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CALCUTTA-DESCRIPTION OF CALCUTTA: CATHEDRAL: ENVIRONS :
QUAY-CHILD-MURDER-BARRACK POOR-MENAGERIEFEMALE ORPHAN ASYLUM-CONSECRATION OF CHURCHES-NACH-FREE SCHOOL -BOTANICAL GARDEN—BISHOP'S COLLEGE-NATIVE FEMALE SCHOOLS --DISTRESS AMONG EUROPEANS.
OCTOBER 11.- In the morning as the day broke, (before which time is the usual hour of rising in India,) we were much struck by the singular spectacle before us. Besides the usual apparatus of a place of arms, the walks, roofs, and ramparts, swarmed with gigantic birds, the “ hurgila," from "hur," a bone, and "gilana,” to swallow, larger than the largest turkey, and twice as tall as the heron, which in some respects they much resemble, except that they have a large blue and red pouch under the lower bill, in which we were told they keep such food as they cannot eat at the mo
These birds share with the jackalls, who enter the fort through the drains, the post of scavenger, but unlike them, instead of flying mankind and daylight, lounge about with perfect fearlessness all day long, and almost jostle us from our paths. We walked some time round the square, and were amused to see our little girl, walking with her nurse, in great delight at the animals round her, but rather encumbered with the number of servants who had attached themselves to her. For her especial service, a bearer, a khitmutgar, a hurkaru, and a cook, were appointed, and there were, besides the two former, one of the silver sticks with her, and another bearer with a monstrous umbrella on a long bamboo pole, which he held over her head in the manner represented on Chinese screens ;-my wife soon reduced her nursery establishment,—but we afterwards found that it is the custom in Calcutta to go to great expence in the equipage of children.
A lady told us she had seen a little boy of six years old paraded in a pony phaeton and pair, with his " Ayah,” or nurse, coachman, “ Chattah-burdar," or umbrella-bearer, a saees on each side, and another behind, leading a third pony, splendidly
* It has since been ascertained by dissection, that this pouch has no connection with the stomach,,but has a very small tube opening into the nostril, through which it is supposed air is admitted to enable the bird to breathe when the orifice of the throat is closed by any large substance, which it attempts, for some time in vain, to swallow. At such time the pouch is in this way inflated with air, and respiration goes on unimpeded.-Ed.
DESCRIPTION OF CALCUTTA.
caparisoned, not in case the young Sahib should choose to ride, - he was too young for that,—but as the saees himself expressed it," for the look of the thing." This, however, rather belongs to old times, when, as a gentleman assured me, he had himself heard at the dinner party of one of the Company's civil servants, a herald proclaiming aloud all the great man's titles; and when a palankeen with the silk, brocade, and gilding which then adorned it, frequently cost 3000* rupees ; at present people are poorer and wiser.
The approach to the city from the fort is striking ;-we crossed a large green plain, having on the left the Hooghly, with its forests of masts and sails seen through the stems of a double row of trees. On the right-hand is the district called Chowrin. ghee, lately a mere scattered suburb, but now almost as closely built
little less extensive than, Calcutta. In front was the esplanade, containing the Town Hall, the Government House, and many handsome private dwellings,—the whole so like some parts of Petersburgh, that it was hardly possible for me to fancy myself any where else. No native dwellings are visible from this quarter, except one extensive but ruinous bazar, which occupies the angle where Calcutta and Chowringhee join. Behind the esplanade, however, are only Tank-square, and some other streets occupied by Europeans,—the Durrumtollah and Cossitollah are pretty equally divided between the different nations; and all the west of Calcutta is a vast town, composed of narrow crooked streets, brick bazars, bamboo huts, and here and there the immense convent-like mansion of some of the more wealthy “ Baboos” (the name of the native Hindoo gentleman, answering to our Esquire) or Indian merchants and bankers. The Town-hall has no other merit than size, but the Government-house has narrowly missed being a noble structure; it consists of two semicircular galleries, placed back to back, uniting in the centre in a large hall, and connecting four splendid suites of apartments. Its columns are, however, in a paltry style, and instead of having, as it might have had, two noble stories and a basement, it has three stories, all too low, and is too much pierced with windows on every side. I was here introduced to Lord Amherst ; and afterwards went to the Cathedral, where I was installed. This is a very pretty building, all but the spire, which is short and clumsy. The whole composition, indeed, of the Church, is full of architectural blunders, but still it is in other respects handsome. The inside is elegant, paved with marble, and furnished with very large and handsome glass chandeliers, the gift of Mr.
