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Then on every month, on the night of new moon, let him adore the moon when it is seen in the west in the same manner, or let him throw towards it two blades of young grass, (saying), «That fair heart of mine resting in the moon in the sky, I deem myself to know. May I never weep for misfortune to my children.' His children 3 die not before him. This (is the rite) for one who has a son. Then follows that for one who has no son. Having recited the three verses, 4 Do thou wax great, be thou united,' May thy draughts, may my strengths be united,' "The drop which the Adityas make to swell,' he revolves round his right arm, (saying), “Increase not by our lives, children, and cattle; he who hates us and whom we hate, increase by his life, children, and cattle. So I turn the turning of Indra; so I re-turn the turning of Aditya.'5 (8.)

Then on the night of full moon, let him adore the moon when seen in the east 6 in the same manner, (saying), “Soma, the king, art thou, the wise, the five-mouthed, Prajāpati. The Brāhmaṇa is one of thy mouths. With that mouth thou dost eat kings. With that mouth make me an eater of food. The king is one of thy mouths. With that mouth thou eatest the folk. With that mouth make me an eater of food. The hawk is one of thy mouths. With that mouth thou eatest

1 The scholiast's recension reads only on,' omitting vrttāyām, which, however, need only mean “having come, as Deussen takes it.

2 In that recension is read he shoots his voice in a blade of grass. In the verse Deussen suggests susīme (voc.); Max Müller follows Sankarānanda in reading te susīmam hrdayam adhi candramasi śritam tenāmộtasyeśāne, as in iv, 10 ; cf. J.A.O.S., xiii, p. cxx.

3 I read pūrvă prajā. The plural is quite impossible in a case like this. So in iv, 10.

* RV., i, 91, 16 (=ix, 31, 4); 18; Taittiriya Samhitā, ii, 3, 5, 3; iv, 14, 1. Cf. also Atharva Veda, vii, 81, 6.

• i.e. the pradakşiņa, from west to east ; cf. Caland & Henry, L'Agniętoma, p. xxxvii. În iv, 9, from east to west, Varuņa being in the west. İndra's connection with the sun is noteworthy ; cf. Hillebrandt, Ved. Myth., iii, 158 seq. ; 207, n. 2; and for this passage, ibid., p. 280, n. 2 ; Caland, Een Indogerm. Lustratiegebruik, p. 10.

• In view of paścāt in iv, 8, this must be the sense. • In front,' Sarkarānanda followed by Cowell.

? This recurrent phrase in the Brāhmaṇa texts is a clear reference to the king's right of maintenance by the common people ; cf. Foy, Die Königliche Gewalt, p. 41.

birds. With that mouth make me an eater of food. The fire is one of thy mouths. With that mouth thou eatest this world. With that mouth make me an eater of food. In thyself is the fifth mouth. With that mouth thou eatest all creatures. With that mouth make me an eater of food. Do not diminish with our lives, children, and cattle; he who hates us and whom we hate, diminish with his life, children, and cattle. So I turn the turning of the gods. So I re-turn the turning of Aditya. So (saying), he revolves round his right arm. (9.)

Then, when he consorts? with his wife, let him touch her heart, (saying), 'What in thy fair heart rests within Prajāpati (the moon), through that, O mistress of immortality, mayst thou never weep for misfortune to thy children.' Her children die not before her. (10.)

Then, when coming back after absence, he should smell 3 the head of his son, (saying),4 "From each limb art thou born; from the heart thou dost spring; self indeed is thy name, son ;

live thou a hundred autumns, N. N.' So he utters his

‘Bes thou a stone; be an axe; be 6 gold indestructible; splendour indeed is thy name, son ;

live thou a hundred autumns, N. N.' So he utters his name. Then he embraces him (saying "), ‘ Even as Prajāpati embraced creatures for their

name.

