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and then abuses them for not entertain- | ask for leave to exercise power over a ing all the feelings of natives, is as un- community of which they are only half reasonable as the tyrant who punished members, a community the constitution their fathers for not making bricks of which is essentially dark-haired, let without straw.
us answer them in the words of our Rulers must not be suffered thus to wise ancestors, Nolumus leges Anglia absolve themselves of their solemn re- mutari.” sponsibility. It does not lie in their But, it is said, the Scriptures declare mouths to say that a sect is not patri- that the Jews are to be restored to their otic. It is their business to make it own country; and the whole nation patriotic. History and reason clearly looks forward to that restoration. They indicate the means. The English Jews are, therefore, not so deeply interested are, as far as we can see, precisely what as others in the prosperity of England. our government has made them. They It is not their home, but merely the Are precisely what any sect, what any place of their sojourn, the house of class of men, treated as they have been their bondage. This argument, which treated, would have been. If all the first appeared in the Times newspaper, red-haired people in Europe had, and which has attracted a degree of during centuries, been outraged and attention proportioned not so much to oppressed, banished from this place, its own intrinsic force as to the general imprisoned in that, deprived of their talent with which that journal is conmoney, deprived of their teeth, conducted, belongs to a class of sophisms victed of the most improbable crimes by which the most hateful persecutions on the feeblest evidence, dragged at may easily be justified. To charge horses' tails, hanged, tortured, burned men with practical consequences which alive, if, when manners becamo milder, they themselves deny is disingenuous they had still been subject to debasing in controversy ; it is atrocious in gorestrictions and exposed to vulgar in-vernment. The doctrine of predestisults, locked up in particular streets in nation, in the opinion of many people, some countries, pelted and ducked by tends to make those who hold it utterly the rabble in others, excluded every immoral. And certainly it would seem where from magistracies and honours, that a man who believes his eternal what would be the patriotism of gentle- destiny to be already irrevocably fixed men with red hair ? And if, under is likely to indulge his passions without such circumstances, a proposition were restraint and to neglect his religious made for admitting red-haired men to duties. If he is an heir of wrath, his office, how striking a speech might an exertions must be unavailing. If he is eloquent admirer of our old institutions preordained to life, they must be superdeliver against so revolutionary a mea- fluous. But would it be wise to punish sure!" • These men,” he might_say, every man who holds the higher doc“scarcely consider themselves as Eng-trines of Calvinism, as if he had actulishmen. They think a red-haired ally committed all those crimes which Frenchman or a red-haired German we know some Antinomians to have more closely connected with them than committed ? Assuredly not. The fact a man with brown hair born in their notoriously is that there are many own parish. If a foreign sovereign Calvinists as moral in their conduct as patronises red hair, they love him better any Arminian, and many Arminians than their own native king. They are as loose as any Calvinist. not Englishmen : they cannot be Eng- It is altogether impossible to reason lishmen: nature has forbidden it : ex- from the opinions which a man properience proves it to be impossible. fesses to his feelings and his actions ; Right to political power they have and in fact no person is ever such a none; for no man has a right to politi- fool as to reason thus, except when he cal power. Let them enjoy personal wants a pretext for persecuting his security ; let their property be under neighbours. A Christian is comLe protection of the law. But if they manded, under the strongest sanction
to be just in all his dealings. Yet to opposed to their passions and inter csts, bow many of the twenty-four millions may not loyalty, may not humanity, of professing Christians in these islands may not the love of easc, may not the would any man in his scnscs lend a fear of death, be sufficient to prevent thousand pounds without security ? them from executing those wicked A man who should act, for one day, on orders which the Church of Rome has the supposition that all the people issued against the sovereign of Engabout him were influenced by the re- land? When we know that many of ligion which they professed, would these people do not care enough for find himself ruined before night; and their religion to go without beef on no man ever does act on that supposi- a Friday for it, why should we think tion in any of the ordinary concerns