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He delighted delights seed, seed delighted delights the waters, the waters delighted delight the rivers, the rivers delighted delight the ocean, the ocean delighted whatever is covered by the ocean. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (7.)

He delighted is the tenfold, Virāj-like, Agnihotra. His expiration is the Āhavaniya (fire), his inspiration the Gārhapatya, his Vyāna the Anvāhāryapacana, his mind the smoke, his anger the flame, his teeth the coals, his faith the milk, his speech the brand, his truth the oblation, his intelligent self the essence. That Virāj-like, tenfold, Agnihotra is offered. Him it sends to the world of heaven, which is mounted by these two ascents, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. Now if one, knowing not this Agnihotra, sacrifices, it is with him as though he pushed aside the coals and made oblation in the ashes. (8.)

Adhyāya XI. Prajāpatielevated this person. In him he made these deities to dwell, in his speech fire, in his expiration wind, in his inspiration the lightning, in his Udāna Parjanya, in his eye the sun, in his mind the moon, in his ear the quarters, in his body the earth, in his seed the waters, in his strength Indra, in his anger Īsāna, in his head the ether, in his self Brahman(n.). As a great jar of ambrosia stands swelling, so he stood. Then these deities considered, "What shall this person do with us, or what we with him ? Come, let us depart from the body.' They departed. Then this body was, as it were empty, and perforated on all sides. Prajāpati reflected,

1 i.e. the real and the ūntara Agnihotras, but the real one, even if performed without knowledge, is ineffective. The passage looks like à fragment of a verse.

? For this Adhyāya, cf. J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 375. Udañcat is read by Cowell's MS. B; for the confusion of ud and ad, cf. v, 5.

3 This seems the most probable sense (pari-suşira) and supports the emendation to randhrāya na kşamam (for na makşam of the MSS.) which I have made in the next sentence. Otherwise we might read parisuşiram, and take it as 'dried up,' from śvas with ira, cf. Lindner, Altind. Nominalbildung, pp. 100 sq. ; Macdonell, Vedic Grammar, p. 130.

* The body is not capable of standing these gaps. Come, I will vex them with hunger and thirst.' Them he vexed; they, being vexed and finding no joy, again entered this person. (1.)

(Saying), 'Speech is mine, fire entered. (Saying), “Expiration is mine,' wind entered. (Saying), 'Inspiration is mine,' lightning entered. (Saying), "The Udāna is mine,' Parjanya entered. (Saying), “The eye is mine,' the sun entered. (Saying), “The mind is mine,' the moon entered. (Saying), The ear is ours,' the quarters entered. (Saying), • The body is mine,' the earth entered. (Saying), “The seed is ours,' the waters entered. (Saying), 'The strength is mine," Indra entered. (Saying), Anger is mine,' īsāna entered. (Saying), “The head is mine,' the ether entered. (Saying), • The self is mine,' Brahman entered. As a great green tree stands with its roots moistened, so he stood. (2.)

Now a man when he is to die before the year's end, sees visions of the year. His shadow is crooked, or is not seen at all. He may see either light, as it were, in a great cloud or lightning without a cloud, or not see lightning in a cloud. Closing his eyes he does not see motes, as it were. Or closing his ears he does not hear a noise, as it were. He has no joy in this world; his mind pleases him not.2 These are the waking visions. (3.)

Then follow the dream visions. He sees a black man with black teeth. He kills him, a boar kills him, a monkey kills him. He devours stalks; having devoured them he spits them forth. He carries a single lotus. Wearing a wreath of spikenard, he drives towards the south a cow with its calf. If he sees any of the following things, a yellow-looking or black woman, with loosened hair, or shaved, anointing with sesamum oil, a garment dyed with safflower, singing, a buffalo carriage, going to the south, etc., having looked at them he fasts, cooks milk in a pot, using the milk of a cow which

i Cf. viii, 7.

? Or 'it pleases not him, his mind,' an acc. of whole and part, rare in Vedic and Sanskrit, Speyer, Vedische und Sanskrit Syntax, p. 8, whose citation of Atharva Veda, v, 8, 9, is not in point, as marmāņi is a false reading for marmani.

sun,

has a calf like itself, but on no account of a black cow, piles up the fire, sweeps out (the place of sacrifice), scatters grass, sprinkles water around, and, bending the right knee, offers oblations of ghee by means of a ladle. (4.)

* In my speech rests fire, srāhā. In my expiration rests wind, svāhå. In my inspiration rests the lightning, svāhā. In my Udāna rests Parjanya, srāhā. In my eye rests the srähà. In

my

mind rests the moon, svāhā. In my ear rest the quarters, srāhà. In my body rests the earth, svāhā. In my seed rest the waters, srāhā. In my strength rests Indra, svāhā. In my anger rests Īsāna, sváha. In my head rests the ether, svāhā. In my self rests Brahman(n.), svāhā,' (he repeats), and then pouring the remainder of the ghee into the pot of milk he offers the pot of milk, ladling it out. (5.)

