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Punardatta. He, indeed, knows speech as a whole who knows this. (8.) )

Again, there is this divine lute. That human lute is an imitation of it. As this has a sounding-board and is tightly strung, so has that a sounding-board and is tightly strung. As this has a head, so that has a head. As this has a spine, so that has a bridge. As this has a belly, so that has a cavity. As this has mouth, nose, and eyes, so that has holes. As this has joints,3 so that has finger-catches and covers. As this has fingers, so that has strings. As this has a tongue, so that has a sounder. As this has sounds, so that has sounds. As this is covered with a hairy skin, so that is covered with a hairy skin. For with a hairy skin they used of old to cover lutes.

This is the divine lute. He who knows thus this divine lute becomes exceedingly famous; his renown fills the earth; men hearken to him when he speaks in the assemblies, (saying), 'Let this be done which he desires.' Where Aryan speech is uttered they know him there. (9.)

Then follows the saying of Tāņdavindava. As a lute struck by an unskilled player fulfils not the full purpose of a lute, so speech set in motion by an unskilled speaker fulfils not the full purpose of speech. As a lute struck by a skilled player fulfils the full purpose of a lute, so speech set in motion by a skilled speaker fulfils the full purpose of speech.

Of this lute the splendour is the union,' says the son of Kātyāyanī, Jātākarnya.

Now Křtsna Hārita sets forth a Brāhmaṇa. (10.)

Prajāpati having created creatures fell to pieces. He united himself by means of the metres. Because he united himself by means of the metres, there is the union. Of this union the letter na is strength, the letter sa breath, the self the union.

1 Sabdavati in Aitareya. My rendering is guesswork. ? Vamśaḥ is some bone or other, and this sense occurs later, see Pet. Lex. 3 Here again there must be a transposition in the text, as there is of fingers’ and strings' in the corresponding sentence to the next in the Aitareya. Cf. Oldenberg, Z.D.M.G.,_lxi, 824, 825.

For 10 and 11, cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 2, 6; for Krşņa, who appears there for the Kștsna of the Sānkhāyana, cf. Weber, Ind. Stud., i, 190, n., 391, n. ; for vyasramsata, Eggeling, S.B. É., xli, 112, n. ; Delbrück, Synt. Forsch., v, 385.

to say

As for this modification in which gross are) combined with minute (elements), they are nails, hairs, consonants. If he should be in doubt whether to say it with a na or without a ņa, let him say it with a na. So if he should be in doubt whether

it with a sa or without a șa, let him say it with the șå. Knowing these two letters ņa and șa one should study the Rc verses according to the Samhitā text. Let him know that it is lifegiving. Again, speech is the Itihāsapurāņa,” and whatever else there is of holy work; this should one study; let him know this also (to be lifegiving). 'In that we study the Ķc verses according to the Samhitā and speak forth the recitation of Māņdūkeya, so we secure the letters ņa and şa,' says Hrasva Māņdūkeya. Again, 'In the

Again, 'In that we study the Ķc verses according to the Samhitā and learn the recitation, so we secure the letters ņa and şa,' says Sthavira Śākalya. Knowing that the Kāvașeyas say, ' For what purpose shall we sacrifice, for what purpose shall we study ? For in speech we offer breath, in breath speech. The source is also the scene of disappearance.' "These Samhitās one should not proclaim to one who is not a pupil, who is not a pupil for a year, who is not a student, who is not a knower of the Vedas, who is not to be a teacher,' so say the teachers.3 (11.)

Adhyāya IX. Om. We crave of Savit; the god this treasure much to be

enjoyed.
The best, all-yielding, conquering gift of Bhaga gladly

we would win.4
May we attain the excellent glory of Savit; the god :

So may he stimulate our prayers.
Mind undeceived, living eye, sun best of lights. Consecration

I Cf. vii, 21, and Aitareya, ii, 6. Vyañjanāni should perhaps be taken of the body.

2 A definite book, Geldner, Ved. Stud., i, 290. Hardly so, cf. Oertel, Am. Journ. Phil., xx, 447 ; Jackson's attempt (J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 530) to find Mahābhārata and Harivamśa is hardly lucky.

3 Possibly a plural majestatis, and teacher' may be intended. 4 RV., v, 82, 1.

RV., iii, 62, 10.

5

harm me not. He? who knows the highest and best becomes highest and best among his own (people). Breath indeed is the highest and best. He who knows the most excellent becomes the most excellent among his own (people). Speech indeed is the most excellent. He who knows the support finds support both in this world and in that. The eye indeed is support. He who knows obtainment, his desires are obtained together for him. The ear indeed is obtainment. He who knows the resort becomes the resort of his own (people). Mind indeed is the resort. These deities approached Prajāpati and said, "Who indeed is the best of us ?' Prajāpati said, 'He is the best on whose departure the body considers itself worst as it were.? (2.)