* The highest price of an English built palankeen in the present day, is 300 rupees.-En.
M'Clintoch, with a light pulpit, with chairs on one side of the chancel for the Governor-General and his family, and on the other for the bishop and archdeacon. We dined to-day at the Government-house; to a stranger the appearance of the bearded and turbaned waiters is striking.
October 12.- This was Sunday. I preached, and we had a good congregation.
October 13.-We drive out twice a day on the course; I am much disappointed as to the splendour of the equipages, of which I had heard so much in England; the horses are most of them both small and poor, while the dirty white dresses and bare limbs of their attendants, have to an unaccustomed eye an appearance of any thing but wealth and luxury. Calcutta stands on an almost perfect level of alluvial and marshy ground, which a century ago was covered with jungle and stagnant pools, and which still almost every where betrays its unsoundness by the cracks conspicuous in the best houses. To the East, at the distance of four miles and a half, is a large but shallow lagoon of salt water, being the termination of the Sunderbunds, from which a canal is cut pretty nearly to the town, and towards which all the drainings of the city flow, what little difference of level there is being in favour of the banks of the river. Between the salt lake and the city, the space is filled by gardens, fruit trees, and the dwellings of the natives, some of them of considerable size, but mostly wretched huts, all clustered in irregular groupes round large square tanks, and connected by narrow, winding, unpaved streets and lanes, amid turfs of bamboos, coco-trees, and plantains, picturesque and striking to the sight, but extremely offensive to the smell, from the quantity of putrid water, the fumes of wood smoke, coco-nut oil, and above all the ghee, which is to the Hindoo his principal luxury. Few Europeans live here, and those few, such as the Missionaries employed by the Church Missionary Society in Mirzapoor, are said to suffer greatly from the climate. Even my Sircar, though a native, in speaking of the neighbouring district of Dhee Intally, said that he himself never went near the “ bad water” which flows up from the salt water lake, without sickness and head-ache.
To the south, a branch of the Hooghly flows also into the Sunderbunds. It is called, by Europeans, Tolly's Nullah, but the natives regard it as the true Gunga, the wide stream being, as they pretend, the work of human and impious hands, at some early period of their history. In consequence no person worships the river between Kidderpoor and the sea, while this comparatively insignificant ditch enjoys all the same divine honours which the Ganges and the Hooghly enjoy during the earlier parts of their course. The banks of the Tolly's Nullah are covered by two
large and nearly contiguous villages, Kidderpoor and Allypoor, as well as by several considerable European houses, and are said to be remarkably dry and wholesome. To the north is a vast extent of fertile country, divided into rice-fields, orchards and gardens, covered with a thick shade of fruit trees, and swarming with an innumerable population, occupying the large suburbs of Cossipoor, Chitpoor, &c. This tract resembles in general appearance the eastern suburb, but is drier, healthier, and more open; through it lie the two great roads to Dum Dum and Barrackpoor. Westward flows the Hooghly, at least twice as broad as the Thames below London bridge, -covered with large ships and craft of all kind, and offering on its farther bank the prospect of another considerable suburb, that of Howrah, chiefly inhabited by ship-builders, but with some pretty villas interspersed. The road which borders Calcutta and Chowringhee, is called, whimsically enough, “the circular road,” and runs along nearly the same line which was once occupied by a wide ditch and earthen fortification, raised on occasion of the Maharatta war. This is the boundary of the liberties of Calcutta, and of the English law. All offences committed within this line are tried by the “Sudder Adawlut," or Supreme Court of Justice;—those beyond fall, in the first instance, within the cognizance of the local magistracy, and in case of appeal are determined by the “Sudder Dewannee," or Court of the People in Chowringhee, whose proceedings are guided by the Koran and the laws of Menu.
