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could return only by Chiselhampton of England, with whom he had lived Bridge. A force ought to be instantly in habits of intimacy, and by the chapdespatched in that direction for the lain of the Buckinghamshire Greenpurpose of intercepting them. In coats, Dr. Spurton, whom Baxter the mean time, he resolved to set describes as a famous and excellent out with all the cavalry that ine divine short time before Hampden' could muster, for the purpose of impeding the march of the enemy death the sacrament was administered till Essex could take measures for cut-to him. He declared that though he ting off their retreat. A considerable disliked the government of the Church body of horse and dragoons volun- of England, he yet agreed with that teered to follow him. He was not Church as to all essential matters of their commander. He did not even doctrine. His intellect remained unbelong to their branch of the service. clouded. When all was nearly over, But "he was,” says Lord Clarendon, he lay murmuring faint prayers for * second to none but the General him- himself, and for the cause in which he self in the observance and application died. “Lord Jesus,” he exclaimed in of all men.” On the field of Chal- the moment of the last agony, “ receive grove he came up with Rupert. A my soul. O Lord, save my country. fierce skirmish ensued. In the first O Lord, be merciful to " In ebarge Hampden was struck in the that broken ejaculation passed away shoulder by two bullets, which broke his noble and fearless spirit. the bone, and lodged in his body. The He was buried in the parish church troops of the Parliament lost heart of Hampden. His soldiers, bareheaded, and gave way. Rupert, after pursuing with reversed arms and muffled drums them for a short time, hastened to and colours, escorted his body to the cross the bridge, and made his retreat grave, singing, as they marched, that unmolested to Oxford.
lofty and melancholy psalm in which Hampden, with his head drooping, the fragility of human life is contrasted and his hands leaning on his horse's with the immutability of Him to whom neck, moved feebly out of the battle. a thousand years are as yesterduy The mansion which had been inhabited when it is passed, and as a watch in by his father-in-law, and from which the night. in his youth he had carried home his The news of Hampden's death probride Elizabeth, was in sight. There duced as great a consternation in his still remains an affecting tradition party, according to Clarendon, as if that he looked for a moment towards their whole army had been cut off. that beloved house, and made an effort The journals of the time amply prove to go thither to die. But the enemy that the Parliament and all its friends lay in that direction. He turned his were filled with grief and dismay. horse towards Thame, where he arrived Lord Nugent has quoted a remarkable almost fainting with agony. The sur-passage from the next Weekly Intelligeons dressed his wounds. But there gencer. “ The loss of Colonel Hampwas no hope. The pain which he suf- den goeth near the heart of every man fered was most excruciating. But he that loves the good of his king and endured it with admirable firmness country, and makes some conceive and resignation. His first care was little content to be at the army now for his country. He wrote from his that he is gone. The memory of this bed several letters to London concern- deceased colonel is such, that in no ing public affairs, and sent a last age to come but it will more and more pressing message to the head-quarters, be had in honour and esteem ; a man recommending that the dispersed forces so religious, and of that prudence, should be concentrated. When his judgment, temper, valour, and integpublic duties were performed, he calmly rity, that he hath left few his like prepared himself to die. He was at- behind." tended by a clergyman of the Church He had indeed left none his like behind him. There still remained, | BURLEIGH AND HIS TIMES. indeed, in his party, many acute intellects, many eloquent tongues, many
(APRIL, 1832.) brave and honest hearts. There stiil Memoirs of the Life and Administration of
the Right Honourable William Cecil remained a rugged and clownish sol
Lord Burghley, Secretary of State in the dier, half fanatic, half buffoon, whose Reign of King Edward the Sixth, and talents, discerned as yet only by one
Lord High Treasurer of England in the
Reign of Queen Elizabeth. Containing penetrating eye, were equal to all the
an Historical View of the Times in which highest duties of the soldier and the he lived, and of the many eminent and prince. But in Hampden, and in
illustrious Persons with whom he was Hampden alone, were united all the
connected; with Extracts from his Pri.
