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flat, though here again I was told I ought to see the mountains. In our return to Bareilly, I saw some interesting animals: a fine covey of wild peacocks arose at some little distance; a mungoose or ichneumon crossed the track, and at Mr. Hawkins's door we found a beautiful and rare animal of the deer kind, which had just been sent him as a present from the hills. It is now about the size of a large fallow-deer, with upright horns, not palmated, but is still young, and is expected to grow so tall and stout as to bear a saddle. It is of a brown colour, mixed with gray and black, and its hair very thick, and as coarse and strong as hogs bristles. Mr. Hawkins said he thought it would turn the edge of a sword. It is a gentle and tame creature, eating from and licking the hands of any one who caresses it. It is called goonh, and is considered a great rarity in the plains, though among the mountains it is not uncommon, and sometimes used to carry the children of great men. It seems to be as yet unknown to European naturalists, at least I never heard the name, nor saw any drawing like it; were the horns palmated it would most resemble the elk.

1 had been for some time in much doubt as to the expediency, after the many delays which I had experienced in my journey, of proceeding to Almorah, but what I heard during these few days at Bareilly determined me in the affirmative. Though an important station, it has never been visited by any clergyman; and I was very anxious not only to give a Sunday to its secluded flock, but to ascertain what facilities existed for obtaining for them the occasional visits, at least, of a minister of religion, and for eventually spreading the Gospel among these mountaineers, and beyond them into Thibet and Tartary. The former of these objects I have good hopes of being able to accomplish ; a residence in these cold and bracing regions may, in many cases, do as much good to chaplains and missionaries, exhausted by the heat of the plains, as a voyage to Europe would do; and good men may be well employed here, who are unequal to exertion in other parts of our eastern empire. To the second there are many obstacles, not likely, as yet, to be overcome; and in encountering which considerable prudence and moderation will be necessary. But there are facilities and encouragements also, which I did not expect to find ; and if God spare me life and opportunities, I yet hope to see Christianity revived, through this channel, in countries where, under a corrupted form indeed, it is said to have once flourished widely through the labours of the Nestorians.* My opinion as to the advantage which might arise from such a visit,

* The Nestorians are a sect of ancient Christians, who take their nam from Nestorius, Bishop of Constantinople, who lived in the fifth century, and whose doctrines were spread with much zeal through Syria, Egypt, Persia, India, Tartary, and China.-Ev.

name

PREPARATIONS FOR JOURNEY INTO KEMAOON.

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was fully confirmed ; and I found reason to believe that late as the season was, and much as I have to do, the present is likely to be the best, if not the only opportunity for such an excursion.

The whole skirt and margin of the mountains are surrounded by a thick forest of nearly two days' journey, with a marshy soil and an atmosphere, during two-thirds of the year, more pestilential than the Sunderbunds, or the grotto Dei Cani; a literal “ belt of death,” which even the natives tremble to go near, and which, during the rains more particularly, the monkeys themselves are said to abandon. After the middle of November this is dry, practicable, and safe; so that the very delays which have thrown my arrival in Rohilcund so late, have given me an opportunity which I may, under the usual circumstances of my visitation, never have again, of penetrating into Kemaoon. Above all, every body tells me that, except in a case of real necessity, a journey into the Himalaya should never be undertaken by women and children: that camels, elephants, tents, and palanquins, nay, even horses, such as are usually ridden in the plains, must be left behind at Bamoury Ghât, and that nothing but mules, mountainponies, the “yâk," or Thibet cow, and active unencumbered foot-passengers, can make their way along the tracks and beside the precipices which are to be traversed. This, if true, destroys much of the hope which has already reconciled me to leaving many interesting spots unvisited, that I might see them at some future opportunity with my wife and children ; and though I have little doubt that these difficulties are greatly exaggerated, still it is plain that without a previous reconnoitring, I could never take them such a journey, in defiance of such assurances. For the present excursion, Captain Satchwell, the acting commissary-general of the district, promised me the use of some mules, which Government was sending up to Kemaoon for the public service there. Mr. Boulderson, the collector, offered me the loan of an able and experienced pony; and I received a letter from Mr. Trail, the commissioner for the affairs of the hill countries, offering me every assistance in the last four mountain stages. Under these circumstances, I made up my mind not to miss the opportunity, and arranged to send off my tents, &c. on Wednesday evening, being the earliest moment at which my necessary arrangements could be completed.