From the north-west angle of the fort of the city, along the banks of the Hooghly, is a walk of pounded brick, covered with sand, the usual material of the roads and streets in and near Calcutta, with a row of trees on each side, and about its centre a flight of steps to descend to the river, which in the morning, a little after sunrise, are generally crowded with persons, washing themselves and performing their devotions, of which, indeed, ablution is an essential and leading part. The rest consists, in general, in repeatedly touching the forehead and cheeks with white, red, or yellow earth, and exclamations of Ram! Ram! There are some Brahmins, however, always about this time seated on the bank under the trees, who keep counting their beads, turning over the leaves of their banana-leaf books, and muttering their prayers with considerable seeming devotion, and for a long time together. These are “Gooroos," or religious teachers, and seem considerably respected. Children and young persons are seen continually kneeling down to them, and making them little offerings, but the wealthier Hindoos seldom stop their palankeens for such a purpose. Where the esplanade walk joins Calcutta, a very handsome quay is continued along the side of the river; resembling in every thing but the durability of material, the quays of Peters
burgh. It is unhappily of brick instead of granite, and is as yet unfinished, but many houses and public buildings are rising on it, and it bids fair to be a very great additional ornament and convenience to Calcutta. Vessels of all descriptions, to the burden of 600 tons, may lie almost close up to this quay, and there is always a crowd of ships and barks, as well as a very interesting assemblage of strangers of all sorts and nations to be seen. Of these, perhaps the Arabs,
who are numerous, are the most striking, from their comparative fairness, their fine bony and muscular figures, their noble countenances and picturesque dress. That of a wealthy Arab “ Nacoda,” or captain, is pretty much what may be seen in Niebuhr's Travels, as that of an emir of Yemen. They are said to be extremely intelligent, bold, and active, but very dirty in their ships, and excessively vain and insolent whenever they have the opportunity of being so with impunity.
The crowd on this quay, and in every part of Calcutta, is great. No fighting, however, is visible, though we hear a great deal of scolding. A Hindoo hardly ever strikes an equal, however severely he may be provoked. The Arabs, as well as the Portuguese, are less patient, and at night, frays and even murders in the streets are of no unfrequent occurrence, chiefly, however, among the two descriptions of persons whom I have named. There are among the Hindoos very frequent instances of murder, but of a more cowardly and premeditated kind. They are cases chiefly of women murdered from jealousy, and children for the sake of the silver ornaments with which their parents are fond of decorating them. Out of thirty-six cases of murder reported in the province of Bengal, during the short space of, I believe, three months, seventeen were of children under these circumstances.
Though no slavery legally exists in the British territories at this moment, yet the terms and gestures used by servants to their superiors, all imply that such a distinction was, at no distant date, very common. “I am thy slave,”—“Thy slave hath no knowledge,” are continually used as expressions of submission and of ignorance. In general, however, I do not think that the Bengalee servants are more submissive or respectful to their masters than those of Europe. The habit of appearing with bare feet in the house, the manner of addressing their superiors by joining the hands as in the attitude of prayer, at first give them such an appearance. But these are in fact nothing more than taking off the hat, or bowing, in England; and the person who acts thus, is as likely to speak saucily, or neglect our orders, as any English footman or groom. Some of their expressions, indeed, are often misunderstood by new comers as uncivil, when nothing less than incivility is intended. If you bid a man order breakfast, he will answer, “ Have I not ordered it?" or, “ Is it not already coming?"