vate and Official Correspondence and qualities which, at such a crisis, were other Papers, now first published from necessary to save the state, the valour the Originals. By the Reverend EDWABD and energy of Cromwell, the discern
NARES, D.D., Regius Professor of Modern
History in the University of Oxford. ment and eloquence of Vane, the 3 vols. 4to. London: 1828, 1832. hamanity and moderation of Manchester, the stern integrity of Hale, the The work of Dr. Nares has filled as ardent public spirit of Sydney. Others with astonishment similar to that which might possess the qualities which were Captain Lemuel Gulliver felt when first necessary to save the popular party in he landed in Brobdingnag, and saw the crisis of danger ; he alone had both corn as high as the oaks in the New the power and the inclination to restrain Forest, thimbles as large as buckets, its excesses in the hour of triumph. and wrens of the bulk of turkeys. The Others could conquer; he alone could whole book, and every component part reconcile. A heart' as bold as his of it, is on a gigantic scale. The title brought up the cuirassiers who turned is as long as an ordinary preface: the the tide of battle on Marston Moor. prefatory matter would furnish out an As skilful an eye as his watched the ordinary book ; and the book contains Scoi ch army descending from the as much reading as an ordinary library. heights over Dunbar.
But it was
We cannot sum up the merits of the when to the sullen tyranny of Laud stupendous mass of paper which lies and Charles had succeeded the fierce before us better than by saying that it conflict of sects and factions, ambitious consists of about two thousand closely of ascendency and burning for revenge, printed quarto pages, that it occupies it was when the vices and ignorance fifteen hundred inches cubic measure, which the old tyranny had generated and that it weighs sixty pounds avoir threatened the new freedom with de- dupois. Such a book might, before the struction, that England missed the deluge, have been considered as light sobriety, the self-command, the perfect reading. by Hilpa and Shalum. But soundness of judgment, the perfect rec- unhappily the life of man is now threetitude of intention, to which the history score years and ten; and we cannot of revolutions furnishes no parallel, or but think it somewhat unfair in Dr. furnishes a parallel in Washington Nares to demand from us so large a alone
portion of so short an existence.
Compared with the labour of reading through these volumes, all other labour, the labour of thieves on the treadmill, of children in factories, of negroes in sugar plantations, is an agreeable recreation. There was, it is said, & criminal in Italy, who was suffered to make his choice between Guicciardini and the galleys. He chose the history. But the war of Pisa was too much foi him. He changed his mind, and went to the oar. Guicciardini, though cercalnly not the most amusing of writers, temper, a sound judgment, great powers is a Herodotus or a Froissart, when of application, and a constant eye to the compared with Dr. Nares. It is not main chance. In his youth he was, it merely in bulk, but in specific gravity seems, fond of practical jokes. Yet also, that these memoirs exceed all even out of these he contrived to exother human compositions. On every tract some pecuniary profit. When he subject which the Professor discusses, was studying the law at Gray's Inn, he he produces three times as many pages lost all his furniture and books at the as another man; and one of his pages gaming table to one of his friends. Ho is as tedious as another man's three. accordingly bored a hole in the wall His book is swelled to its vast dimen- which separated his chambers from sions by endless repetitions, by episodes those of his associate, and at midnight which have nothing to do with the bellowed through this passage threats main action, by quotations from books of damnation and calls to repentance in which are in every circulating library, the ears of the victorious gambler, who and by reflections which, when they lay sweating with fear all night, and happen to be just, are so obvious that refunded his winnings on his knees they must necessarily occur to the mind next day. “Many other the like merry of every reader. He employs more jests,” says his old biographer, “ I have words in expounding and defending a heard him tell, too long to be here truism than any other writer would noted.” To the last, Burleigh was employ in supporting a paradox. Of somewhat jocose ; and some of his the rules of bistorical perspective, he sportive sayings have been recorded by has not the faintest notion. There is Bacon. They show much more shrewd. neither foreground nor background in ness than generosity, and are, indeed, his delineation. The wars of Charles neatly expressed reasons for exacting the Fifth in Germany are detailed at money rigorously, and for keeping it almost as much length as in Robert- carefully. It must, however, be acson's life of that prince. The troubles knowledged that he was rigorous and of Scotland are related as fully as in careful for the public advantage as well M'Crie's Life of John Knox. It would as for his own. To extol his moral be most unjust to deny that Dr. Nares character as Dr. Nares has extolled it is a man of great industry and re- is absurd. It would be equally absurd search ; but he is so utterly incompetent to represent him as a corrupt, rapacious, to arrange the materials which he has and bad-hearted man. He paid great collected that he might as well have attention to the interests of the state, left them in their original repositories and great attention also to the interest