As in iv, 8, we must reject Sankarānanda's version, adopted by Cowell, which ignores the reference to the moon's waxing and waning, and renders 'gladden (us)' and destroy (us)' or 'our enemy' respectively, a construction rendered impossible by the form of the relative clause alone. The difference in the ideas is remarkable, though not contradictory ; lives are instruments in the first case, objects of comparison in the second ; cf. Deussen, Phil. of the Upanishads, p. 218, n. 7; Sechzig Upanishad's, pp. 34, 35. For the destruction of the world, cf. Deussen, Phil. of the l'panishads, pp. 219 seq.

? Read probably samvisyan (fourth class from viś), or °vekşyan, as suggested by Ieussen. In the verse susīme may be voc., as Deussen takes it. The Berlin MS. has hrdayam. Sankarānanda mentions the v.l. manye 'ham mām tadvidvāmsam māham, and reads na hūsmāt ; cf. iv, 8.

3 See Hopkins, J.A.O.S., xxviii, 120-34, an amusing and important sketch. The scholiast's recension has omrset, a much inferior reading.

4 See reff. in Bloomfield, Vedic Concordance, p. 336. 5 Ibid., p. 126a.

6 Ibid., p. 10686. Solid,' Max Müller ; 'unscattered,' Deussen ; 'widely scattered,' Sankarānanda.

? Sankarānanda has, ‘he utters his name.'

safety, so do I embrace thee, N. N.' Then he mutters in his right ear, . To him, 0 bounteous one, O onrusher, giver’; O Indra,2 bestow the best riches,' in his left; 'Be not divided ; 3 be not troubled ; live a hundred autumns of life; O son, I smell thy head with thy name, N. N.'4 So (saying), let him thrice smell his head. (Saying), 'I low over thee with the lowing of kine,' thrice let him low over his head. (11.)

Then comes the dying round of the deities. This. Brahman (n.) shines forth when the fire blazes. Then it dies when the fire blazes not. Its splendour goes to the sun, its breath to the wind. This Brahman shines forth when the sun is seen. Then it dies when the sun is not seen. Its splendour goes to the moon, its breath to the wind. This Brahman shines forth when the moon is seen. Then it dies when the moon is not seen.

Its splendour goes to the lightning, its breath to the wind. This Brahman shines forth when the lightning flashes. Then it dies when the lightning flashes not. Its splendour goes to the quarters, its breath to the wind. All these deities indeed, having entered the wind, having died in the wind, die not. Therefore they arise again.

So much as regards the deities. Now as regards the self. (12.)

This Brahman(n.) shines forth when one speaks with speech. Then it dies when one does not speak. Its ? splendour goes to the eye, its breath to the breath. This Brahman shines forth when one sees with the eye. Then it dies when one sees not. Its splendour goes to the ear, its breath to the breath. This Brahman shines forth when one hears with the

1

Asme in RV., iii, 36, 10. 2 RV., ii, 21, 6.

3 Read bhetthā vyathişthāḥ, of which other readings are only misunderstandings, J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 388. Max Müller renders chetthāḥ, do not cut off (the line of our race).'

4 Sankarānanda takes asau as nom. But the sense requires a voc. ; see Whitney, J.A.0.S., xiii, p. lxxi. Cowell's text is here defective.

5 i.e. breath. For this parimara, cf. Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, viii, 28; Deussen, Phil. of the Upanishads, p. 108; Taittiriya Upanişad, iii, 10, 4.

6 As the abodes of wind. The scholiast's recension has actually vāyum, which Deussen prefers, and Max Müller renders.

. We need not read, with Deussen, tasyāḥ, for the identification is thorough.

ear.

Then it dies when one does not hear. Its splendour goes to the mind, its breath to the breath. This Brahman shines when one thinks by the mind. Then it dies when one does not think. Its splendour goes to the breath, its breath to the breath. All these deities indeed, having entered the breath, having died in the breath, die not. Therefore they arise again. Thus even if the two mountains, the south and the north, should advance against one who knows this eager to destroy him, they would destroy him not. But those who hate him and whom he himself hates die round him. (13.)

