Page images
PDF
EPUB

Punardatta. He, indeed, knows speech as a whole who knows this. (8.)

Again, there is this divine lute. That human lute is an imitation of it. As this has a sounding-board1 and is tightly strung, so has that a sounding-board and is tightly strung. As this has a head, so that has a head. As this has a spine,2 so that has a bridge. As this has a belly, so that has a cavity. As this has mouth, nose, and eyes, so that has holes. As this has joints, so that has finger-catches and covers. As this has fingers, so that has strings. As this has a tongue, so that has a sounder. As this has sounds, so that has sounds. As this is covered with a hairy skin, so that is covered with a hairy skin. For with a hairy skin they used of old to cover lutes. This is the divine lute. He who knows thus this divine lute becomes exceedingly famous; his renown fills the earth; men hearken to him when he speaks in the assemblies, (saying), ‘Let this be done which he desires.' Where Āryan speech is uttered they know him there. (9.)

Then follows the saying of Taṇḍavindava. As a lute struck by an unskilled player fulfils not the full purpose of a lute, so speech set in motion by an unskilled speaker fulfils not the full purpose of speech. As a lute struck by a skilled player fulfils the full purpose of a lute, so speech set in motion by a skilled speaker fulfils the full purpose of speech. ' Of this lute the splendour is the union,' says the son of Kātyāyanī, Jātūkarṇya.

Now Krtsna Harita sets forth a Brāhmaṇa.1 (10.)

Prajapati having created creatures fell to pieces. He united himself by means of the metres. Because he united himself by means of the metres, there is the union. Of this union the letter na is strength, the letter sa breath, the self the union.

1 Sabdavati in Aitareya. My rendering is guesswork.

2 Vamśaḥ is some bone or other, and this sense occurs later, see Pet. Lex. 3 Here again there must be a transposition in the text, as there is of 'fingers' and 'strings in the corresponding sentence to the next in the Aitareya. Cf. Oldenberg, Z.D.M.G., lxi, 824, 825.

For 10 and 11, cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 2, 6; for Kṛṣṇa, who appears there for the Kṛtsna of the Sankhāyana, cf. Weber, Ind. Stud., i, 190, n., 391, n.; for vyasramsata, Eggeling, S.B.É., xli, 112, n.; Delbrück, Synt. Forsch., v, 385.

"

As for this modification1 (in which gross are) combined with minute (elements), they are nails, hairs, consonants. If he should be in doubt whether to say it with a na or without a na, let him say it with a na. So if he should be in doubt whether to say it with a șa or without a sa, let him say it with the șa. Knowing these two letters na and șa one should study the Rc verses according to the Samhitā text. Let him know that it is lifegiving. Again, speech is the Itihasapurāņa,2 and whatever else there is of holy work; this should one study; let him know this also (to be lifegiving). In that we study the Rc verses according to the Samhita and speak forth the recitation of Maṇḍukeya, so we secure the letters na and șa,' says Hrasva Māṇḍūkeya. Again, 'In that we study the Ṛc verses according to the Samhitā and learn the recitation, so we secure the letters na and sa,' says Sthavira Śākalya. Knowing that the Kavaṣeyas say, 'For what purpose shall we sacrifice, for what purpose shall we study? For in speech we offer breath, in breath speech. The source is also the scene of disappearance.' These Samhitas one should not proclaim to one who is not a pupil, who is not a pupil for a year, who is not a student, who is not a knower of the Vedas, who is not to be a teacher,' so say the teachers.3

(11.)

Adhyaya IX.

Om.

We crave of Savitṛ the god this treasure much to be enjoyed.

The best, all-yielding, conquering gift of Bhaga gladly we would win.4

[ocr errors]

May we attain the excellent glory of Savitṛ the god:
So may he stimulate our prayers.5

Mind undeceived, living eye, sun best of lights. Consecration

Vyañjanāni should perhaps be taken

2 A definite book, Geldner, Ved. Stud., i, 290. Hardly so, cf. Oertel, Am. Journ. Phil., xx, 447; Jackson's attempt (J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 530) to find Mahabharata and Harivamsa is hardly lucky.

3

of the body.

Cf. vii, 21, and Aitareya, ii, 6.

RV., iii, 62, 10.

Possibly a plural majestatis, and 'teacher' may be intended.

4 RV., v, 82, 1.

5

harm me not.1 He2 who knows the highest and best becomes highest and best among his own (people). Breath indeed is the highest and best. He who knows the most excellent becomes the most excellent among his own (people). Speech indeed is the most excellent. He who knows the support finds support both in this world and in that. The eye indeed is support. He who knows obtainment, his desires are obtained together for him. The ear indeed is obtainment. He who knows the resort becomes the resort of his own (people). Mind indeed is the resort. These deities approached Prajapati and said, 'Who indeed is the best of us?' Prajāpati said, 'He is the best on whose departure the body considers itself worst as it were.? (2.)

