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standing there he adores the sun. Some say he should make an opening in the shed; but he should only perform his adoration in the direction (of the sun). For being concealed in this highest hymn, before the highest, he utters the bene. dictions 3 • The great (m.) hath united with the great (f.) '-Agni indeed is great, the earth is great, for these two have united; "The god hath united with the goddess '--Vāyu is the god, the atmosphere the goddess, for these two have united ; The Brahman (n.) hath united with the Brāhmaṇi’the sun is the Brahman, the heaven the Brāhmaṇī, for these two have united. So does he unite these worlds for him who will chant this hymn. (5.)

Viśvāmitra, indeed, went to the dear home of Indra by reason of recitation and the performance of vows. To him said Indra, · Viśvāmitra, choose a boon. Viśvāmitra said, ' Let me know thee.' (Choose) again.' 'Thee only.'

Thee only. (Choose) a third time.' "Thee only. To him said Indra, 'I am the great (m.) and the great (f.); the god and the goddess; the Brahman and the Brāhmaņi.' Viśvāmitra was still fain to know more. To him said Indra, 'I am that which I have said, but what is more, he that performs no penance may be even such as I am.' Then indeed did Indra proclaim the Vyāhịtis. They sufficed for him.

Then (the Hotř), after gathering to himself the plank of the swing, draws in his breath thrice, after thrice breathing out. (6.)

The (plank of the swing) is of Udumbara wood. Strength and proper food are the Udumbara, so that strength and proper food are won. Then, after touching it with his breast, putting his right side 6 over it, he mutters, “Thou art the sun. Let

1 Cf. Śrauta Sūtra, xvii, 13, 9, and comm. ; the Mantra is given, ibid., 10.

? Parama of the MSS. is strange, but not impossible ; ădityé must be supplied. Cf. Baudhāyana Srauta Sūtra, ix, 20; p. 67, n. 3.

They are not wishes proper; he declares the result of his manual acts (Śrąuta Sūtra, xvii, 15, 10-12), a piece of sympathetic magic.

* i.e. Sastra, the Mahad Uktha. The speaker and the object are one.

5 Cf. Aitareya Āranyaka, ii, 2, 3, which shows considerable diversity, and which appears more primitive.

This is the sense, not hrdayāt prthakkurvan (comm. on Sáňkhāyana Srauta Sūtra, xvii, 16, 1). See Aitareya Aranyaka, v, 1, 4; Lätyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, iii, 12, 1. Similar series of deities and metres are common, cf. Weber, Ind. Stud., xiii, 268.


the Vasus mount thee with the Gāyatri metre. They are thy mounters.' So he says, and After them I mount for royal sway.' This, indeed, do they count royal sway. Then, putting his left side over (the swing), he mutters, . Let the Rudras mount thee with the Triştubh metre. They are thy mounters.' So he says, and After them I mount for self-rule.' Self-rule, indeed, is, as it were, something more than royal sway. Then, putting his right side over, he mutters, “Let the Adityas mount thee with the Jagati metre. They are thy mounters.' So he says, and · After them I mount for universal sway.' Universal sway, indeed, is, as it were, something more than selfrule. Then, putting his left side over, he mutters, 'Let the All-gods mount thee with the Anuştubh metre. They are thy mounters.' So he says, and After them I mount for the fulfilling of desire.' The fulfilling of desire is the best of all. Then, having slipped along over (the plank), he brings down his feet towards the east and rests them on the ground. He is thus higher than this world. (The reason) why he places (his feet so) is that he thus rests on this world as a secure resting-place. Then he breathes forth thrice and draws in breath thrice. Then, making a lap over the south and north ' (sides of the plank), he strokes the plank of the swing from west to east with the span of the right (hand), saying, 'Prajāpati mount thee, Vāyu swing thee.' Prajāpati indeed mounts it, Vāyu swings it, as alive. Then he breathes forth and draws in breath thrice. Then, holding both hands to the east, he mutters. (7.)

