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Mile-End-Green, March 6, 1711-12. / sometimes a partridge, or a quail, or a MR. SPECTATOR, -Here is a young wheatear, or the pestle of a lark, were man walks by our door every day about the cheerfully purchased; nay, I could be condusk of the evening. He looks up at my tented though I were to feed her with window, as if to see me; and if I steal to- green peas in April, or cherries in May. wards it to peep at him, he turns another But with the babe she now goes, she is way, and looks frightened at finding what turned girl again, and fallen to eating of he was looking for. The air is very cold; chalk, pretending it will make the child's and pray let him know, that if he knocks at skin white; and nothing will serve her but the door he will be carried to the parlour I must bear her company, to prevent its fire, and I will come down soon after, and having a shade of my brown. In this, howgive him an opportunity to break his mind. ever, I have ventured to deny her. No *I am, sir, your most humble servant, longer ago than yesterday, as we were

• MARY COMFIT. coming to town, she saw a parcel of crows "If I observe he cannot speak, I'll give so heartily at breakfast upon a piece of him time to recover himself, and ask him horse-flesh, that she had an invincible delow he does.'

sire to partake with them, and (to my in

finite surprise) begged the coachman to cut DEAR SIR, I beg you to print this her off a slice, as if it were for himself, without delay, and by the first opportunity which the fellow did; and as soon as she give us the natural causes of longing in wo- came home, she fell to it with such an apmen; or put me out of fear that my wife will petite, that she seemed rather to devour one time or other be delivered of some-| than eat it. What her next sally will be I thing as monstrous as any thing that has cannot guess, but, in the mean time, my yet appeared to the world; for they say the request to you is, that if there be any way child is to bear a resemblance of what was to come at these wild unaccountable rovings desired by the mother. I have been mar- of imagination by reason and argument, ried upwards of six years, have had four you would speedily afford us your assistchildren, and my wife is now big with the ance. This exceeds the grievance of pinfifth. The expenses she has put me to, in money; and I think in every settlement procuring what she has longed for during there ought to be a clause inserted, that the her pregnancy with them, would not only father should be answerable for the longhave handsomely defrayed the charges of ings of his daughter. But I shall impathe month, but of their education too: her tiently expect your thoughts in this matter; fancy being so exorbitant for the first year and am, sir, your most obliged and most or two, as not to confine itself to the usual faithful humble servant,

T. B. objects of eatables and drinkables, but run

• Let me know whether you think the ning out after equipages and furniture, and next child will love horses as much as the like extravagances. To trouble you Molly does china-ware.'

T. only with a few of them: when she was with child of Tom, my eldest son, she came home one day just fainting, and told me she had been visiting a relation, whose No. 327.] Saturday, March 15, 1711-12. husband had made her a present of a cha

-Major rerum mihi nascitur ordo. riot and a stately pair of horses; and that

Virg. n. vii. 43. she was positive she could not breathe a A larger scene of action is display'd.-Dryden. week longer, unless she took the air in the fellow to it of her own within that time. the evil spirit practised upon Eve as she

We were told in the foregoing book, how This, rather than lose an heir, I readily lay asleep, in order to inspire her with complied with. Then the furniture of her thoughts of vanity, pride, and ambition. best room must be instantly changed, or The author, who shows a wonderful art she should mark the child with some of the throughout his whole poem, in preparing 'frightful figures in the old fashioned tapes, the reader for the several occurrences that try. Well, the upholsterer was called, and arise in it, founds, upon the above-menher longing saved that bout. When she tioned circumstance, the first part of the went with Molly she had fixed her mind fifth book. Adam, upon bis awaking, finds upon a new set of plate, and as much china Eve still asleep, with an unusual discomas would have furnished an Indian shop: these also I cheerfully granted, for fear of posure in her looks. The posture in which

he regards her is described with a tenderbeing father to an Indian pagod. Hitherto

ness not to be expressed, as the whisper I found her demands rose upon every con- with which he awakens her is the softest cession; and had she gone on, I had been that ever was conveyed to a lover's ear. ruined: but by good fortune, with her third, which was Peggy, the height of her imagi

His wonder was, to find unwaken'd Eve

With tresses discompos'd, and glowing cheek, mation came down to the corner of a venison

As through unquiet rest : he on his side pasty, and brought her once even upon her Leaning half-rais'd, with looks of cordial love knees to gnaw off the ears of a pig from the Hung over her enamour'd, and beheld

Beauty, which, whether waking or asleep, spit. The gratifications of her palate were

Shot forth peculiar graces: then, with voice easily preferred to those of her vanity; and Mild as when Zephyrus on Flora breathes,

Her hand soft touching, whisper'd thus: Awake,
My fairest, my espous'd, my latest found,
Heaven's last best gift, my ever new delight!
Awake: the morning shines, and the fresh field
Calls us; we lose the prime, to mark how spring
Our tender plants, how blows the citron grove,
What drops the myrrh, and what the balmy reed,
How nature paints her colours, how the bee
Sits on the bloom, extracting liquid sweet.'

