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against Gottsched, and a certain Sivers and Philippi, two obscure writers. His works have been published at Berlin by Karl Müller.

LOGAU (FRIEDRICH VON), 1604–1655. Celebrated for his epigrammatic writings contained in a work published 1654. In graphical description, sentiment, conciseness, and ease, his style is considered superior even to that of Opitz, Flemming, and Gryphius, the representatives of the same school. Ramler and Lessing republished his best epigrams in 1759.

LOHENSTEIN (DANIEL CASPAR VON), 1635–1683. The contemporary of Hofmannswaldau, and greatly admired at a time when the foreign element ruled supreme over our literature. Lohenstein was one of the unworthy promoters of that anti-national tendency, of which his three dramas, “Ibrahim Bassa,' Agrippina,' and Epicharis' bear witness ; for these productions are but the excrescences of our literature.

MOSCHEROSCH (Hans MICHEL), 1600—1669. His principal work, Gesichte Philanders von Sittenwald,' contains a satirical allusion to the defects of his age; he castigates therein the prevailing tendency for exclusively classical studies; but in doing so, fills his work with so many citations from both classical and foreign writers, that the reproach directed against his contemporaries applies equally to himself. His first work contains the 'Sieben Gesichte' (visions), 'Schergenteufel,' • Weltwesen,’ · Venusnarren,' *Todtenheer,' 'Letztes Gericht,' `Höllenkinder,' and • Hofschule.'

Möser (Justus), 1720—1794. An essay writer of distinction. His · History of Osnabrück’ shows great research on the part of the compiler. He also was one of the few who opposed the antinational tendencies of the writers of his age.

MOSHEIM (Joh. LORENZ.), 1695—1755. A distinguished divine and great classical scholar. His principal works are his 'Ecclesiastical History,' translated into English, · Moral Lessons deduced from Scripture,' and his Sermons, which are distinguished for elegance of style, and possess the highest literary merit.

Mylius (CHRISTOPH.), 1712–1754. A great naturalist, and recommended by Haller to George II., in order to form part of a scientific mission, which that king wanted to send to America. He died in London. His writings were collected by Lessing, and published in Berlin, in the year 1754.

OPITZ (MARTIN), 1597—1639. Martin Opitz was one of the few writers of his time who endeavoured to infuse a fresh spirit into our literature; his efforts ought to be the more appreciated when we consider what an amount of moral courage it required to face the many obstacles impeding the patriotic and noble

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exertions of our zealous countryman. Opitz became the founder of what has been called subsequently the Silesian school. His writings, although inferior in depth of conception and boldness of imagery, are remarkable for a correctness and vigour of style which excite our admiration. After having occupied for some time a professorship in the Gymnasium of Weissenberg, the Emperor Maximilian II. conferred on him the rank of knighthood and the title of Martin Opitz von Boberfeld. He died of the plague in the year 1639. Of his didactic poems, in which he chiefly excelled, we give the following:

" AUF DEN ANFANG DES 162 1sten JAHRES.'
Wer dieses alte Jahr will recht und wohl vollenden,
Und nach dem neuen sich zu guter Stunde wenden;
Der lege von sich weg der Eitelkeit Begier,
Die nicht hieher gehört und lobe Gott mit mir.
Es schwinge, wer da will, die sterblichen Gedanken
Hoch über seine Kraft! Ich will mit nichten wanken
In dieser grossen Fluth; will preisen eifersvoll
Den, dessen Weg kein Mensch ergründen kann noch soll.
Er hat aus lauter Nichts zum ersten wollen machen
Durch seines Wortes Kraft den Ursprung aller Sachen,
Den Klumpen der Natur: In dieser schweren Last
Lag alles, was jetzt ist, vermischet eingefasst.
Die Sonne fuhr noch nicht mit ihren raschen Pferden,
Der Mond nahm noch nicht ab, der schöne Bau der Erden
Hing noch nicht in der Luft, und das fischreiche Meer
Lief noch mit seiner Fluth nicht um die Felder her,
Das Land stand unbewohnt, die See war nicht zu schiffen,
Der Luft gebrach ihr Licht, und alle Dinge schliefen;
Es stritten wider sich, nass, trocken, warm und kalt,
Der ungemachte Klos lag öd' und ungestalt.
Drauf kam der helle Schein, liess nichts nicht mehr verborgen,
Auf Gottes Anbefehl. Er hat den klaren Morgen
Und Abend abgetheilt, und Weiss vom Schwarz getrennt,
Die Finsterniss die Nacht, das Licht den Tag genennt;
Er hat rund um sich her das Wasser ausgespreitet,
Den köstlichen Palast des Himmels zubereitet,
Den Donner, Reif und Schnee, der Wolken blaues Zelt,
Ost, Norden, Süd und West in seinen Dienst bestellt.
Ein jedes that sein Amt: die Ströme mussten fliessen
An ihrem User her, die Bäche sich ergiessen,
Der frischen Brunnen Quell entspringet unverhofft
Mit lieblichem Geräusch aus tiefer Felsenkluft.
Die Thäler grüneten, das Erdreich stund umgeben
Mit Blumen, trug sein Obst, das Feld die süssen Reben.
Und Oel und reifes Korn, und Kräuter mannigfalt;
Die Bäume schlugen aus, die Hügel wurden Wald.
Es wuchse gleichfalls auch tief in dem Schoos der Erden
Das, welches halben wir zum meisten Feinde werden,
Das Gold, der Berge Mark, Stahl, Silber, Kupfer, Blei,
Der köstliche Demant, und Steine mancherlei.
Die Sonne setzte sich auf ihren goldnen Wagen,
Der Monde kam hervor, die Luft fing an zu tragen
Das schöne Firmament, die Sterne gingen auf ;
Ein jeglicher bekam sein Ziel und rechten Lauf.
Das Meer ward auch besetzt, das Heer der Fische schwommen
In Wassern klein und gross; der Wallfisch musste kommen
Und spielen auf der See; der Krebs kroch an das Land,
Der Hecht ging auf den Grund, die Muschel in den Sand.
Der Vögel leichtes Volk hub emsig an zu nisten,
Zu singen in der Luft, und in den stillen Wüsten;