of that they will run the risk of being life, in borrowing, in lending, in buy- racked and hanged for it? ing, or in selling. But when any of People are now reasoning about the our fellow-creatures are to be op- Jews as our fathers reasoned about the pressed, the case is different. Then Papists. The law which is inscribed we represent those motives which we on the walls of the synagogues prohibits know to be so feeble for good as omni- covetousness. But if we were to say potent for evil. Then we lay to the that a Jew mortgagee would not forccharge of our victims all the viccs and close because God had commanded follies to which their doctrines, how- him not to cover his neighbour's house, erer remotely, seem to tend. We every body would think us out of our forget that the same weakness, the wits. Yet it passes for an argument same laxity, the same disposition to to say that a Jew will take no interest prefer the present to the future, which in the prosperity of the country in make men worse than a good religion, which he lives, that he will not care make them better than a bad one. how bad its laws and police may be,
It was in this way that our ancestors how heavily it may be taxed, how reasoned, and that some people in often it may be conquered and given our time still reason, about the Ca- up to spoil, because God has promised tholics. A Papist believes himself that, by some unknown mcans, and at bound to obey the pope. The pope some undetermined time, perhaps ten has issued a bull deposing Qucen thousand ycars hence, the Jews shall Elizabeth. Therefore every Papist migrate to Palestine. Is not this the will treat her grace as an usurper. most profound ignorance of human Therefore every Papist is, & traitor. nature? Do we not know that what Therefore every Papist ought to be is remote and indefinite affects men hanged, drawn, and quartered. To far less than what is near and certain ? this logic we owe some of the most The argument too applies to Christians hateful laws that ever disgraced our as strongly as to Jews. The Christian history. Surely the answer lies on believes as well as the Jew, that at the surface. The Church of Rome some future period the present order inay have commanded these men to of things will come to an end. Nay, treat the queen as an usurper. But many Christians believe that the Messhe has commanded them to do many siah will shortly establish a kingdom other things which they have never on the earth, and reign visibly over all done. She enjoins her priests to ob- its inhabitants. Whether this doctrine serve strict purity. You are always be orthodox or not we shall not here taunting them with their licentiousness. inquire. The number of people who She commands all her followers to fast hold it is very much greater than the often, to be charitable to the poor, to number of Jews residing in England. take no interest for money, to fight no Many of those who hold it are disduels, to see no plays. Do they obey tinguished by rank, wealth, and ability. these injunctions ? 'If it be the fact It is preached from pulpits, both of the that very few of them strictly obscrve Scottish and of the English church. ber precepts, when her precepts are Noblemen and members of Parliament
have written in defence of it. Now In fact it is already clear that the wherein does this doctrine differ, as prophecies do not bear the meaning far as its political tendency is con- put upon them by the respectable cerned, from the doctrine of the Jews ? persons whom we are now answering. If a Jew is unfit to legislate for us In France and in the United States because he believes that he or his re- the Jews are already admitted to all mote descendants will be removed to the rights of citizens. A prophecy, Palestine, can we safely open the therefore, which should mean that the House of Commons to a fifth-mo- Jews would never, during the course narchy man, who expects that before of their wanderings, be admitted to all this generation shall pass away, all the rights of citizens in the places of the kingdoms of the earth will be their sojourn, would be a false proswallowed up in one divine empire? phecy. This, therefore, is not the
Does a Jew engage less eagerly meaning of the prophecies of Scripture. than a Christian in any competition But we protest altogether against which the law leaves open to him ? the practice of confounding prophecy Is he less active and regular in his with precept, of setting up predictions business than his neighbours ? Does which are often obscure against a mohe furnish his house meanly, because rality which is always clear. If actions he is a pilgrim and sojourner in the are to be considered as just and good land? Does the expectation of being merely because they have been prerestored to the country of his fathers dicted, what action was ever more make him insensible to the fluctuations laudable than that crime which our of the stock-exchange ? Docs he, in bigots are now, at the end of eighteen arranging his private affairs, ever take centuries, urging