Speech departed. They were like dumb men, speechless, breathing with breath, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, thinking with the mind. (3.)

Sight departed. They were like blind men, sightless, breathing with breath, speaking with speech, hearing with the ear, thinking with the mind. (4.)

Hearing departed. They were like deaf men, devoid of hearing, breathing with breath, speaking with speech, seeing with the eye, thinking with the mind. (5.)

Mind departed. They were like infants, without mind, breathing with breath, speaking with speech, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear. (6.)

Breath departed. Then just as a fine steed from the Indus strains the pin of his hobbles,3 so he strained the breaths. They assembled and said, 'Lord, depart not.' Breath said, 'What will be my food?' All there is up to dogs, up to birds.' 'What will be my clothing?' "The waters,' they replied. Therefore a man about to eat purifies himself before

6

1 See vii, 1.

2 Cf. Chandogya Upanisad, v, 1; 2; Bṛhadaranyaka Upanisad, vi, 2 (= K. 3); J.R.A.S., 1908, pp. 373, 374; above, ii, 14; iii, 3. In the close parallels, Chandogya, v, 1, and Bṛhadāraṇyaka, vi, 2, the evam iti is motived by its being a reply to a question by breath. Here it is a survival.

3 See Pischel, Ved. Stud., i, 234, 235, not 'foot ropes' as usually rendered in the parallel passages. The aśvabhyaḥ is uncertain; I follow Böhtlingk's version. Max Müller (S.B.E., xv, 204, n. 1) suggests every kind of food, such as is eaten by dogs, etc., and Deussen, Sechzig Upanishad's, p. 135, n. 1, takes that as the sense in Chandogya, v, 2, 1.

and after with water. He is eager to take his clothing, for he is not naked. This Satyakāma Jābāla declared to Gośruta Vaiyaghrapadya and said, 'If one declared this to a dry stump, there would arise from it branches, there would spring up blossoms.' 'Spring forth, tree, with a hundred blossoms. Harm not the sky, harm not the atmosphere,' says Yājñavalkya.1 (7.)

Now if one desires to obtain something important, after consecrating himself for three nights, on the night of new moon, having mixed with curds and honey a mess of all sorts of herbs, having built up the fire, having swept (the place of sacrifice), having scattered (grass) about, having sprinkled water, bending the right knee, he places the mess in a vessel to the north of the fire, sacrifices, and pours into the mess the remainder of the oblation. 'Svāhā to the highest and best,' (with these words) having sacrificed in the fire, he should pour the rest into the mess. Svaha to the most excellent,' (with these words) having sacrificed in the fire, he should pour the rest into the mess. Svaha to support," (with these words) having sacrificed in the fire, he should pour the rest into the mess. 'Svāhā to obtainment,' (with these words) having sacrificed in the fire, he should pour the rest into the mess. 'Svāhā to resort,' (with these words) having sacrificed in the fire, he should pour the rest into the mess.' Having eaten, (repeating) by quarter-verses' We crave of Savitṛ,' he sips, (repeating) by quarter-verses ‘The excellent (glory) of Savity,' the fourth (sip) being accompanied by the Vyahṛtis.2 Then he washes the vessel and goes to rest on a skin or on the bare ground. If he sees a woman,3 he should know that his rite is successful.

(8.)

Adhyāya X.

Then follows the internal Agnihotra relating to the self. So they describe it. These deities, indeed, are established in

1 Vājasaneyi Samhitā, v, 43; cf. J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 374.

2 Because RV., iii, 62, 10, has only three Pādas.

3 i.e. he sleeps and dreams. The efficacy of sleeping on earth for mantic purposes is recognised all over the world. For the ritual, cf. iv, 3; xii, 8. 4 See J.R.A.S., 1908, pp. 374, 375.

man; fire in speech, wind in breath, sun in the eye, moon in the mind, the quarters in the ear, the waters in the seed. In all of these is offering made by him who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (1.)

He delighted delights speech, speech delighted delights fire, fire delighted delights earth, earth delighted whatever is covered by earth. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (2.)

He delighted delights breath, breath delighted delights wind, wind delighted delights ether, ether delighted all that is covered by ether. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (3.)

He delighted delights the eye, the eye delighted delights the sun, the sun delighted delights the sky, the sky delighted whatever is covered by the sky. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (4.)

He delighted delights the mind, the mind delighted delights the moon, the moon delighted delights the Nakṣatras, the Nakṣatras delighted delight the months, the months delighted delight the half-months, the half-months delighted delight the days and nights, the days and nights delighted delight the seasons, the seasons delighted delight the year, the year delighted whatever is covered by the year. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (5.)

He delighted delights the ear, the ear delighted delights the quarters, the quarters delighted delight the intermediate quarters, the intermediate quarters what is covered by the intermediate quarters. Present, future, past, all that he delights, who knowing this eats and drinks and makes to eat and drink. He eats, he drinks, he delights, he causes delight. (6.)

« PreviousContinue »