Such whispering wak'd her, but with startled eye
On Adam, whom embracing, thus she spake:

O soul, in whom my thoughts find all repose,
My glory, my perfection! glad I see
Thy face, and morn return'd-

I cannot but take notice, that Milton, in the conferences between Adam and Eve, had his eye very frequently upon the book of Canticles, in which there is a noble spirit of eastern poetry, and very often not unlike what we meet with in Homer, who is generally placed near the age of Solomon. I think there is no question but the poet in the preceding speech remembered those two passages which are spoken on the like occasion, and filled with the same pleasing images of nature.

So cheer'd he his fair spouse, and she was cheer'd, But silently a gentle tear let fall From either eye, and wiped them with her hair; Two other precious drops, that ready stood Each in their crystal sluice, ho, ere they fell, Kiss'd, as the gracious signs of sweet remorse And pious awe, that fear'd to have offended. The morning hymn is written in imitation of one of those psalms where, in the overflowings of gratitude and praise, the psalmist calls not only upon the angels, but upon the most conspicuous parts of the inanimate creation, to join with him in extolling their common Maker. Invocations of this nature fill the mind with glorious ideas of God's works, and awaken that divine enthusiasm which is so natural to devotion. But if this calling upon the dead parts of nature is at all times a proper kind of worship, it was in a peculiar manner suitable to our first parents, who had the creation fresh upon their minds, and had not seen the various dispensations of Providence, nor consequently could be acquainted with those many topics of praise which might afford matter to the devotions of their pos

'My beloved spake, and said unto me, Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away! for, lo! the winter is past, the rain is over and gone, the flowers appear on the earth, the time of the singing of birds is come, and the voice of the turtle is heard in our land. The fig-tree putteth forth her green figs, and the vines with the tender grapes give a good smell. Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away!

Come, my beloved! let us go forth into the field, let us get up early to the vineyards, let us see if the vine flourish, whe-terity. I need not remark the beautiful ther the tender grapes appear, and the spirit of poetry which runs through this pomegranates bud forth.' whole hymn, nor the holiness of that resolution with which it concludes.

His preferring the garden of Eden to that

-Where the sapient king

Held dalliance with his fair Egyptian spouse,

shows that the poet had this delightful scene in his mind.

Eve's dream is full of those high conceits engendering pride, which, we are told, the devil endeavoured to instil into her. Of this kind is that part of it where she fancies herself awakened by Adam in the following beautiful lines:

saged on this occasion, the particulars of it are so artfully shadowed, that they do not anticipate the story which follows in the ninth book. I shall only add, that though the vision itself is founded upon truth, the circumstances of it are full of that wildness and inconsistency which are natural to a dream. Adam, conformable to his superior character for wisdom, instructs and comforts Eve upon this occasion:

Why sleep'st thou, Eve? Now is the pleasant time,

The cool, the silent, save where silence yields
To the night-warbling bird, that now awake
Tunes sweetest his love-labour'd song: now reigns
Full-orb'd the moon, and with more pleasing light
Shadowy sets off the face of things. In vain,
If none regard. Heav'n wakes with all his eyes,
Whom to behold but thee, nature's desire,
In whose sight all things joy, with ravishment,
Attracted by thy beauty still to gaze.'

Having already mentioned those speeches which are assigned to the persons in this poem, I proceed to the description which the poet gives of Raphael. His depar ture from before the throne, and his flight through the choirs of angels, is finely imagined." As Milton every where fills his poem with circumstances that are marvellous and astonishing, he describes the gate of heaven as framed after such a manner that it opened of itself upon the approach of the angel who was to pass through it.

-Till at the gate

Of heav'n arriv'd, the gate self-open'd wide,
On golden hinges turning, as, by work
Divine, the sovereign Architect had fram'd.