us to avenge on the into the account the chance of his Jews, that crime which made the earth migrating to Palestine ? If not, why shake and blotted out the sun from are we to suppose that feelings which heaven ? The same reasoning which never influence his dealings as a mer- is now employed to vindicate the dischant, or his dispositions as a testator, abilities imposed on our Hebrew counwill acquire a boundless influence over trymen will equally vindicate the kiss him as soon as he becomes a magistrate of Judas and the judgment of Pilate. or a legislator ? There is another " The Son of man goeth, as it is written argument which we would not wil- of him ; but woe to that man by whom lingly treat with levity, and which yet the Son of man is betrayed.” And we scarcely know how to treat seriously. woe to those who, in any age or in Scripture, it is said, is full of terrible any country, disobey his benevolent denunciations against the Jews. It commands under pretence of accomis foretold that they are to be wan-plishing his predictions. If this arguderers. Is it then right to give them ment justifies the laws now existing a home? It is foretold that they are against the Jews, it justifies equally to be oppressed. Can we with pro- all the cruelties which have ever been priety suffer them to be rulers ? To committed against them, the sweeping admit them to the rights of citizens is edicts of banishment and confiscation, manifestly to insult the Divine oracles. the dungeon, the rack, and the slow
We allow that to falsify a prophecy fire. How can we excuse ourselves inspired by Divine Wisdom would be for leaving property to people who are a most atrocious crime. It is, there to serve their enemies in hunger, and fore, a happy circumstance for our in thirst, and in nakedness, and in frail species, that it is a crime which want of all things ;” for giving prono man can possibly commit. If we tection to the persons of those who are admit the Jews to seats in Parliament, to “ fear day and night, and to have we shall, by so doing, prove that the none assurance of their life ; ” for not prophecies in question, whatever they seizing on the children of a race whose may mean, do not mean that the Jews “ sons and daughters are to be given shall be excluded from Parliament. unto another people ?”
We have not so learned the doctrines evidently been written, not for the purof Him who commanded us to love our pose of showing, what, however, it neighbour as ourselves, and who, when often shows, how well its author can He was called upon to explain what He write, but for the purpose of vindimeant by a neighbour, selected as an cating, as far as truth will permit, the example a heretic and an alien. Last memory of a celebrated man who can year, we remember, it was represented no longer vindicate himself. Mr. Moore by a pious writer in the John Bull never thrusts himself between Lord newspaper, and by some other equally Byron and the public. With the strongfervid Christians, as a monstrous inde- est temptations to egotism, he has said cency, that the measure for the relief no more about himself than the subject of the Jews should be brought forward absolutely required. in Passion week. One of these hu- A great part, indeed the greater mourists ironically recommended that it part, of these volumes, consists of exshould be read a second time on Good tracts from the Letters and Journals of Friday. We should have had no ob- Lord Byron; and it is difficult to speak jection; nor do we believe that the day too highly of the skill which has been could be commemorated in a more shown in the selection and arrangeworthy manner. We know of no day ment. We will not say that we have fitter for terminating long hostilities, not occasionally remarked in these two and repairing cruel wrongs, than the large quartos an anecdote which should day on which the religion of mercy have been omitted,a letter which should was founded. We know of no day have been suppressed, a name which fitter for blotting out from the statute- should have been concealed by astebook the last traces of intolerance than risks, or asterisks which do not answer the day on which the spirit of into the purpose of concealing the name. lerance produced the foulest of all ju- But it is impossible, on a general dicial murders, the day on which the survey, to deny that the task has been list of the victims of intolerance, that executed with great judgment and great noble list wherein Socrates and More humanity. When we consider the life are enrolled, was glorified by a yet which Lord Byron had led, his petugreater and holier name.
lance, his irritability, and his communicativeness, we cannot but admire the dexterity with which Mr. Moore has
contrived to exhibit so much of the MOORE'S LIFE OF LORD BYRIN. character and opinions of his friend, (JUNE, 1831.)
with so little pain to the feelings of Letters and Journals of Lord Byron; with the living. Notices of his life. By THOMAS MOORE,
The extracts from the journals and Esq. 2 vols. 4to. London: 1830.
