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For, bereft of intelligence, the feet could not make known any motion. Our mind has been somewhere else,' they say, we have not perceived motion. For, bereft of intelligence, no thought could be complete, nor what is to be known be known. (7.)

One should not seek to know speech, but the speaker one should know. One should not seek to know the odour, but the smeller one should know. One should not seek to know form, but the seer one should know. One should not wish to know sound, but the hearer one should know. One should not wish to know the savour of food, but the knower of the savour of food one should know. One should not seek to know the act, but the actor one should know. One should not seek to know pleasure and pain, but the knower of pleasure and pain one should know. One should not seek to know joy, dalliance, and offspring, but the knower of joy, dalliance, and offspring one should know. One should not desire to know motion, but the mover one should know. One should not desire to know the mind, but the thinker one should know. These ten rudimentary elements indeed depend on intelligence. The ten rudiments of intelligence depend on the elements. For if there were not the rudimentary elements there would not be the rudiments of intelligence, or if there were not the rudiments of intelligence there would not be the rudimentary elements, for from neither of the two by itself could any form be made. Nor again are they separate. Just as the rim of a chariot wheel is placed on the spokes, and the spokes are placed on the nave, so these rudimentary elements are placed upon the rudiments of intelligence, and the rudiments of intelligence are placed upon the breath. This breath is the intelligent self, joy,' unaging, immortal. It becomes not greater through a good deed, nor less through an evil deed. For him, indeed, it causes to do good deeds whom it desires to lead forth from these worlds. Him again it causes to do evil deeds whom it seeks to plunge below. This is the guardian of the world, the lord of the world, the ruler of the world; this is my soul; this let a man know. (8.)

1 Cowell's MS. D has anantaḥ, 'unending,' the usual variant. The use of the word in two quite different senses is strange, Deussen, Phil. of the Upanishads, p. 144, and the variant may be correct. In the Berlin MS. the da is added later.

2 The scholiast's recension has, 'whom he wishes to draw after him ; and whom he wishes to draw away from these worlds.'

Adhyāya VI. Now Gārgya Bālāki was famous as a student (of the Veda). He dwelt among the Uśīnaras, the Vasas 2 and Matsyas, the Kurus and the Pancālas, the Kāśis and the Videhas. He went up to Ajātasatru of Kāśi and said, “Let me expound Brahman(n.) to thee.' To him said Ajātasatru, ““ We give 3 thee a thousand (cows),” for that speech men run acclaiming, Janaka, Janaka.”' (1.)

(The spirit) in the sun, the great one; (the spirit) in the moon, food ; (the spirit) in the lightning, truth; (the spirit) in the thunder-cloud, sound; (the spirit) in the wind, Indra Vaikuņtha; (the spirit) in the ether, the full ; (the spirit) in fire, the irresistible; (the spirit) in the waters, splendour; as regards the deities (these 4 are the views as to Brahman of Bālāki and Janaka respectively). Then as regards the self. (The spirit) in the mirror, the reflection; (the spirit) in the shade, the double; (the spirit) in the echo, the life; (the spirit) in sound, death ; (the spirit) in sleep, Yama; (the spirit) in the body, Prajāpati ; (the spirit) in the right eye, (the self of speech ; (the spirit) in the left eye, (the self) of truth. (2.)

| This must be the sense of samspaştaḥ. Samsprştaḥ, the v.l. of Cowell's MS. A and the Anandāśrama, is not supported by my. MSS. See the parallel version in Brhadāranyaka Upanişad, ii, 1. This version omits the spirit in the quarters, but adds the spirits of thunder, echo, the right and the left eye, and prajñā, cf. Max Müller, S.B.E., i, 301. ? See J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 367.

3 I ascribe this to Janaka, vāci is the nimittasaptamā. I read ta iti with Cowell's MS. D and the Berlin and Bodleian MSS. Janaka's generosity takes people away from Ajātaśatru. If the words are given as Ajātaśatru's, as by Cowell (misunderstanding also Sankarānanda's view of the sense), it is difficult to give a good meaning. The Brhadāranyaka has a different and perhaps better reading as rendered by Böhtlingk, We give a hundred cows for this speech, and people come around, saying, “(A second) Janaka, (a second) Janaka.” So here Deussen has, 'I give you a thousand cows; when this is said, people come with the cry, etc. Cowell has, 'I give thee one thousand cows for those words of thine. Many are the persons who run hither (foolishly), crying, “Janaka, Janaka." Max Müller, ' For verily all people run away, saying, “Janaka (the king of Mithilā), is our father (patron)."

4 A quasi Anukramanī, found in the scholiast's recension as section 18. Cowell omits it in his translation and renumbers the next sections.

נגל

Bālāki said, 'I worship him as the spirit in the sun.' Ajātaśatru said to him, “Do not, do not make me talki of this. I worship him as the great one,? clothed in white, pre-eminent, the head of all beings.' He who worships him thus becomes pre-eminent, the head of all beings. (3.)

Bālāki said, “I worship him as the spirit in the moon.' Ajātasatru said to him, 'Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as the self 3 of food.' He who worships him thus becomes the self of food. (4.) Bālāki said, 'I worship him as the

the spirit in

the lightning.' Ajātaśatru said to him, “Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as the self of truth.'4 He who worships him thus becomes the self of truth. (5.)

Bālāki said, 'I worship him as the spirit in the thundercloud.' Ajātaśatru said to him, “Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as the self of sound.' He who worships him thus becomes the self of sound. (6.)