The poet here seems to have regarded two or three passages in the 18th Iliad, as that in particular where, speaking of Vulcan, Homer says that he had made twenty

An injudicious poet would have made Adam talk through the whole work in such sentiments as these: but flattery and false-tripods running on golden wheels; which, hood are not the courtship of Milton's upon occasion, might go of themselves to Adam, and could not be heard by Eve in the assembly of the gods, and, when there her state of innocence, excepting only in a was no more use for them, return again dream produced on purpose to taint her after the same manner. Scaliger has ralimagination. Other vain sentiments of the lied Homer very severely upon this point, same kind, in this relation of her dream, as M. Dacier has endeavoured to defend it. will be obvious to every reader. Though I will not pretend to determine whether, in the catastrophe of the poem is finely pre- this particular of Homer, the marvellous

does not lose sight of the probable. As the | with the figure of Eve ministering at the miraculous workmanship of Milton's gates table; are circumstances which deserve to is not so extraordinary as this of the tripods, be admired. so I am persuaded he would not have men- Raphael's behaviour is every way suittioned it, had he not been supported in it able to the dignity of his nature, and to that by a passage in the Scripture which speaks character of a sociable spirit with which of wheels in heaven that had life in them, the author has so judiciously introduced and moved of themselves, or stood still, in him. He had received instructions to conconformity with the cherubims, whom they verse with Adam, as one friend converses accompanied

with another, and to warn him of the eneThere is no question but Milton had this my, who was contriving his destruction: circumstance in his thoughts; because in accordingly, he is represented as sitting 'the following book he describes the cha- down at table with Adam, and eating of riot of the Messiah with living wheels, ac- the fruits of Paradise. The occasion nacording to the plan in Ezekiel's vision: turally leads him to his discourse on the -Forth rushid with whirlwind sound

food of angels. After having thus entered The chariot of paternal Deity,

into conversation with man upon more inFlashing thick flames, wheel within wheel undrawn, different subjects, he warns him of his obeItself instinct with spirit.

dience, and makes a natural transition to I question not but Bossu, and the two the history of that angel who was employed Daciers, who are for vindicating every in the circumvention of our first parents

. thing that is censured in Homer, by some

Had I followed Monsieur Bossu's method thing parallel in holy writ, would have in my first paper on Milton, I should have been very well pleased had they thought of dated the action of Paradise Lost from the confronting Vulcan's tripods with Ezekiel's beginning of Raphael's speech in this book, wheels.

as he supposes the action of the Æneid to Raphael's descent to the earth, with the begin in the second book of that poem. I figure of his person, is represented in very could allege many reasons for my drawing lively colours. Several of the French, the action of the Æneid rather from its imItalian, and English poets, have given a mediate beginning in the first book, than loose to their imaginations in the description from its remote beginning in the second; of angels; but I do not remember to have and show why I have considered the sackmet with any so finely drawn, and so con- ing of Troy as an episode, according to the formable to the notions which are given of common acceptation of that word. "But as them in Scripture, as this in Milton. After this would be a dry unentertaining piece having set him forth in all his heavenly of criticism, and perhaps unnecessary to plumage, and represented him as alighted those who have read my first paper, I shall upon the earth, the poet concludes his de- not enlarge upon it. Whichiscever of the scription with a circumstance which is alto- notions be true, the unity of Milton's acgether new, and imagined with the greatest tion is preserved according to either of strength of fancy.

them; whether we consider the fall of nan

in its immediate beginning, as proceeding Like Maia's son he stood, And shook his plumes, that heavenly fragrance fillid

from the resolutions taken in the infernal

council, or, in its more remote beginning, as Raphael's reception of the guardian an

proceeding from the first revolt of the angels, his passing through the wilderness of gels in heaven. The occasion which Milsweets, his distant appearance to Adam,

ton assigns for this revolt, as it is founder! have all the graces that poetry is capable

on hints in holy writ, and on the opinion of

some great writers, so it was the most proof bestowing. The author afterwards gives us a particular description of Eve in her per that the poet could have made use of. domestic employments:

The revolt in heaven is described with

great force of imagination, and a fine varicty So saying, withdespatchful looks in haste

of circumstances. The learned reader She turus, on hospitable thoughts intent, What choice to choose for delicacy best,

cannot but be pleased with the poet's imiWhat order, so contriv'd, as not to mix

tation of Homer in the last of the following Tastes, not well join'd, inelegant, but bring

lines: Taste anteriaste, upheld with kindliest change; Bestirs her then, &c.

At length into the limits of the north

They came, and Satan took his royal scat Though in this, and other parts of the High on a hill, far blazing, as a mount same book, the subject is only the house- Rais'd on a mount, with pyramids and tow'rs wifery of our first parent, it is set off with so

From diamond quarries hewn, and rocks of gold,

The palace of great Lucifer, (so call many pleasing images and strong expressions, as make it none of the least agreeable Interpreted.)parts in this divine work.