Ein jedes kam wohin, und brauchte seine Ruh,
Die Turteltaube nahın den Weg zur Ulme zu.
Die Schwalbe war bemüht, ihr artlichs Haus zu bauen,
Der grüne Papagei sich selber zu beschauen;
Der Adler schwang sich hoch, die schöne Nachtigall
Liess hören ihre Kunst durch Wald, Feld, Berg, und Thal.
Es gingen Vich und Wild vermischet ohne Scheuen,
Das Schaf trat bei dem Wolf, die Gemse bei dem Leucn;
Die Kuh lief in das Gras, der Hirsch in seinen Wald,
Sie lebten allesammt bei vollem Aufenthalt.
Und dies aus Gottes Kraft. Noch ein Thier war zu machen,
Der Vogt, der Oberherr und Pfleger dieser Sachen:
Der Mensch; den schuf cr auch sein rechtes Ebenbild,
Mit aller Herrlichkeit vollkommen und erfüllt.
Und da die andern Thier' ihr Antlitz niederdrehen,
Schuf er den Menschen recht, den Himmel anzusehen,
Zu schauen an den Ort, nach dem er trachten soll.
Er stund gerecht vor Gott, war aller Weisheit voll.
O welcher Mensch vermag den Menschen zu beschreiben,
Und kann so überhoch die engen Sinne treiben!
Komm du, und leite mich, zu reden mit Bedacht,
( Seele der Natur, du hast ihn auch gemacht!
( cdles Wunderthier, zur Weisheit auserkohren,
Voll Geist, voll Luft, voll Gott, vom Himmel selbst gebohren,
Du Herr, du Ebenbild und Auszug dieser Welt,
Der unter sich den Lauf der hohen Sonne stellt !
Du weise Kreatur, du hast alsbald erkennet
Geflügel, Fisch und Wald, ein jedes recht genennet.
Ach hättest du doch nicht so gröblich dich befleckt,
Und in der Sünden Wust die hohe Zier versteckt!
Nun hast du, da dı jetzt in diesem schnöden Leben
Mit deines Leibes Last und Kerker gehst umgeben,
So fourigen Verstand; wie wird dein heller Schein

Nach dieser Zeit so hoch, so ganz vollkommen seyn. PYRA (JACOB EMMANUEL), 1714–1744. One of the opponents of the Gottsched theories, who, with his poetical genius, would, without doubt, have attained a high position in our literature, but for his early death. His poems have been collected by Lange, and published at Zürich, 1745.

PUFFENDORF (SAMUEL), born in a village near Chemnitz (Saxony), in the year 1631. He lectured as professor in several universities, entered the Swedish service in 1686, and ultimately that of Brandenburg. Shortly before his death, which took place in the year 1694, he was raised to the nobility. Puffendorf opened a new path to jurisprudence, and laid, in Germany, the foundation for a scientific treatment of the Law of Nations. His views on this subject, which were adopted in all civilised countries, are propounded in his work: Einleitung zu der Historie der vornehmsten Staaten so jetziger Zeit in Europa sich befinden, Frankfort-am-Main, 1682.

RABENER (GOTTHOLD WILHELM), 1714—1771. A zealous promoter of our literature, to which he, with his contemporaries, Gellert and Gärtner, wished to impart a purer taste. His satirical letters, in which he attacks the infirmities of the age, show great powers of observation. In one of these letters, he expresses the soundest views on education, and shows conclusively how it ought

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to be carried on in the universities. His advice in this respect, although given more than a century ago, might still prove useful to those entrusted with this important branch. Among his more entertaining writings, we mention ‘Das Mädchen vom ersten April, Das Deutsche Wörterbuch,' 'Klims Todtenliste,' and Die Sprichwörter des Pansa.'

