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breath, the beam; thou canst not be fain to grasp it.' Then he should say to him, 'Breath, the beam, will forsake thee." Again, if he think him weak, he should say to him, 'Thou hast been fain to grasp breath, the beam. That thou hast not been able to grasp. Breath, the beam, will forsake thee.' But whatever, whether speaking or not,' he says to him, it is certain that it shall be accomplished. He should not, however, say anything save what is favourable to a Brāhmaṇa. Only in exceeding prosperity may he speak thus to a Brāhmaṇa. 'Not even in exceeding prosperity. Let there be honour to Brāhmaṇas,' says Sauravira Māṇḍūkeya. (9.)

Then follow the declarers of the Nirbhuja.2 The Nirbhuja rests on earth, the Pratṛṇna on heaven, the Ubhayamantareņa on the atmosphere. If a man who recites the Nirbhuja revile another, he should say to him, 'Thou hast offended earth, the deity; earth, the deity, will punish thee.' If a man who recites the Pratṛnna revile another, he should say to him, 'Thou hast offended heaven, the deity; heaven, the deity, will punish thee.' If a man who recites the Ubhayamantareṇa revile another, he should say thus to him, 'Thou hast offended the atmosphere, the deity; the atmosphere, the deity, will punish thee.' For when he manifests the Sandhi, that is the form of the Nirbhuja; when he utters the two syllables in their natural form, that is the form of the Pratṛṇna and the original; in the Ubhayamantarena both are included. He who desires proper food should recite the Nirbhuja; who desires heaven, the Pratṛṇņa; who desires both, the Ubhayamantareṇa. Again, if he who recites the Nirbhuja revile another, he

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1 i.e. whether he reviles or not.

2 Cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 1, 3, from which, as in the case of 8 and 9 above, there are considerable differences.

3 So Sayana on Aitareya, l.c., renders agra u, and it may be correct. The Rgveda Prātiśākhya, p. vi (ed. Max Müller), has :

samdher vivartanam nirbhujam vadanti śauddhākṣaroccāraṇam ca pratṛṇņam || 3 || ubhayamantarenobhayam vyāptam agre pare kāmā annanākobhayāḥ |

4 In the Aitareya these curses are only for reply, and the last sentence as to their being no possibility of blaming a reciter of the Ubhayamantarena is therefore in place; more so than here, where the reciter is active in cursing. In both 9 and 10 the reading bruvantam para for bruvan param renders the sense much simpler.

should say to him, 'Thou hast fallen from the two lower stations.' If he who recites the Pratṛṇna revile another, he should say to him, 'Thou hast fallen from the two higher places.' But for him who recites the Ubhayamantarena there is no rebuke possible. But whatever, whether speaking or not, he says to him, it is certain that it shall be accomplished. He should not, however, say anything save what is favourable to a Brāhmaṇa. Only in exceeding prosperity may he speak thus to a Brāhmaṇa. 'Not even in exceeding prosperity. Let there be honour to Brāhmaṇas,' says Sauravīra Māṇḍūkeya. (10.)

Then the reciters of the Nirbhuja1 say, 'The first syllable is the symbol of the former, the latter of the latter. That which is between the letters y and v is the union.' He who knows thus this union is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (11.)

"Then we say, "we are reciters of the Nirbhuja," says Hrasva Māṇḍūkeya, 'the first syllable is the symbol of the former, the latter of the latter. The mora between the former and latter forms, that by which one makes distinct 2 the Sandhi, that by which one distinguishes what is a mora and what is not, that by which one distinguishes accent from accent,3 that is the union.' He who knows thus this union is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (12.)

Then says his son Madhyama, the son of Prātibodhi, who lived in Magadha,* 'The first syllable is the symbol of the former, the latter of the latter. The mora which declares the

1 For 11-13, cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 1, 5.

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2 Here and above vivartayati is ambiguous. 'Produces' seems best; possibly separates,' distinguishes'; cf. Max Müller, Rgveda Prātiśākhya, p. vi.

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Accent and unaccented' in the Aitareya.

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The reference to Magadha denotes its somewhat unbrahminical character, and suggests that in the difficult passage, Aitareya Āranyaka, ii, 1, 1, there should be read Vanga-Magadhas Cerapādāḥ as names of the outcaste peoples, for the vangavagadhās of the MSS. For the question of these tribes, cf. Pargiter, J.R.A.S., 1908, pp. 851-3. For the confusion of v and m, cf. Bloomfield, J.A.O.S., xiii, p. xcvii, and Wackernagel, Altind. Gramm., i, 223, and cf. Atharva Veda, v, 22, 14.

Sandhi is the gliding. I recognise the gliding as the union.' That is declared in a Re:- 1

'Give us not up to those who, foes in ambuscade, are greedy for the wealth of him who sits at ease,

Who cherish in their heart abandonment of gods. Brhaspati, the Saman is the highest known.' 2

He who knows thus this union is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (13.)

'Speech is united with breath,' says Kauṇṭharavya,3 'breath with the blowing (air), the blowing (air) with the all-gods, the all-gods with the world of heaven, the world of heaven with Brahman. This is the progressive union.' He who knows thus this union, even so is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven, like this progressive union. If, at the instigation of another or for his own sake, he recites, then in reciting he should know The union has gone to heaven; of him who knows the gods, so will it be for his reciting.' This, indeed, is it by this progress. (14.)