Homer mentions persons and things, The natural majesty of Adam, and, at which, he tells us, in the language of the the same time, his submissive behaviour to gods are called by different names from the superior being who had vouchsafed to those they go by in the language of men. be his guest; the solemn 'hail' which the Milton has imitated him with his usual angel bestows upon the mother of mankind, I judgment in this particular place, wherein

The circuit wide

That structure in the dialect of men

he has likewise the authority of scripture | make no question, you will come over to to justify him. The part of Abdiel, who mine. You are not to imagine I find fault was the only spirit that in this infinite host that she either possesses or takes delight in of angels preserved his allegiance to his the exercises of those qualifications I just Maker, exhibits to us a noble moral of re- now mentioned; it is the immoderate fondligious singularity. The zeal of the sera-ness she has to them that I lament, and phim breaks forth in a becoming warmth that what is only designed for the innocent of sentiments and expressions, as the cha- amusement and recreation of life is become racter which is given us of him denotes the whole business and study of hers. The that generous scorn and intrepidity which six months we are in town, (for the year is attends heroic virtue. The author doubt- equally divided between that and the counless designed it as a pattern to those who try,) from almost break of day till noon, live among mankind in their present state the whole morning is laid out in practising of degeneracy and corruption: with her several masters; and to make up the losses occasioned by her absence in summer, every day in the week their attendance is required; and, as they are all people eminent in their professions, their skill and time must be recompensed accordingly. So, how far these articles extend, I leave you to judge. Limning, one would think, is no expensive diversion; but, as she manages the matter, it is a very considerable addition to her disbursements; which you will easily believe, when you know she paints fans for all her female acquaintance, and draws all her relations' pictures, in miniature: the first must be mounted by nobody_but_Colmar, and the other set by nobody but Charles Mather.* What follows is still much worse than the former; for, as I told you, she is a great artist at her needle, it is incredible what sums she expends in embroidery; for, besides what is appropriated to her personal use as mantuas, petticoats, stomachers, handkerchiefs, purses, pin-cushions, and working aprons, she keeps four French protestants continually employed in making divers pieces of superfluous furniture, as quilts, toilets, hangings for closets, beds, window-curtains, easy chairs, and tabourets: nor have I any hopes of ever reclaiming her from this extravagance, while she obstinately persists in thinking it a notable piece of good housewifery, because they are made at home, and she has had some share in the performance. There would be no end of relating to you the particulars of the annual charge, in furnishing her storeroom with a profusion of pickles and preserves; for she is not contented with having every thing, unless it be done every way, in which she consults an hereditary book of receipts: for her female ancestors have been always famed for good house-wifery, one of whom is made immortal by giving her name to an eye-water, and two sorts of puddings. I cannot undertake to recites all her medicinal preparations, as salves, serecloths, powders, confects, cordials, ratafia, persico, orange-flower, and cherry-brandy, together with innumerable sorts of simple waters. But there is nothing I lay so much to my heart as that detestable catalogue of counterfeit wines, which derive their names from the fruits, herbs, or trees, of whose

So spake the seraph Abdiel, faithful found
Among the faithless, faithful only he;
Among innumerable false, unmov'd,
Unshaken, unseduc'd unterrify'd;
His loyalty he kept, his love, his zeal:
Nor number nor example with him wrought

To swerve from truth, or change his constant mind,
Though single. From amidst them forth he pass'd,
Long way thro' hostile scorn, which he sustain'd
Superior, nor of violence fear'd aught;
And with retorted scorn his back he turn'd
On those proud tow'rs to swift destruction doom'd.



No. 328.] Monday, March 17, 1711-12.

Nullum me a labore reclinat otium.
Hor. Epod. xvii. 24.
Day chases night, and night the day,
But no relief to me convey.


MR. SPECTATOR,-As I believe that this is the first complaint that ever was made to you of this nature, so you are the first person I ever could prevail upon my self to lay it before. When I tell you I have a healthy, vigorous constitution, a plentiful estate, no inordinate desires, and am married to a virtuous lovely woman, who neither wants wit nor good-nature, and by whom I have a numerous offspring to perpetuate my family, you will naturally conclude me a happy man. But notwithstanding these promising appearances, I am so far from it, that the prospect of being ruined and undone by a sort of extravagance, which of late years is in a less degree crept into every fashionable family, deprives me of all the comforts of my life, and readers me the most anxious, miserable man on earth. My wife, who was the only child and darling care of an indulgent mother, employed her early years in learning all those accomplishments we generally understand by good breeding and polite education. She sings, dances, plays on the lute, and harpsichord, paints prettily, is perfect mistress of the French tongue, and has made a considerable progress in Italian. She is besides excellently skilled in all domestic sciences, as preserving, pickling, pastry, making wines of fruits of our own growth, embroidering, and needleworks of every kind. Hitherto, you will be apt to think, there is very little cause of complaint; but suspend your opinion till I have further explained myself, and then, I


