy those who wish to be convinced when thou, with all thy pow'r shalt die,

("This Resurrection seals the doom) of its impropriety, if it be wrong. I And all thy captives leave the tomb. will, however, add, that I have been

J.M.G. eighteen years an attentive hearer of Liverpool Nov. 2, 1820. the Gospel, and during this time I have never heard a sermon on the proper observance of the Sabbath. And EDWIN'S GRAVE.-A MONODY. until Sabbath-breaking in all its modes is exposed from the pulpit, Be hush'd, thou wint'ry wind! Thou canst not little reformation in Sunday manners


The dull cold ear of that forsaken clay; is to be expected.

Thou canst not chase the frozen calm away,
I am, Sir,
So fix'd on ev'ry pulse. Thy breath may

shake Your's, respectfully,

The with’ring grass that o'er my Edwin's grave CENSOR, Bends mournfully; and round that dwelling

low, A similar answer has been received Thy wailing blast may utter sounds of woefrom OMEGA, of London.

But, like the verdure that again shall ware
Beneath the dewy sunshine of the spring,

Upon that hallow'd sod, my Edwin smiles

On the past turbulence of stormy days.
And, as the halcyon from her quiv’ring sprays

Delighted soars,—so he to viewless isles

peace, and ever-blooming joy, hath sprung; Matt. xxviii. 2-1.

Immortal plumage glist’ning on his wing,

And Heav'n's own music pouring from his THE silent noon of night was past,

tongue. The moon was bright in silver sheen, Oh, he is blest indeed! He hath escap'd When sudden gloom the sky o'ercast,

The wav'ring gales of this unquiet world, And quench'd in darkness all the scene. And all th' appalling terrors sin hath shap'd, The centinels around the tomb,

And all the darts her legions foul have hurt'd, In which the murder'd Jesus lay,

To vex " the pure in heart.” Long bad he

found Look'd forward from the dreary gloom With anxious eyes for coming day.

Munition in that Rock, which lists on high

Its head of glory to the central sky, But, hark! beneath, the rumbling earth Yet plants its shelt'ring base on mortal ground. Began with inward roars to rock,

And now he hath a triumph in the power As if her entrails from their girth

Of Him who built that rock, and led him to its Were bursting with impetuous shock.



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Hymn for a poor Widow.-Stanzas.

358 Edwin! I would not weep for thee: I know

Thy warfare is accomplish'd. Thou hast laid
Thine armour of probation at the feet

When Autumn's last rays have been tran-
Of Judah's Lion. Thou hast bow'd to meet qailly beaming,
His great “ Well done"-and humbly hast thou I bave seen the light web which the gossa-

mer spreads,
“ Not onto me the glory-THINE the blow While the dew-drop of morning resplendently
That vanquishd-THINE the strength in wbich

gleaming, I smote the foe."

Has bung like a gem on the tremulous threads.

But how fragile that film!--that dew-drop how O Edwin! thou didst war with mighty foes

fleeting! Pains of disease, and struggles of a mind

The breeze as it past swept the light gauze Once wedded to the earth, then all resign'd

To God; and ever as the conflict rose
Thy pray'r prevail'd—and now thy soul is And, ah! like the joys that scarce stay our

Thon art Heav'n's depizen! How shall I weep

The dew-drop is fled in the bright-beaming for thee?

ray. Yet, there are moments-sights and sounds So fies some pare thought, in my bosom re

vealing, At which my spirit starts, and claims a tear

So my firmest resolves take the wing of the For the sad thought, that he who us'd to share

gale; The word, the sight, the feeling, is not here,

And as fragile and fleet ev'ry loftier feeling, Nor ever more shall be! Oh Edwin, then

As the insect's light web, or the dew-drop so
frail !

My heart is not so strong --1 weep as other
Yet pot like them, who when such musings


The heart, resistless, dwell with thought dis-

Tuo' faint and sick, and worn away
In the drear sepulchre ; and in the shade

With poverty and woe,
Of melancholy cypress, find no ease

My widow'd feet are doom'd to stray,
For the poor wounded spirit, all unus'd

'Mid thorny paths below;
To higher hopes.

But when my soul hath Be THOU, O Lord! my Saviour still

My confidence and guide!
On the dead friend awhile, sudden it wakes I know that perfect is THY will,
To nobler views. He is not in the grave! Whate'er that will decide.
"Tis but the kindred dust that cell can have; I know the soul that trusts in THEE
The clogs and fetters that the spirit shakes

Thou never wilt forsake :
Exulting off, and her free circuit takes

And tho' a bruised reed I be,
Amid new modes, new forms of excellence,

That reed thou wilt not break.
Clear to seraphic vision, tho'conceal'd

Then, keep me, Lord ! where'er I go-
From the weak filmy orbs of mortal sense.
Edwin! what beauties are to thee reveal’d!