'In my speech rests fire, speech in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, svāhā. In my expiration rests wind, expiration in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, sváha. In my inspiration rests the lightning, inspiration in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, svāhā. In my Udāna rests Parjanya, Udāna in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, srāhā. In my eye rests the sun, the eye in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, srāhā. In my mind rests the moon, mind in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, srāhā. In my ear rest the quarters, the ear in the heart, the heart in the self.

Here the taboo is sympathetic negative magic, contrast Sāmavidhāna Brāhmaṇa, ii, 8, 3. Cf. Marrett, Anthropological Essays presented to Tylor, pp. 219-34. ? Possibly upaghātam is here a noun.

That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, srāhā. In my body rests the earth, the body in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, sräha. In my seed rest the waters, seed in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, sraha.

In my strength rests Indra, strength in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, sraha. In my anger rests Īsāna, anger in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, srāhā. In my head rests the ether, the head in the heart, the heart in the self. That is the truth of the deities. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, srāhā. In my self rests Brahman(n.), the self in the heart, sråhā,' (he repeats), and sacrifices by consuming the remains of the pot of milk. (6.)

Stone is of Jagatī, iron 2 of Trișțubh, copper of Usņih, lead of Kakubh, silver of Svarāj, gold of Gāyatrī, food of Virāj, enjoyment of Anușțubh, the firmament of Samrāj, Bșhaspati of Brhati, Brahman(n.) of Pankti, Prajāpati of Atichandas, the Sāvitri 3 of the metre of all the Vedas. (7.)

May I be established firm as a stone 4 by the Jagati metre. Man is the jewel, breath the thread, food the knot, that knot I tie, desiring food, a holy power 5 against death. May I obtain full length of days, long lived. I shall not die against my will. May I be rich in food, an eater of food, sráha.

6

1 i.e. he drinks it.

2 For the meaning of ayas, cf. Zimmer, Altind. Leben, pp. 51 seq. ; Schraeder, Prehist. Antiq., pp. 187 seq.

3 The reference is very curious, but presumably alludes to the Gāyatrī. 4 For the use of the stone, cf. its use in the marriage ritual, and Westermarck, Anthropological Essays, pp. 374 seq. ; Frazer, 'ibid. pp. 132-4; Warde Fowler, Roman Festivals, p. 231.

5 This seems the best rendering of mrtyave brāhmaṇam. The metaphor is from an amulet, which consists of a jewel on a string, cf. Weber, Ind. Stud., xvii, 202 ; xviii, 182 ; Bloomfield, J.A.O.S., xiii, p. cxxxii.

May I be established firm as iron by the Trișțubh metre. Man is the jewel,' etc. May I be established firm as copper by the Uşņih metre. Man is the jewel, etc. May I be established firm as lead by the Kakubh metre. Man is the jewel, etc. May I be established firm as silver by the Svarāj metre. Man is the jewel, etc. May I be established firm as gold by the Gāyatri metre. Man is the jewel, etc. May I be established firm as food by the Virāj metre. Man is the jewel, etc. May I be established firm as enjoyment by the Anustubh metre. Man is the jewel, etc. May I be established firm as the firmament by the Samrāj? metre. Man is the jewel, etc. May I be established firm as Bphaspati by the Bphati metre. Man is the jewel, etc. May I be established firm as Brahman(n.) by the Pańkti metre. Man is the jewel, etc. May I be established firm as Prajāpati by the Atichandas metre. Man is the jewel, etc. May I be established firm as the Sāvitrī by the metre of all the Vedas. Man is the jewel,' etc. (he repeats). Either to a dear wife, or a dear pupil, or to whomsoever else he favours, he should give the remains of the oblation.3 He indeed lives a hundred

years,

who ever and again performs this (rite). (8.)

Adhyāya XII. Om. May that splendour of the elephant, of great power, manifest itself which was born from Aditi's body. That all those have given to me, the Adityas in unison with Aditi. (1.)

The great splendour that is deposited in thee, Jātavedas, with that splendour do thou make me resplendent. (2.)

1 The text in the Berlin MS. repeats in full, but as sufficient exemplification of repetition is given in xi, 6, I have followed the Bodleian in curtailing

? In imitation of the Svarāj, no doubt.

3 The gods enter the oblation and hence its sacredness ; cf. J.R.A.S., 1907, pp. 938 seq. ; Westermarck, Anthropological Essays, p. 374 ; Origin and Development of Moral Ideas, i, 445 seq. ; Farnell, Cults of the Greek States, iii, 11.

* Cf. Atharva Veda, iii, 22, 1; Roth, Ind. Stud., xiv, 392; Weber, ibid., xvii, 282 seq.

5 This corresponds closely with the Paippalāda version of Atharva Veda, iii, 22, 2 (= parts of 3 and 4 of the vulgate).

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