* A well-known toyman in Fleet-street at the time

I am

juices they are chiefly compounded. They readings, and the like, is what in all ages are loathsome to the taste, and pernicious persons extremely wise and learned have to the health; and as they seldom survive had in great veneration. For this reason I the year, and then are thrown away, under cannot but rejoice at the following epistle, a false pretence of frugality, I may affirm which lets us into the true author of the they stand me in more than if I entertained | letter to Mrs. Margaret Clark, part of all our visitors with the best burgundy and which I did myself the honour to publish champaign. Coffee, chocolate, and green in a former paper. I must confess I do not imperial, peco, and bohea teas, seem to be naturally affect critical learning; but findtrifles; but when the proper appurtenances ing myself not so much regarded as I am of the tea-table are added, they swell the apt to fatter myself I may deserve from account higher than one would imagine. I some professed patrons of learning, I could cannot conclude without doing her justice not but do myself the justice to show I in one article; where her frugality is so re- not a stranger to such erudition as they markable, I must not deny her the merit smile upon, if I were duly encouraged. of it; and that is in relation to her children, However, this is only to let the world see who are all confined, both boys and girls, what I could do: and shall not give my to one large room in the remotest part of reader any more of this kind, if he will forthe house, with bolts on the doors and bars give the ostentation I show at present. to the windows, under the care and tuition of an old woman, who had been dry nurse

March 13, 1711-12. to her grandmother. This is their residence "Sir,-Upon reading your paper of yesall the year round; and as they are never terday, I took the pains to look out a copy allowed to appear, she prudently thinks it I had formerly taken, and remembered to needless to be at any expense in apparel or be very like your last letter: comparing learning. Her eldest daughter to this day them, I found they were the very same; would have neither read nor wrote, if it and have, underwritten, sent you that part had not been for the butler, who, being the of it which you say was torn off. I hope son of a country attorney, has taught her you will insert it, that posterity may know such a hand as is generally used for en- it was Gabriel Bullock that made love in grossing bills in Chancery. “By this time I that natural style of which you seem to be have sufficiently tired your patience with fond. But to let you see I have other mamy domestic grievances; which I hope you nuscripts in the same way, I have sent you will agree could not well be contained in a inclosed three copies, faithfully taken by narrower compass, when you consider what my own hand from the originals, which a paradox I undertook to maintain in the were wrote by a Yorkshire gentleman of a beginning of my epistle, and which mani- good estate, to madam Mary, and an uncle festly appears to be but too melancholy a of hers, a knight very well known by the truth. “And now I heartily wish the rela- most ancient gentry in that and several tion I have given of my misfortunes may other counties of Great Britain. I have be of use and benefit to the public. By the exactly followed the form and spelling. I example I have set before them, the truly have been credibly informed that Mr. Wilvirtuous wives may learn to avoid those liam Bullock, the famous comedian, is the errors which have so unhappily misled descendant of this Gabriel, who begot Mr. mine, and which are visibly these three; William Bullock's great-gr ndfather, on First, in mistaking the proper objects of the body of the above-mentioned Mrs. Marher esteem, and fixing her affections upon garet Clark. As neither Speed, nor Baker, such things as are only the trappings and nor Selden, take notice of it, I will not predecorations of her sex: Secondly, in not tend to be positive; but desire that the letter distinguishing what becomes the different may be reprinted, and what is here restages of life. And, lastly, the abuse and cor- covered may be in Italics. I am, sir, your ruption of some excellent qualities, which, daily reader.' if circumscribed within just bounds, would have been the blessing and prosperity of

To her I very much respect, Mrs. Marher family; but by a vicious extreme, are

garet Clark. like to be the bane and destruction of it.' Lovely, and oh that I could write loving,

T. Mrs. Margaret Clark, I pray you let affec

tion excuse presumption. Having been so

happy as to enjoy the sight of your sweet No. 328.*] Monday, March 17, 1711-12. countenance and comely body sometimes Delectata illa urbanitate tam stulta.

when I had occasion to buy treacle or li

quorish powder at the apothecary's shop, Delighted with unaffected plainness,

I am so enamoured with you, that I can no That useful part of learning which con

more keep close my flaming desire to be

Aud I am the more sists in emendations, knowledge of different come your servant.

bold now to write to your sweet self, be+ The above Paper was very early substituted for cause I am now my own man, and may the one now immediately following, which latter is match where I please; for my father is here reprinted from the original folio, numbered, as at

taken away; and now I am come to my VOL. II.

Petron, Arb.

first, 328. *

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