RACHEL (Joachim), 1618–1669. The most celebrated satirist of his time, and, above all, distinguished for the high ästhetic merit of his writings. Several of his satires are translations or imitations of Juvenal and Persius.

Against matrimony, that long-established and highly-respectable institution, Rachel, like other writers of that time, seems to have principally directed his shafts. His first six satires appeared in the year 1664, under the title of Deutsche satirische Gedichte,' of which various editions appeared in succession; in modern times we mention that of H. Schröder, “Rachel's Deutsche satirische Gedichte, mit dem Leben des Dichters. Altona, 1828.'

. Rist (Johann), 1607— 1667. Occupied a prominent position as a writer of sacred poetry, and was especially appreciated among his contemporaries, by whom he was considered as a 'princeps poetarum totium Germaniæ.' He is deficient, however, in originality and fertility. Rist wrote at an earlier age love-songs, possessing little merit.

SECOND SUNDAY IN ADVENT.
Awake, thou careless world, awake! Know, what the Lord Himself hath
The final day shall surely come;

spoken What Heaven hath fix'd, Time cannot Shall come at last, and not delay; shake,

Though heaven and earth shall pass It cannot sweep away thy doom.

away,

His steadfast word can ne'er be broken. SCHEFFLER (JOHANN), 1624–1677. Also known under the name of ' Angelus Silesius,' was distinguished for his devotional poetry. In his · Epistle, called 'Der cherubinische Wandersmann, he propounds doctrines diametrically opposed to those of the Silesian school; they are full of depth and poetical feeling, and possess so much literary merit, that in spite of some eccentricities, inherent to his style, Scheffler must be classed among the most prominent evangelical lyric writers of the 17th century.

SCHLEGEL (Joh. ELIAS), 1718–1749. At a very early age already he showed a taste for dramatic subjects, by translating the 'Electra of Sophocles,' and Iphigenia,' by Euripides, into German. His best dramas are ‘Die Trojanerinnen,'' Kanut,' and Herrmann.' Lessing speaks very highly of his comedies, of which we mention "Der Triumpf der guten Frau,' and Die

• stumme Schönheit.' The literary merit of these productions is not great, when compared with those of Lessing; but we must bear in mind the time at which they were written.

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SCHLEGEL (Jon. ADOLF.), 1721--1793. The father of the great August Wilhelm von Schlegel. He wrote several hymns, an ode to Klopstock, and a poem, ' Die Unzufriedenen,' distinguished for purity of style and fluency of language.

SCHUPP (JOHANN BALTHASAR), 1610–1661. A great promoter of education during the Thirty Years' War, a dreary period, and most unfavourable for such exertions. He was for some time professor of education and history at Giessen, preacher at Hamburg, and subsequently employed in a diplomatic character during the peace negociations then taking place at Münster, where he preached before the assembled deputies his celebrated sermon, called 'Friedenspredigt.' Schupp’s prose writings are mostly of a didactic character; his language, however, is too frequently interspersed with foreign words. Among the most readable subjects are Corinna,' 'Gedenk daran Hamburg,' Salomo oder der Regentenspiegel,’ ‘Freund in der Noth,''Von der Kunst reich zu werden.' His minor works are contained in the third volume of his works, under the title of Staatskram.'

SPEE (FRIEDRICH von), 1591-1635. His poems, which are of a devotional character, breathe intense fervour and piety; he called them. Trutznachtigall,' and in fact they remind us of those pure sounds of nature we so much admire in the Minnelieder. In 1631, appeared his 'Cautio Criminalis.' His 'Trutznachtigall'has been re-published by Clemens Brentano, Hüppe, and Junkmann.

SPENER (PHILIPP JACOB), 1735-1705. Remarkable for his theological writings: he was the head of a sectarian community which ultimately joined that of the United Brethren, a sect expelled from Moravia, and afterwards established at Herrnhutt, in Upper Lusatia. Among Spener's writings, we mention his 'Sermons,' Insignum Theoria,' and Pia Desideria.'

STURZ (HELFEREICH PETER), 1736-1779. In biographical composition he occupies a very prominent place, and evinces the elegance of his style in his principal work, 'Erinnerungen aus dem Leben des Grafen von Bernsdorff,' also in the Die Königswahl,' and Briefe aus England und Frankreich.'

THOMASIUS (CHRISTIAN), 1655–1728. Born at Leipzig, where he studied jurisprudence, but which place he was ultimately compelled to leave in consequence of his theological lectures. He went to Halle, attracted there by his lectures, immense crowds, and

, became director of the university of that town. What Spener and his disciples had accomplished in matters relating to the church, Thomasius effected in the field of literature; their combined aim being to emancipate themselves from the prevailing pedantry, and to replace the form by the spirit.

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