Then follows the gaining of pre-eminence. These deities, disputing on their pre-eminence, went forth from this body. Then it lay, without breath, dry, a mere log. Then speech entered it, and it spoke, but still lay. Then the eye entered it, but it lay, speaking with speech, seeing with the eye. Then the ear entered it, but it lay, speaking with speech, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear. Then mind entered it, but it lay, speaking with speech, seeing with the eye, hearing with the ear, thinking with mind. Then breath entered it. Then it arose.

Then all the deities, recognising the superiority of breath, having entered into breath, the intellectual self, went forth from the body with all these 4 (organs). They entered into the wind, and, identified with the ether, went to heaven.

Even SO

a man who knows this, recognising the pre-eminence of breath, having entered into breath, the intellectual self, goes forth from the body with all these (organs). He enters into the wind, and, identified with the ether, goes to heaven. He goes then where the gods

As the gods became immortal, so does he become immortal who knows this. (14.)

1 Written in the Madhyadeśa, but we need not suppose, with Weber, Ind. Stud., i, 408, before the South was known. Cf. on Äitareya Āranyaka, ii, 1, 1.

? Cf. v, 3; ix; Brhadāranyaka Upanişad, vi, 2, 7-15; Chăndogya Upanişad, v, 1, 6-12; Aitareya Aranyaka, ii, 1, 4; 4,3 ; Praśna Upanişad, ii, 2-4 ; Deussen, Phil. of the Upanishads, pp. 104, 105.

I agree with his estimate of the place of the Kausītaki, but not of the Aitareya.

3. This is the sense of abhisambhū, not 'honoured,' as Cowell ; 'comprehended,' Max Müller. Sankarānanda has vāyupratişthāḥ. 4 Scil

. indriyaiḥ, over which the deities preside ;' the five Prāņas, Sankarānanda, Deussen, and Max Müller.

are.

says the father.

6

Then follows the tradition from father to son. Thus do they set it forth. The father, when about to die, calls for his son.

After strewing the house with fresh grass, and laying the fire, and placing a pot of water with a jar (of rice), he lies clothed in a new garment.

The son

comes and approaches him from above, having touched all his organs with his own. Or he may perform the tradition for his son) seated in front of him. “My speech I will place in thee,'

Thy speech I place in me,' says the son. 'My breath 1 I will place in thee,' says the father.

• Thy breath I place in me,' says the son. * Mine eye I will place in thee,' says the father. • Thine eye I place in me,' says the son.

Mine ear I will place in thee,' says the father. • Thine ear I place in me,' says the son. • My savour of food I will place in thee,' says the father. “Thy savour of food I place in me,' says the son. “My deeds I will place in thee,' says the father. “Thy deeds I place in me,' says the son. . My good and evil hap I will place in thee,' says the father. * Thy good and evil hap I place in me,' says the son.

“My joy, dalliance, and offspring I will place in thee,' says the father. “Thy joy, dalliance, and offspring I place in me,' says the son. “My going I will place in thee,' says the father. Thy going I place in me,' says the son. “My mind? I will place in thee,' says the father. • Thy mind I place in me,' says the

• Mine intelligence I will place in thee,' says the father. * Thine intelligence I place in me,' says the son. If then he should be very ill, he should speak summarily. “My breaths I will place in thee,' says the father. Thy breaths I place in me,' says the son. Then, after going round his father with his right side towards him, he departs. His father cries after him, 'May glory, holiness, suitable food, and fame attend thee.' Then the other looks back over his left shoulder hiding (his face) with his hand or covering it with the hem of his

son.

i No doubt in the sense of smell.' Ghrānam is possible. For the whole, cf. Bịhadāranyaka Upaņișad, i, 5, 25 seq. (= 17 seq. K.).

2 The scholiast's recension reads dhiyo vijñātavyam kāmān (as in iii, 7), and omits the rest down to atha. That recension also makes the father approach the son, while Cowell's MS. A adds after ' deeds?the body.'

3 Omitted in Cowell's text.

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