Support me on my way;
What wonders, full of vastness, and of grace,

Tho' worn with poverty and woe,
Which here conception vainly sought to paint!

My widow'd footsteps stay!
Of the OMNISCIENT's ways, how darkly faint

To give my weakness strength, O God!
Our feeble gaesses! Tho' we long to trace

Thy staff shall yet avail :
In all his works bis wisdom, but a ray,

And tho' thou chasten with thy rod,
A glimm’ring we behold: but thine the sight

That staff shall never fail.
Of all-pervasive Deity:-Thy view

E. W_.
May pierce creation's infinite-pursue
Science divine, still adding light to light,

STANZAS, And finding still an ever-brightning day!

On seeing the Rev. Charles Simeon of Cambridge, Edwin, farewell! but not without a thought,

in the Commercial Rooms at Bristol, obtaining That I may sometimes hold communion sweet With thy freed spirit-'tis a feeling fraught

Subscriptions for circulating the New Testa

ment, in Hebrew, among the Jews. With strength and consolation. I have caught Some snatches of it, in my rare retreat

A SIMEON once to wond'ring Jews, From this life's clam'rous cares--and then I

In Salem's sacred dome,

(While prophecies fulfillid he views) From all desire but this for virtue and for

Proclaims a Saviour come. peace.

Now in her temple Commerce views Farewell ! henceforth the fragrant wind shall Another Simeon rise,

Again to spread that glorious news Myrtle, and pleasant shrubs of evergreen,

Before that people's eyes. D'er the lov'd verdure of thy early grave; Here too we see, as one of old, Erablems of hope unchang'ă, whose blossoms The sacred word fulfill'd,* brave

For Commerce brings her gifts of gold,
Affliction's bleakest gale, and will be seen

The rich their off'rings yield.
Beauteous and bright, amid the Siroc blast,,
Tlat blights the desart world--the dreariest

And the daughter of Tyre shall be there with and the last.

a gift; even the rich among the people shall entreat E. W-G. thy favour.-Psalm xlv. 12.



How many

On the Substratum of Matter.

360 The first the infant Saviour holds,

transcribe, judging them to be releWho hope to Israel gave,

vant to the point in hand. He obThe last his written word unfolds,

serves, That rebel race to save.

“ How much names taken for 1815.

T. W-G. things are apt to mislead the understand

ing, the attentive reading of philoso

phical writers would abundantly disOn the Substratum of Matter.

cover; and that, perhaps, in words

little suspected of any such misMR. EDITOR.

use. I shall instance in one only, and Sir, I embrace the present opportu- that a very familiar one. nity to acknowledge my obligations to intricate disputes have there been “ A Constant Reader,'' who, on looking about matter, as if there were some over the first vol. of your instructive such thing reallyin nature distinct from miscellany, (col. 980) fell upon some body; as 'tis evident the word matter “observations" of mine “on the sub- stands for an idea distinct from the stratum of matter," and, conceiving I idea of body? But if the ideas these was in an error, forthwith endeavoured two terms stood for were precisely the to put me right.

same, they might indifferently in all But having discharged my-bounden places be put one for another. But duty' to him, I crave your leave, sir, we see, that though it be proper to say, to make some additional observations there is one matter of all bodies, one on this subject, and to submit a few cannot say, there is me body of all remarks on some important points matters. We familiarly say, one body which he has connected with it. is bigger than another; but it sounds

