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low hexagon, in the centre of which is the chapel, could not well be so contracted as to suit a county gaol for three or four hundred prisoners, for the court-yards of a prison similar to that at Millbank, built on a very reduced scale, would not be large enough or sufficiently airy: but I am strongly inclined to think, that a convenient prison for a few hundred prisoners might be formed on a design uniting the windmill plan with that of the polygon—i. e. adding some ranges of building which should join the circumference to the centre. În every prison built on the principle of the polygon, two such ranges of building seem to be necessary:' one from the porter's lodge to protect the entrance passage to the governor's house from the male prisoners, and the other at the other end of the portion of the prison used for male prisoners, to divide them effectually from the females—but more such ranges of building may perhaps be convenient, for the purpose of separating parts of the prison used for the male prisoners from each other. In this prison the inspection of the governor and matron over the yards used by their respective prisoners would be complete, and the male prisoners would be fenced in by themselves.

But whatever may be considered as the best form for a prison of a particular size, I would earnestly recommend it to Magistrates who may contemplate such an erection, to settle in the first instance not only the number of classes into which their prisoners are to be divided, but the principles by which the treatment of each class is to be regulated which shall dress dinner in their own wards, and which take it from a public kitchen; which shall be put to hard

' In this figure the black lines are ranges of building, and the dotted line is the wall dividing the part of the prison occupied by females from the passage from the porter's lodge to the governor's house.


Governor's & Matron's apartment.


labor in the open air, under sheds or arcades, and which be employed in close work-rooms; and where fires shall be made; for the method of heating the buildings is an important point to be arranged in the original plan, the position of coal-cellars and dustholes heing of great consequence in a prison. In general, when architects are applied to for a plan of a prison, they are not furnished with sufficient data. It is common to build the prison first, and to set about making rules and regulations for it when completed; but it would be a wiser course to make the rules, or at least to agree upon the substance of them, and to settle the establishment of officers and servants, before a brick or a stone were laid.







Ler est justorum injustorumque distinctio.









The following pages are written for the purpose of examining whether the advice, given to the King by his ministers, to exclude the Queen's name from the Liturgy, was consistent with the laws of the realm, and the spirit of the constitution. Many persons who ought to have been better informed, have asserted, that the Queen was prayed for in the different rituals, from the Conquest. to the time of Henry the Eighth : this is a mistake; for in all of them the King only is mentioned under the general title of tuo famulo nostro rege.

The introduction of the King and Queen by name was contemporary with the reforniation, when the principles of the established church were first embodied with the law of the land, which makes the present, in a legal point of view, a' most important consideration. Henry the Eighth, “a catalogue of whose vices would

a comprehend many of the worst qualities incident to human nature, first directed their insertion in the litany ’ of the Primer, and he



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Salisbury Ritual, Brit. Mus. 1534., and those of Sarum, York, Bangor, and Lincoln, mentioned in the 2 & 5 Edw. 6. c. 1. in the Lambeth and other episcopal libraries. The author has examined three of the Salisbury Rituals, and is informed by a gentleman of great historical learning, that the more ancient do not contain the name of the Queen: if they had, it would have been evidence of a common law right. The churches within the province of Canterbury used the Salisbury Ritual, as Lynwood mentions, “ tota provincia Cantuariensis hunc usum Sarisberiensem sequitur.”

2 The litanies and suffrages, the most ancient part of the Common Prayer, in use from the time of Constantine.

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was described as “thy servant, our King and governor," and Queen Katherine as “ our noble Queen.' James the First, whom his most partial biographer represents as baving." scarce a virtue free from the contagion of some neighbouring vice," and queen Anne his wife, "neither eminent for her virtues nor her vices,"—the one is styled “ thy servant James, our gracious King and governor," the other“ our gracious Queen Anne.” 2 The first unfortunate Charles, and his bigotted Queen Henrietta Maria, have each of ihem the same description as in the preceding reign.3 The second Charles, (" as a sovereign, bis character, though not altogether destitute of virtue, was, in the main, dangerous to his country, and dishonorable to himself,”) was more honored than his ancestors, and had the .epithet of “ most religious” first added to bis title, which gave great umbrage to a few bishops, who were inclined to think that “ the signification the word bore in the English language no way applicable to the king, who usually came from bis mistresses' lodgings to church, even on sacrament days;" and his Queen, a violent catholic, and towards whom he very soon manifested a perfect hatred, is called “ our most gracious queen Katherine." 4 James the Second, so bigotted to his faith as to prefer it to the crown, and Queen Mary, at heart of a different persuasion, even in their short reign, bad each of them, with the change of names, the same description as their immediate predecessors. George the First, who was a stranger to the language, laws, and customs of this country, had been long separated from his wife when he took possession of the throne ; he always represented her as being first depraved, afterwards mad, and that he was, by the laws of Gerinany, divorced a vinculo matrimonii. Historians have said little about this unfortunate lady, except that she died deserted, neglected, and immured in the castle of Ahlden : she was never domiciled with us: no one, either directly, or indirectly, claimed for her any of those high privileges and immunities which belong of right to the Queen Consort of England. George the Second, and his wife Queen Caroline, were prayed for in like manner with Charles the Second and his Queen. Our late ever to be revered monarch and Queen were formally, but most truly designated, “our most religious King, and our gracious Queen. The present Queen was in the Liturgy as Princess of Wales, in


'See original, Brit. Mus. 1546.
? Ibid. 1606. 1611. 1613.
3 See copies, Brit. Mus. 1630. 1637. 1639.

4 Copy royal, no date. It was probably immediately after the marriage, June 30th, 1662; another copy, 1665, the saine description, and two more without date, British Museum.

s Brit. Mus. royal copy, without date. VOL. XVIII.



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