May speech with breath, I with breath, eye with mind, I with mind, Prajāpati with cattle, I with cattle (be united).' So he prays. Thou art a fair-winged bird '— breath has fair wings; “I shall proclaim this speech '-he speaks being minded to proclaim this speech ; 'which will effect much, I who am minded to effect much '--for this speech is going to effect much, and much (will he effect) who gains the Śastra of this day; which will effect more than much, I who am minded to effect more than much'- for this speech is going to effect more than much, and more than much (will he effect) who gains the Śastra of this day; which will go to heaven, I that am minded to go to heaven'- for this speech is going to go to heaven, and to heaven (will he go) who gains the Sastra of this day; "I that am minded to bear these sacrificers to heaven,' so let him say; but (for a sacrificer) whom he hates, let him say, 'Not N. N., not N. N.' So

1 He sits facing east, keeping one leg to the right (=south) and one to the left (=north); for the form, cf. Wackernagel, Altind. Gramm., ii, 1, 147, 148. The Pet. Lexx. and Monier-Williams render 'hanging over to the right,' which I do not understand. It might be taken (like dakşînottara, Gobhila Gșhya ūtra, i, 4) as with the legs crossed. Cf. Šānkhāgana Srauta Sūtra, xvii, 16,7, and comm. : yasmin putrādayas tișthanti ; Weber, Ind. Stud., v, 397; x, 115. · Cf. Lātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, iv, 2, 10; Aitareya Āranyaka, v, 1, 5.

many, indeed, as he enumerates and shakes forth from this divine chariot, he casts forth. The two 1 (following) are not for him to enjoy; so he overcomes him (breath); so, having overcome him, he places him in his body. Vāyu, indeed, becoming breath recites this hymn. So he overcomes him; so, having overcome him, he places him in his body. Yoked indeed to his teacher is he who gains the Śastra of this day. Being yoked to his teacher, his breath is liable to be taken away. So he overcomes him; so, having overcome him, he places him in his body. For such a divinity there is no piercing by poisoned ? (arrow), nor sword, nor axe, nor anything else. He who reviles him who knows this becomes worse; not so he who knows this. There is no piercing one who knows. (8.)

Adhyaya II. He begins 4 the hymn with the word him. The word him' is breath; by breath he begins the hymn. Again, the word

1 i.e. Vāyu, who is breath (Deussen, Phil. of the Upanishads, pp. 107–9) and the teacher. The text tells how he overcomes them and makes them bhogya. Friedländer renders ‘have no right to the Prāņa which he has to enjoy,' but though this gives an approximate sense it seems difficult to find a parallel construction ; for the one assumed, see Delbrück, Synt. Forsch., v, 148. It would be easier if we could read tan for tam, but it is not essential.

2 For the construction, cf. Kauşītaki Brāhmaṇa, x, 2; xvii, 9.

3 See Zimmer, Altind. Leben, p. 299 ; Murray, Rise of Greek Epic, pp. 120 seg.

Cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, i, 3, 1.

' him' is strength and sap; so he places in the hymn strength and sap. Again, the word 'himis immortality; so he places immortality in himself. The Rājana is (the Sāman of) the Prstha (Stotra). The Rājana is manifestly the Sāman; so he unites (the hymn) with its own Sāman. It consists of verses not specially marked.? Prajāpati, indeed, is not specially marked. That is the symbol of Prajāpati. Some say it should consist of verses with ‘Ka’ in them, for Ka is Prajāpati and that is a symbol of Prajāpati. Then he recites inaudibly the silent recitation. Speech indeed is this day, mind the silent recitation; so with mind he perfects speech. That was mightiest in the worlds' is the strophe 3 Trca. “Waxing * with strength, of great might,' has the word 'wax,' and so has the word 'great,' for the day is described as 'great.' The body is of twenty-five parts. He recites (the hymn 5) with the addition of the nada (verses). The body indeed is of twenty-five parts, offspring and cattle are additions, so he increases the body by children, cattle, servants, and food, in using) the nada verses.? the Triştubh Pādas first, then the Pādas of the nada verses. Having joined the first Pāda of the nada verses with the first Trişțubh Pāda, he pauses; having joined the second with the second Trișțubh (Pāda), he utters the syllable om. Having joined the third with the third Trișțubh (Pāda), he pauses ; having joined the fourth with the fourth Trișțubh (Pāda), he utters the syllable om. He recites thrice the first (verse) thus varied, and the others which follow are similarly varied. He omits the second half-verse of the third verse of the hymn and the second of the nada. This is the opening of the mouth ; by that he utters speech. By the mouth indeed