Bālāki 5 said, 'I worship him as the spirit in the wind.' Ajātasatru said to him, “Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as Indra Vaikuntha,' the invincible host.' He who worships him thus becomes a conqueror, unconquerable by others, conquering others. (7.)

1 Cowell renders, “talk proudly'; Deussen, “Thou shouldst not have called me to a discussion, or, following the reading of the scholiast, samavādayişthāḥ, “Thou shouldst not expect my agreement' (samavāda). The latter rendering is impossible, and the former unduly presses the sense of the negative aorist. • Do not challenge,' Max Müller, who points out that Ajātaśatru shows his knowledge by supplying the predicates. He does not, however, add the rewards, as Max Müller says, these being statements by the writer of the text. Eggeling suggests argue.'

? Read, of course, brhan pāņdaravāsāḥ ; brhat, though read even by Cowell and Max Müller, is nonsense, and t = n in most MSS. The scholiast's recension has brhan, so have the Berlin MS. (probably, but brhac in vi, 2) and Böhtlingk's ed. of the Brhadāranyaka. The secondary character of the Kauşītaki version appears in this definition, which in the prototype applies to the moon. Pāndara is the reading of the Berlin MS., and may be kept, as in the scholiast's recension and the Brhadāranyaka.

3 The scholiast's recension has, “As Soma, the king,' etc. Cf. vi, 19; Brhadaranyaka, ii, 1, 3. Probably these words should be read here as Deussen does, with Max Müller.

* That recension has, “the self of splendour' (read tejasa ātmā); so Max, Müller.

5 Sankarānanda's recension in some MSS. transposes sections 7 and 8.

Bālāki said, 'I worship him as the spirit in the ether.' Ajātasatru said to him, 'Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as the full and actionless ? Brahman(n.).' He who worships him thus is filled with children, health, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (8.)

Bālāki said, “I worship him as the spirit in fire. Ajātasatru said to him, “Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as the irresistible.' He who worships him thus becomes irresistible among others. (9.)

Bālāki said, “I worship him as the spirit in the waters.' Ajātasatru said to him, “Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as the self of splendour.'5 He who worships him thus becomes the self of splendour.

So far as regards the deities. Now as regards the self. (10.)

Bālāki said, 'I worship him as the spirit in the mirror.' Ajātasatru said to him, 'Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as the reflection. He who worships him thus, a reflection of him is born among his offspring, not a counterfeit. (11.)

Bālāki6 said, 'I worship him as the spirit in the shadow.' Ajātasatru said to him, 'Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as the second' and inseparable.' He who worships him thus obtains (his desire) from the double. For he becomes double. (12.)

Cf. Bșhadāraṇyaka, ii, 1,6, probably the earliest occurrence of the epithet. ? Çf. Deussen, Phil. of the Upanishads, p. 20, n. 3.

3 Śankarānanda has, is filled with children, cattle ; neither he himself nor his children die before their time.'

The scholiast's recension has anv eşa for anyeşu. All these clauses are not Ajātaśatru's as Cowell and Max Müller take them.

5 That recension has, “the self of a name' (nāmna ātmā); so Max Müller. 6 The scholiast's recension has these sections in the order 13, 14, 12, 16, 15.

That recension has, “as death,' etc., as in 14, ending neither he himself nor his children perish before their time.' Deussen's reading dvitīyān (apparently in Cowell's MSS. F, G, ,not in the scholiast) is probably correct; Max Müller renders with Sankarānanda, “from the second his wife).

7

Bālāki said, 'I worship him as the spirit in the echo.' Ajātasatru said to him, 'Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as life.' 1 He who worships him thus does not faint before his time. (13.)

Bālāki said, 'I worship him as the spirit? in sound.' Ajātasatru said to him, 'Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as death.'3 He who worships him thus does not die before his time. (14.)

Bālāki said, 'I worship him who sleeping moves 4 in a dream.' Ajātasatru said to him, “Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as King Yama. He who worships him thus, to him all this is subdued for his weal. (15.)

Bālāki said, 'I worship him as the spirit in the body.' Ajātaśatru said to him, 'Do not, do not, make me talk of this. I worship him as Prajāpati.' He who worships him thus is multiplied in children, cattle, glory, holiness, the world of heaven. He lives all his days. (16.)

Bālāki said, 'I worship him as the spirit in the right eye.' Ajātasatru said to him, 'Do not, do not, make me speak of this. I worship him as the self of speech, the self of fire, the self of light.' He who worships him thus becomes the self of all these. (17.)

Bālāki said, 'I worship him as the spirit in the left eye.' Ajātasatru said to him, 'Do not, do not, make me speak of this. I worship him as the self of truth, the self of the lightning, the self of splendour. He who worships him thus becomes the self of all these. (18.) ?

1 That recension has, 'as the second, etc., as in 12.

2 That recension has, who as sound follows the spirit.' So Max Müller, Nachrede,' Deussen.

3 That recension has, 'as life,' etc., as in 13, ending' neither he himself nor his children faint before their time.'

• That recension has, ‘I worship the intelligent self by which the sleeper moves in a dream.' So Max Müller. Whether the reading is svapnyayā (Cowell's MS. A, Anand., the Berlin and Bodleian MSS.) or svapnayā, the sense is the same, and Cowell's suggested svapnay ūcarati is unnecessary.

• That recension omits the rest as in vi, 8; so Max Müller.
6 The scholiast's recension has, of the name’; so Max Müller.

? The sections 3-18 in that recension are numbered 2–17, as the resumé in 2 occurs after 18 (17) joined on to 19 (18).

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