Speech departed. They were like dumb men, speechless, breathing with breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, thinking with the mind. (3.)

Sight departed. They were like blind men, sightless, breathing with breath, speaking with speech, hearing with the ear, thinking with the mind. (4.)

Hearing departed. They were like deaf men, devoid of hearing, breathing with breath, speaking with speech, seeing with the eye, thinking with the mind. (5.)

Mind departed. They were like infants, without mind, breathing with breath, speaking with speech, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear. (6.)

Breath departed. Then just as a fine steed from the Indus strains the pin of his hobbles, so he strained the breaths. They assembled and said, “Lord, depart not.' Breath said, • What will be my food ?' * All there is up to dogs, up to birds.' · What will be my clothing ?' • The waters,' they replied. Therefore a man about to eat purifies himself before and after with water. He is eager to take his clothing, for he is not naked. This Satyakāma Jābāla declared to Gośruta Vaiyāghrapadya and said, 'If one declared this to a dry stump, there would arise from it branches, there would spring up blossoms.' 'Spring forth, tree, with a hundred blossoms. Harm not the sky, harm not the atmosphere,' says Yājňavalkya. (7.)

i See vii, 1.

? Cf. Chandogya Upanişad, v, 1; 2; Bịhadāranyaka Upanişad, vi, 2 (= K. 3); J.R.A.S., 1908, pp. 373, 374 ; above, ii, 14; iii, 3. In the close parallels, Chāndogya, v, 1, and Bșhadāranyaka, vi, 2, the evam iti is motived by its being a reply to a question by breath. Here it is a survival.

3 See Pischel, Ved. Stud., i, 234, 235, not 'foot ropes' as usually rendered in the parallel passages. The āśvabhyaḥ is uncertain ; I follow Böhtlingk's version. Max Müller (S.B.E., xv, 204, n. 1) suggests every kind of food, such as is eaten by dogs, etc., and Deussen, Sechzig Upanishad's, p. 135, n. 1, takes that as the sense in Chāndogya, v, 2, 1.

Now if one desires to obtain something important, after consecrating himself for three nights, on the night of new moon, having mixed with curds and honey a mess of all sorts of herbs, having built up the fire, having swept (the place of sacrifice), having scattered (grass) about, having sprinkled water, bending the right knee, he places the mess in a vessel to the north of the fire, sacrifices, and pours into the mess the remainder of the oblation. Svähä to the highest and best,' (with these words) having sacrificed in the fire, he should pour the rest into the mess. • Srāhā to the most excellent, (with these words) having sacrificed in the fire, he should pour the rest into the mess. Svāhā to support,' (with these words) having sacrificed in the fire, he should pour the rest into the mess. Svähå to obtainment,' (with these words) having sacrificed in the fire, he should pour the rest into the mess. Srāhā to resort,' (with these words) having sacrificed in the fire, he should pour the rest into the mess. Having eaten, (repeating) by quarter-verses. We crave of Savit;,' he sips, (repeating) by quarter-verses The excellent (glory) of Savitự,' the fourth (sip) being accompanied by the Vyāhịtis.? Then he washes the vessel and goes to rest on a in or on the bare ground. If he sees a woman, he should know that his rite is successful. (8.)

Adhyāya x. Then follows the internal Agnihotra 4 relating to the self. So they describe it. These deities, indeed, are established in man ; fire in speech, wind in breath, sun in the eye, moon in the mind, the quarters in the ear, the waters in the seed. In all of these is offering made by him who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (1.)

Vājasaneyi Samhitā, v, 43 ; cf. J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 374. ? Because Ř V., iii, 62, 10, has only three Pādas.

3 i.e. he sleeps and dreams. The efficacy of sleeping on earth for mantic purposes is recognised all over the world. For the ritual, cf. iv, 3 ; xii, 8.

4 See J.R.A.S., 1908, pp. 374, 375.

He delighted delights speech, speech delighted delights fire, fire delighted delights earth, earth delighted whatever is covered by earth. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (2.)

He delighted delights breath, breath delighted delights wind, wind delighted delights ether, ether delighted all that is covered by ether. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (3.)

He delighted delights the eye, the eye delighted delights the sun, the sun delighted delights the sky, the sky delighted whatever is covered by the sky. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (4.)

He delighted delights the mind, the mind delighted delights the moon, the moon delighted delights the Nakşatras, the Nakşatras delighted delight the months, the months delighted delight the half-months, the half-months delighted delight the days and nights, the days and nights delighted delight the seasons, the seasons delighted delight the year, the year delighted whatever is covered by the year. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (5.)

He delighted delights the ear, the ear delighted delights the quarters, the quarters delighted delight the intermediate quarters, the intermediate quarters what is covered by the intermediate quarters. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (6.)

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