November 17.—This day was chiefly taken up in packing. My plan was to take my whole caravan to Bamoury at the first rise of the hills, where the air is good, and supplies are plentiful, and leave them encamped there till my return. Accordingly I sent off in the evening the greater part of my escort, servants, and animals, retaining only ten sepoys, some bearers, my horse, and the suwarree elephant, with his mohout and coolie.

CHAPTER XVII.

BAREILLY TO ALMORAH.

FIRST DISTANT VIEW OF THE HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS-SHEESGUR--VISIT

FROM RAJA AND SONS--ACCOUNT OF TERRAIL" ESSENCE OF OWL”WRETCHEDNESS OF INHABITANTS-KULLEANPOOR-TIGER HUNTRUDERPOOR--CASE OF MALARIA FEVER- BURNING THE JUNGLETANDAH--BAMOURY-BEEMTHAL-WATER-MILL-KHASYA NATION -RAMGHUR-SIKH-MOUNT MERU-PILGRIM TO BHADRINATH.

NOVEMBER 18.-1 went this morning from Mr. Hawkins's house to a village named Shahee, about_sixteen miles over a country like all which I had yet seen in Rohilound, level, well cultivated, and studded with groves, but offering nothing either curious or interesting, except the industry with which all the rivers and brooks were dammed up for the purpose of irrigation, and conducted through the numberless little channels and squares of land which form one of the most striking peculiarities of Indian agriculture. The country is almost entirely planted with wheat, with a few fields of Indian corn, and the pulse called dål. I looked out vainly all the morning for the mountains, which, at the distance of fifty miles, for the nearest range is no further, ought certainly now to be within sight. All I saw, however, was a heavy line of black clouds, in the direction in which knew them to be; and when this gradually melted before the rising sun, it was succeeded by a gray autumnal haze, through which nothing was distinguishable.

At Shahee I found Mr. Boulderson, the collector of the district, encamped in the discharge of his annual duty of surveying the country, inspecting and forwarding the work of irrigation, and settling with the Zemindars for their taxes. His tent, or rather his establishment of tents, was extremely large and handsome. That in which he himself lived was as spacious as those which were first sent me from Cawnpoor, with glass doors, a stove, and a canvass enclosure at one end, which, in Calcutta, would have passed for a small compound. He had a similar enclosure at some little distance, adjoining his servants' tent for cooking; and on the whole, my tent, a regulation field officer's and my

whole establishment, which I had till now thought very considerable for a single man, looked poor and paltry in comparison. For such a journey as mine, however, I certainly would not exchange with him; and the truth is, that to persons in his situation, who

FOREST-WILD BEASTS.

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have no occasion to go far from home, or to make long marches, these luxuries are less cumbersome than they would be to me ; while, on the other hand, they pass so much of their time in the fields, that a large and comfortable tent is to the full as necessary for them as a bungalow. Mr. Boulderson had good-naturedly waited two days at Shahee to give me time to overtake him, and now offered to accompany me to the foot of the hills at least, if not the first stage amongst them. In the passage of the forest, with which he is well acquainted, he says he expects to be of service to me. He strongly recommends our pushing on through the forest in a single march. The distance, he allows, is too great, being 26 miles; but he regards it as a less evil to ourselves, our attendants, and animals, than remaining a day and night at Tandah, the intermediate station, a spot which at no season of the year can be considered as quite safe, either from fever or tigers. Against the former of these dangers I had been furnished with a set of instructions by Mr. Knight, the station surgeon of Bareilly, Natives, Mr. Knight thinks, are more liable to the complaint, and recover from it with greater difficulty, than Europeans, who are, in the first instance, better protected against the damp and unwholesome air, and whose full habit of living, and the high temperature of their health, make the work of depletion with them at once more easy and more effectual, than with men whose pulse is always feeble, and who sink at once into despondency on the attack of a disease which they know to be dangerous.