Neither the facts which Dr. Nares of his own family. He never deserted has discovered, nor the arguments which his friends till it was very inconvenient he urges, will, we apprehend, materially to stand by them, was an excellent alter the opinion generally entertained Protestant when it was not very ado by judicious readers of history con- vantageous to be a Papist, recom. serning his hero. Lord Burleigh can mended a tolerant policy to his mishardly be called a great man. He was tress as strongly as he could recomnot one of those whose genius and mend it without hazarding her favour, energy change the fate of empires. He never put to the rack any person from was by nature and habit one of those whom it did not seem probable that who follow, not one of those who lead. useful information might be derived, Nothing that is recorded, either of his and was so moderate in his desires words or of his actions, indicates in that he left only three hundred distinct tellectual or moral elevation. But his landed estates, though he might, as his talents, though not brilliant, were of an honest servant assures us, have left eminently useful kind ; and his prin- much more, “if he would have taken ciples, though not inflexible, were not money out of the Exchequer for his more relaxed than those of his asso- own use, as many Treasurers have ciates and competitors. He had a cool | done”
Burleigh, like the old Marquess of tions against the foresaid duke's amWinchester, who preceded him in the bition." custody of the White Staff, was of the This was undoubtedly the most pewillow, and not of the oak. He first rilous conjuncture of Cecil's life. Wher. rose into notice by defending the su- ever there was a safe course, he was premacy of Henry the Eighth. He was safe. But here every course was full subsequently favoured and promoted of danger. His situation rendered it by the Duke of Somerset. He not impossible for him to be neutral. If he only contrived to escape unhurt when acted on either side, if he refused to his patron fell, but became an important act at all, he ran a fearful risk. He saw member of the administration of North- all the difficulties of his position. He umberland. Dr. Nares assures us over sent his money and plate out of London, and over again that there could have made over his estates to his son, and been nothing base in Cecil's conduct on carried arms about his person. His this occasion; for, says he, Cecil con- best arms, however, were his sagacity tinued to stand well with Cranmer. and his self-command. The plot in This, we confess, hardly satisfies us. which he had been an unwilling accomWe are much of the mind of Falstaff's plice ended, as it was natural that so tailor. We must have better assurance odious and absurd a plot should end, in for Sir John than Bardolph's. We like the ruin of its contrivers. In the mean not the security.
time, Cecil quietly extricated bimself, Through the whole course of that and having been successively patronised miserable intrigue which was carried by Henry, by Somerset, and by Northon round the dying bed of Edward the umberland, continued to flourish under Sixth, Cecil so bemeaned himself as to the protection of Mary. avoid, first, the displeasure of North- He had no aspirations after the crown umberland, and afterwards the dis- of martyrdom. He confessed himself, pleasure of Mary. He was prudently therefore, with great decorum, heard unwilling to put his hand to the instru- mass in Wimbledon Church at Easter, ment which changed the course of the and, for the better ordering of his spisuccession. But the furious Dudley ritual concerns, took a priest into his was master of the palace. Cecil, there- house. Dr. Nares, whose simplicity fore, according to his own account, passes that of any casuist with whom excused himself from signing as a party, we are acquainted, vindicates his hero but consented to sign as a witness. It by assuring us that this was not superis not easy to describe his dexterous stition, but pure unmixed hypocrisy. conduct at this most perplexing crisis, " That he did in some manner conin language more appropriate than that form, we shall not be able, in the face which is employed by old Fuller. "His of existing documents, to deny ; while hand wrote it as secretary of state,” we feel in our own minds abundantly says that quaint writer ; " but his heart satisfied, that, during this very trying consented not thereto. Yea, he openly reign, he never abandoned the prospect opposed it ; though at last yielding to of another revolution in favour of Pro. the greatness of Northumberland, in testantism." In another place, the an age when it was present drowning Doctor tells us, that Cecil went to masa not to swim with the stream. But as “ with no idolatrous intention." No. the philosopher tells us, that though body, we believe, ever accused him of the planets be whirled about daily from idolatrous intentions. The very ground east to west, by the motion of the pri- of the charge against him is that he mum mobile, yet have they also a con- had no idolatrous intentions. We never trary proper motion of their own from should have blamed him if he had really west to east, which they slowly, though gone to Wimbledon Church, with the surely, move at their leisure ; 80 Cecil feelings of a good Catholic, to worship had secret counter-endeavours against the host. Dr. Nares speaks in several the strain of the court herein, and pri- places with just severity of the sophistry vately advanced his rightful inten- | of the Jesuits, and with just admiration of the incomparable letters of Pascal., ship of Pole with great assiduity, and It is somewhat strange, therefore, that received great advantage from the Lehe should adopt, to the full extent, the gate's protection. jesuitical doctrine of the direction of Bat the best protection of Cecil, intentions.