He puts

1 Erat seems needed. ? i.e. verses not specially assigned to others by some mark are his ; Macdonell, Brhaddevatā, ii, 5 ; Lévi, La Doctrine du Sacrifice, p. 16, n. 4.

3 RV., x, 120, 1.
* RV., x, 120, 2.
5 Read tan (i.e. tad).

Iti probably not='etc. in such a case. Cf. Knauer, Festgruss an Böhtlingk, pp. 62 seq. ; Böhtlingk, Z.D.M.G., xli, 516 seq. It may be the iti of enumeration, which is very common in this style ; see p. 51, n. 6.

? RV., viii, 69, 2; see Pischel, Ved. Stud., i, 183-98. 8 See notes on Aitareya Aranyaka, v, 1, 6; i, 3, 8.


he utters speech. He recites these two (half-verses) before the Dvipadās. Thus his Stotra verse is not separated by a break. After reciting the body (verses), he recites the sūdadohas 2 (verse) of the milk-yielder. Food indeed is the sūdadohas (verse). By food these joints are united. Again, immortality is the sūdadohas (verse); so he places immortality in the body. Again, the sūdadohas (verse) is the form of the Āhāva call. So just as wood may be joined by a string or a piece of leather, the sūdadohas verse joins all the Vedas. (1.)

Then he recites the head (verses). They consist of three Tșcas. Three indeed are the bones 3 of his head; them by these he unites. These three again are each threefold, and so make up nine verses. Nine indeed are the breaths in the head. They have the word “hymn' in them. This is the symbol of this day. (2.)

Then he recites the neck (verses). They are three verses. Three indeed are the joints 4 of the neck. These he unites by those. The last is an Uşņih. It is the shoulder, large and expansive. (3.)

Then he recites the collarbone 5 (verse). It is a Triştubh. Therefore the collarbone is the strongest. The (verse 6) * Indra, the mighty arms of thee, strong one,' is suitable to the arms.

Then he recites the strophe and antistrophe of the Rathantara. The Brāhmaṇa for them has been set forth already. Then he recites the Dhāyyā (verse). This is the Dhāyyā, for it is placed in all beings. It indeed is placed on the right side, therefore a woman lies on a man's right side. Then he recites the Pragātha of the Rathantara. The

1 See ii, 11 fin.
? RV., viii, 69, 3.

3 Here, again, the number is probably fanciful, cf. Hoernle, Osteology, pp. 172 seq., and the stock division of the head into three, Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, xii, 2, 4, 9, etc. For the nine breaths—apertures—cf. Deussen, Phil. of the Upanishads, p. 283, where, however, the older passages are not quoted, and note on Aitareya Aranyaka, i, 4, 1.

Probably purely unscientific ; the official osteology (Hoernle, Osteology, p. 64) is quite different. For sections 2–6, cf. notes on the Aitareya Āranyaka, v, 2, 1; 2; i, 4, 1; Sankhāyana Srauta Sūtra, xvisi, 2-6.

• So akşū certainly, see Hoernle, Osteology, pp. 202 sq. ; Srauta Sūtra, xviii, 4, 1; 5,1; Z.D.M.G., 1908, p. 139.

6 RV., vi, 47, 8c.


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