I have carefully examined what harsh (and I think is never used) to your correspondent has advanced, col. say, one matter is bigger than another. 845, without its effecting a conviction Whence came this then? From hence, in my mind, that the substratum of that though matter and body be not matter has any other than a verbal or really distinct, but wherever there is mental existence. I admit the truth the one, there is the other; yet matter of many of his remarks; and will not and body stand for two different conundertake to vindicate every expres- ceptions, whereof the one is incomsion used in the article on which plete, and but a part of the other. he has animadverted. I cannot, For body stands for a solid extended however, help thinking, that, after figured substance, whereof matter is what the Bishop of Cloyne has ad- but a partial and more confused convanced against the existence of an ception; it seeming to me to be used insentient substance, if we can but for the substance and solidity of body, prove to our satisfaction the being of without taking in its extension and matter itself, we need not trouble our-figure. And therefore it is, that selves much about" an unknown sub- speaking of matter, we speak of it stratum.” However just our views always as one, because in truth it of things may be, if we do not con- expressly contains nothing but the stantly annex a definite and a settled idea of a solid substance, which is meaning to the terms we employ, every where the same, every where misapprehension and confusion are uniform. This being our idea of matthe inevitable result. From the man- ter, we no more conceive or speak of ner in which my instructor uses the different matters in the world, than we words matter and substratum, I cannot do of different solidities; though we help suspecting that he does not always both conceive and speak of different keep the notions distinct, which he bodies, because extension and figure associates with these terms. He ap- are capable of variation. But since pears to me, at least, to use the term solidity cannot exist without extension substratum to denote matter itself; and figure, the taking matter to be and if he does, though between our the name of something really existing opinions on this subject, apparently under that precision, has no doubt “wide yawns the gulf,” the difference produced those obscure and unintelin reality is more in language than in ligible discourses and disputes, which thought.

have filled the heads and books of Mr. Locke has some remarks that philosophers concerning materia prima; relate to disputes on the nature of which imperfection or abuse, how far it matter, which I take the liberty to may concern a great many other general


On the Substratum of Matter.


terms, I leave to be considered. This, of bodies, or to denote the aggregate I think, I may at least say, that we of bodies in the universe, in both these should have a great many fewer dis- senses matter exists. It is, however, putes in the world, if words were taken in reference to the former of them, for what they are, the signs of our that a substratum is denied; and in ideas only, and not for things them- this sense, I shall continue to deny selves. For when we argue about its existence, until I discern the necesmatter, or any the like term, we truly sity of admitting it. For the existence argue only about the idea we express by of a solid extended insentient subthat sound, whether that precise idea stance, termed matter, I have eviagree to any thing in nature, or not. dence which satisfies me; but of an And if men would tell what idea they unseen, mysterious, unknown submake their words stand for, there stratum of matter, I have no evidence could not be half that obscurity or whatever; nor do I believe that it wrangling, in the search or support of has any being in nature. It is a pure truth, that there is.”

ontological fiction! Your correspondent suspected that Is not the existence of a material my rejecting a substratum of matter, substance, subject to the control of would plunge me into the matterless an infinitely wise and powerful Being, abyss of Berkeley. This, however, is sufficient to account for all that we not the case. And I am resolved that experience? Where then is the necesno sophistry shall ever draw me beyond sity or uso of a substratum, if all phethe margin of that vacuous gulf. I nomena may be accounted for without believe in the existence of matter,-I it? Besides, what is its nature? This cannot help believing it --and I will may seem an impertinent question, believe it. And therefore I object to as it is said to be unknown; but matethe phraseology of Locke, in the pre- rial, or immaterial, it must be. If ceding passage, in reference to the material, and matter requires a subnon-existence of matter in general. stratum, what is the substratum of On this subject, I doubt not that philo- this substratum ?* If a substratum sophical investigation will terminate of matter be onco admitted, this quesin a full confirmation of the first dic- tion will recur ad infinitum. And tates of common sense. With this why not call it the matter of matter? conviction, I cannot approve of any This, if any such thing exists, is certainexpression that implies the non-exist-ly its proper denomination. And if it ence of matter as a real entity. That be not material, thon matter is ultimatter and individual bodies have not mately resolved into an immaterial, independent existence, is certain. The mysterious, unknown, nobody knows latter are but certain aggregates of what! And if so, who can tell, reveatoms, subjected to particular laws, lation apart, but that all things are which give birth to their diversified so many different modifications of the forms, appearances, and effects. It is same substance? these whose existence is adventitious, To this conclusion, it appears to successive, and evanescent. And me, we must come, if we admit the were all these phenomena destroyed existence of a substratum distinct by a suspension of those laws by which from, but essential, to the being of ai present they are produced, it would matter. Nor do I think that your not affect the existence of the former. correspondent has succeeded either Matter is the constituent principle of in establishing its existence, or in bodies. It is that, which in all the removing the consequences deducible successive transmutations and deno- from it. minations that bodies undergo, inva- . See King's Origin of Evil, Vol. I. page 3. riably preserves its identity. And

Note 1. that which renders it permanent, as far

(To be continued.) as I know, is, its exclusive occupancy of a definite portion of space; and On the Aspect of Science towards this renders solidity or impenetrability

Religion. inseparable from its nature.

Whether we understand the term mutter to indicate the component parts


Sir,- If you deem the following let* Locke's Essay, vol. 2. page 96. ter from a friend, on the Aspect which No. 26,- VOL, III,

2 A






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