during the gloomy and disastrous reign We do not blame Cecil for not choos- of Mary, was that which he derived ing to be burned. The deep stain upon from his own prudence and from big his memory is that, for differences of own temper, a prudence which could opinion for which he would risk nothing never be lulled into carelessness, a himself
, he, in the day of his power, temper which could never be irritated took away without scruple the lives of into rashness. The Papists could find others. One of the excuses suggested no occasion against him. Yet he did in these Memoirs for his conforming, not lose the esteem even of those sterner during the reign of Mary, to the Church Protestants who had preferred exile to of Rome, is that he may have been of recantation. He attached himself to the same mind with those German Pro- the persecuted heiress of the throne, testants who were called Adiaphorists and entitled himself to her gratitude and who considered the popish rites as and confidence. Yet he continued to matters indifferent. Melancthon was receive marks of favour from the Queen. one of these moderate persons, and in the House of Commons, he put " appears," says Dr. Nares, “ to have himself at the head of the party opgone greater lengths than any imputed posed to the Court. Yet, so guarded to Lord Burleigh.” We should have was his language that, even when some thought this not only an excuse, but a of those who acted with him were imcomplete vindication, if Cecil had been prisoned by the Privy Council, he esan Adiaphorist for the benefit of others caped with impunity. as well as for his own. If the popish At length Mary died : Elizabeth sucrites were matters of so little moment ceeded; and Cecil rose at once to greatthat a good Protestant might lawfully ness. He was sworn in Privy-counpractise them for his safety, how could cillor and Secretary of State to the it be just or humane that a Papist new sovereign before he left her prison should be hanged, drawn, and quar- of Hatfield; and he continued to serve tered, for practising them from a sense her during forty years, without interof daty ? Unhappily these non-essen- mission, in the highest employments. tials soon became matters of life and His abilities were precisely those which death. Just at the very time at which keep men long in power. He belonged Cecil attained the highest point of to the class of the Walpoles, the Pelo power and favour, an Act of Parlia- hams, and the Liverpools, not to that mnent was passed by which the penal- of the St. Johns, the Carterets, the ties of high treason were denounced Chathams, and the Cannings. If he against persons who should do in sin- had been a man of original genius and cerity what he had done from cow- of an enterprising spirit, it would have ardice.
been scarcely possible for him to keep Early in the reign of Mary, Cecil his power or even his head. There was employed in a mission scarcely was not room in one government for consistent with the character of a zea- an Elizabeth and a Richelieu. What lous Protestant. He was sent to escort the haughty daughter of Henry needed, the Papal Legate, Cardinal Pole, from was a moder cautious, flexible miBrussels to London. That great body nister, skilled in the details of business, of moderate persons who cared more competent to advise, but not aspiring for the quiet of the realm than for the to command. And such a minister she controverted points which were in issue found in Burleigh. No arts could shake between the Churches seem to have the confidence which she reposed in placed their chief hope in the wisdom her old and trusty servant. The courtly and humanity of the gentle Cardinal. graces of Leicester, the brilliant talents Cecil, it is clear, cultivated the friend and accomplishments of Essex, touched