As to tigers, though we may possibly hear their roars, and see traces of their feet, it is not often that they venture near the fires of an encampment, or the formidable multitude of men which such an encampment as mine presents to them. Still, if a tiger shows himself, it will, in all probability, be at Tandah; and though should not dislike to see the animal in its natural state, I am bound, for the sake of my half-naked and careless followers, and my numerous train of animals, still more than my own, not to linger twelve hours in a spot of so bad reputation. In the day time, at this season, and by those who merely pass along the beaten track, neither fevers nor tigers are usually to be apprehended. The latter, indeed, on any approaching bustle, keep themselves, at those hours, so close in cover, that those who seek them find it difficult enough to start them. Mr. Boulderson is a keen sportsman, and told me several interesting facts respecting the wild animals of this neighbourhood. The lion, which was long supposed to be unknown in India, is now ascertained to exist in considerable numbers in the districts of Saharunpoor and Loodianah. Lions have likewise been killed on this side the Ganges, in the northern parts of Rohilcund, in the neighbourhood of Moradabad and 'Rampoor, as large, it is said, as the

Vol. 1.-47

370

HIMALAYA MOUNTAINS.

average of those in the neighbourhood of the Cape of Good Hope. Both lions, where they are found, and tigers, are very troublesome to the people of the villages near the forest, who, having no elephants, have no very effectual means of attacking them with safety. The peasantry here, however, are not a people to allow themselves to be devoured without resistance, like the Bengalees; and it often happens that, when a tiger has esta. blished himself near a village, the whole population turn out, with their matchlocks, swords, and shields, to attack him. Fighting on foot, and compelled to drive him from his covert by entering and beating the jungle, one or two generally lose their lives, but the tiger seldom escapes; and Mr. Boulderson has seen some skins of animals of this description, which bore the strongest marks of having been fought with, if the expression may be used, hand to hand ; and were in fact slashed all over with cuts of the “ tulwar,” or short scimitar. A reward of four rupees for every tiger's head brought in, is given by Government; and if the villagers of any district report that a tiger or lion is in their neighbourhood, there are seldom wanting sportsmen among the civil or military officers, who hear the news with pleasure, and make haste to rid them of the nuisance. A good shot, on an elephant, seldom fails, with perfect safety to himself, to destroy as many of these terrible animals as he falls in with.

In the afternoon Mr. Boulderson took me a drive in his buggy. This is a vehicle in which all Anglo-Indians delight, and certainly its hood is a great advantage, by enabling them to pay visits, and even to travel, under a far hotter sun than would otherwise be endurable. The country, however, in this neighbourhood, and every where except in the immediate vicinity of the principal stations, is strangely unfavourable for such vehicles. Our drive was over ploughed fields, and soon terminated by a small, but, to us, impassable, ravine. We had, however, a first view of the range of the Himalaya, indistinctly seen through the haze, but not so indistinctly as to conceal the general form of the mountains. The nearer hills are blue, and in outline and tints resemble pretty closely, at this distance, those which close in the vale of Clwyd. Above these rose, what might, in the present unfavourable atmosphere, have been taken for clouds, had not their seat been so stationary and their outline so harsh and pyramidical, the patriarchs of the continent, perhaps the surviving ruins of a former world, white and glistening as alabaster, and even at this distance of, probably, 150 miles, towering above the nearer and secondary range, as much as these last (though said to be 7600 feet high) are above the plain on which we were standing. I I felt intense delight and awe in looking on them, but the pleasure lasted not many minutes, the clouds closed in again, as on the fairy castle of

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