correspondence of Lord Byron are in We have read this book with the great- the highest degree valuable, not merely est pleasure. Considered merely as a on account of the information which composition, it deserves to be classed they contain respecting the distinamong the best specimens of English guished man by whom they were prose which our age has produced. It written, but on account also of their contains, indeed, no single passagerare merit as compositions. The letequal to two or three which we could ters, at least those which were sent select from the Life of Sheridan. But, from Italy, are among the best in our as a whole, it is immeasurably superior language. They are less affected than to that work. The style is agreeable, those of Pope and Walpole; they have clear, and manly, and when it rises more matter in them than those of into eloquence, rises without effort or Cowper. Knowing that many of them ostentation. Nor is the matter inferior were not written merely for the person to the manner. It would be difficult to whom they were directed, but were to name a book which exhibits more general epistles, meant to be read by a kindness, fairness, and modesty. It has large circle, we expected to find them clever and spirited, but deficient in intellect, affectionate yet perverse, a ease. We looked with vigilance for poor lord, and a handsome cripple, be instances of stiffness in the language required, if ever man required, the and awkwardness in the transitions. firmest and the most judicious training. We have been agreeably disappointed; But, capriciously as nature had dealt and we must confess that, if the epis- with him, the parent to whom the office tolary style of Lord Byron was arti- of forming his character was intrusted ficial, it was a rare and admirable in- was more capricious still. She passed stance of that highest art which cannot from paroxysms of rage to paroxysms be distinguished from nature.
of tenderness. At one time she stifled Of the deep and painful interest him with her caresscs: at another time which this book excites no abstract she insulted his deformity. He came can give a just notion. So sad and into the world; and the world treated dark a story is scarcely to be found in him as his mother had trcated him, any work of fiction; and we are little sometimes with fondness, sometimes disposed to envy the moralist who can with cruelty, never with justice. It read it without being softened. indulged him without discrimination,
The pretty fable by which the Duchess and punished him without discrimiof Orleans illustrated the character of nation. He was truly a spoiled child, her son the Regent might, with little not merely the spoiled child of his change, be applied to Byron. All the parent, but the spoiled child of nature, fairies, save one, had been bidden to the spoiled child of fortune, the spoiled his cradle. All the gossips had been child of fame, the spoiled child of soprofuse of their gifts. One had be- cicty. Iis first poems were received stowed nobility, another genius, a third with a contempt which, feeble as they beauty. The malignant elf who had were, they did not absolutely deserve. been uninvited came last, and, unable The poem which he published on his to reverse what her sisters had done return from his travels was, on the for their favourite, had mixed up a other hand, extolled far above its mcrit. curse with every blessing. In the At twenty-four, he found himself on rank of Lord Byron, in his under the highest pinnacle of literary fame, standing, in his character, in his very with Scott, Wordsworth, Southey, and person, there was a strange union of a crowd of other distinguished writers opposite extremes. He was born to beneath his feet. There is scarcely an all that men covet and admire. But instance in history of so sudden a'rise in every one of those eminent advan- to so dizzy an eminence. tages which he possessed over others Every thing that could stimulate, and was mingled something of misery and everything that could gratify the debasement. He was sprung from a strongest propensities of our nature, house, ancient indeed and noble, but the gaze of a hundred drawing-rooms, degraded and impoverished by a series the acclamations of the whole nation, of crimes and follies which had at the applause of applauded men, the tained a scandalous publicity. The love of lovely women, all this world kinsman whom he suciecded had died and all the glory of it were at once poor, and, but for merciful judges, offered to a youth to whom nature would have died upon the gallows. had given violent passions, and whom The young peer had great intellectual education had never taught to control powers; yet there was an unsound them. Ile lived as many men live part in his mind. He had naturally a who have no similar excuse to plead generous and feeling heart: but his for their faults. But his countrymen temper was wayward and irritable. and his countrywomen would love him He had a head which statuaries loved and admire him. They were resolved to to copy, and a foot the deformity of see in his excesses only the flash and which the beggars in the streets mi-outbreak of that same fiery mind which micked. Distinguished at once by the glowed in his poetry. He attacked strengtb and by the weakness of his religion; yet in religious circles his