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'The mother is the form of the former, the father of the latter. The child is the union,' says Bhargava. All that is declared to be one. For the mother and the father and the child are this all. This is the Aditi union. For Aditi is this all, whatever this universe is. This is declared in a Re:-5

'Aditi is the heaven, Aditi atmosphere, Aditi is the mother, the father, and the son,

Aditi is all gods, Aditi the five races, Aditi all that hath been born and shall be born.'

1 RV., ii, 23, 16; Geldner, Ved. Stud., iii, 68.

The latter part of the verse is artificially interpreted.

3 For 14-16, cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 1, 6. For Kauntharavya and Bhargava, see J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 371; a Bhargava occurs as Vaidarbhi in Praśna Upanisad, i, 1.

This is the most probable construction of this obscure text, though viduşo devan might be acc., 'to the knowing gods.' 5 RV., i, 89, 10 (adapted from Griffiths' trans.).

He who knows thus this union is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (15.)

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'The wife is the symbol of the former, the husband of the latter. The son is the union, the seed the joining, the begetting the joiner,' says Sthavira Sakalya. This is the Prajapati union. He who knows thus this union is increased 2 with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (16.)

Offspring is the symbol of the former, faith of the latter. Action is the union, truth the joiner,' says Kasyapa. This is the truth union. They say the gods are of true unions. He who knows thus this union is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (17.)

'Speech is the union,' says Pañcālacaṇḍa. By speech, indeed, the Vedas are united, by speech the metres, by speech he unites friends. When he studies or speaks, then breath is in speech, then speech absorbs breath. Again, when he sleeps or is silent, then speech is in breath, then breath absorbs speech; they absorb each other. This is declared in a Ṛc:-5

'One of these birds hath passed into the sea of air; thence he looks round and views this universal world.

With simple heart I have beheld him close at hand; his mother him absorbs, and her he too absorbs.'

Speech, indeed, is the mother, breath the child. He who knows thus this union is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days." (18.)

1 Samdhanam after samdhiḥ must be the agent, which persists in the result.

2 Prajayate here for the play on Prajāpati.

3 On raddha, cf. Ludwig, Rgveda, iii, 262-5; Oldenberg's article, Z.D.M.G., 1, 448; A.J.P., xvii, 408. It is more intellectual than the later Bhakti, but it is its lineal predecessor.

4 Cf. Atharva Veda, xi, 6, 19. 20; Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, i, 6, 7.

5 RV., x, 114, 4.

For 18, 19, cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, iii, 1, 6; for the Samans, Hillebrandt, Rom. Forsch., v, 316-20; Eggeling, S.B.E., xli, pp. xiv seq.

'The union is made by the symbol of Bṛhat and Rathantara,' says Tārkṣya. Speech, indeed, is the symbol of the Rathantara, breath of the Bṛhat. By both, indeed, is the union made, by speech and breath. For the sake of this Upanisad one watches cows for a year,' says Tārkṣya. For the sake of just this one watches cows for a year,' says Tarkṣya. He who knows thus this union is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (19.)

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Movement is the symbol of the former, stopping of the latter. Rest is the union,' says Jāratkārava Ārtabhāga.2 In this union there are united dhvamsis,3 nimeṣas, kāṣṭhās, seconds, minutes, hours, days and nights, half-months, months, seasons, and years. This union unites these times; time unites movement, stopping, and rest. By movement, stopping, and rest, all this is united. So far as regards the deities. Now as regards the self. The past is the symbol of the former, the future of the latter. The present is the union. This is the time union. This is declared in a Rc:- 4

'Great is that secret name, and far extending, whereby thou madest all present and future.

The light he loveth that was made aforetime, the five tribes whom he loveth well have entered.'

He who knows thus this union is united with children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (20.) Then follows the saying of Valisikhayani." There are, then,

1 In the Aitareya he is said to guard the cows, presumably a more primitive view than that which merely makes him the authority.

2 Cf. for him, Bṛhadaranyaka, iii, 2, 1.

3 Dhvamsi is a special term of this school, J.R.A.Ș., 1908, p. 373. The exact relations are unknown. In the Sankhāyana Śrauta Sutra, xiv, 81 and 82, the nimeșa is a tenth of a muhūrta (a thirtieth of a day) and a dhvamsi a tenth of a nimeșa. The words 'seconds. . hours' are kalāḥ kṣaṇāḥ muhurtāḥ. See Hopkins, J.A.O.S., xxiv, 13.

4 RV., x, 55, 2.

5 Cf., for the teaching, Aitareya Aranyaka, ii, 6. The name is new and late, and the teaching itself raises the question of the relation of this text to the Samkhya system, which recognises the tanmatras and the mixed character of the Mahabhūtas, see Garbe, Samkhya Philosophie, pp. 237, 239, and Deussen, Phil. of the Upanishads, pp. 193 seq. need not, however, assume that this passage is borrowed from the Sāmkhya. If Deussen exaggerates the certainty of the derivation from the Vedanta of that system, Garbe equally exaggerates the character of its revolt (op. cit.,

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