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(bars) at the head' (and foot); Bịhad and Rathantara are the (bars) across; the Ķc verses and the Sāmans the cords 2 running east (and west); the Yajus verses the cords across; the rays of the moon are the cushion ; the Udgītha the support 3; prosperity the pillow. Thereon sits Brahman. The knower first mounts on it with one foot. Brahman asks him, “Who art thou ?' To him let him reply. (5.)

'I am the season, of the season, born of the ether as womb, as seed from wife,4 the glory of the year, the soul of all that has been. Thou art the soul of all that has been. What thou art, that am I.' He says to him, “Who am I?' Truth,' let him say. “What is truth?' "That which is other than the gods and the breaths, that is being (sat); the gods and the breaths are that (tyam). This is called by the (one 5) word “truth” (sattyam). Such is all this; all this art thou.'

The indestructible, which has the Yajus as belly, the

Brahman, the Rși, composed of Brahman, the great one.' 6

He says to him, 'How dost thou obtain my male names ? ' By breath,' he should reply. “How female names ?' •By

1 Šīrşanye is the usual brachylogy of 'head (and feet),' I think. So Max Müller, with Cowell. Max Müller takes irā as earth.

? So probably tantu, being used in Atharva, xv, 3, 6. •Cornices,' Cowell with Sankarānanda; ‘Längsborten' and 'Querborten,' Deussen; ‘Aufzug and · Einschlag,' Weber ; "sheets,' Max Müller.

3 I read uparaśrayaḥ (udgithop', an irregular Sandhi). The upaśrīḥ of the scholiast, though accepted by Max Müller and Whitney (on Atharva, xv, 3, 8), is merely a dittograph of srir following. Cowell's udgitho 'paras ca yaḥ with his MSS. and my Berlin and Bodleian MSS. is a corruption of an unknown word. Possibly upaśrayaḥ, as in Atharva, 1.c., may be correct. The rendering given is Whitney's'; coverlet,' Cowell, Deussen, Max Müller, Weber, and Lexx. Cf. v, 1.

4 Bhāryāyai is supported by my MSS., and must be right; bhāyai of Sankarānanda is impossible. The version above agrees with that of Cowell and Deussen in substance. Max Müller has sprung from the womb of endless space, from the light (from the luminous Brahman). The light, the origin of the year, which is the past, which is the present, which is all living things, and all elements is the Self, but despairs of the original reading, unnecessarily it seems, for bhāyai is an easy error for bhāryāyai, and the other variant etat not difficult for retas.

5 The Berlin MS. actually has ekayā.

6 Not in Bloomfield, Vedic Concordance. Yajādaraḥ is noteworthy and early in character.

speech.' How neuter (names) ?' 'By mind.' 'How scents ? ' By smell.'1 'How forms?' 'By the eye.' 'How sounds ?' By the ear.' 'How the savour of food ?' 'By the tongue.' How actions?' 'By the hands. “How pleasure and pain ?' * By the body.' 'How joy, dalliance, offspring ?' 'By the organ of generation.' 'How moving?' 'By the feet.' 'How thoughts, what is to be known, desires ?' 'By intelligence alone,' he should reply. To him he says, “The waters indeed are my world, this is thine.' What victory, what success, Brahman has, he wins that victory, he attains that success, who knows this. (7.)

Adhyāya IV. • Breath is Brahman,' says Kausītaki. Of this breath which is Brahman the mind is the messenger, the eye the protector, the ear the proclaimer, speech the tirewoman. He who knows mind as the messenger of this breath which is Brahman becomes possessed of the messenger, eye as the protector becomes possessed of the protector, ear as the proclaimer becomes possessed of the proclaimer, speech as the tirewoman becomes possessed of the tirewoman. To this breath which is Brahman all these deities, unasked, pay homage; so to him who knows this all beings, unasked, pay homage. His secret rule 2 is, “One must not beg. Just as one having begged through a village without getting anything sits down, (saying), ‘I would not eat anything given from this (place),' then those who formerly refused him invite him, thus is the rule of him who begs not. The givers of food invite him, (saying), 'We give' (1.)

• Breath is Brahman,' so says Paingya. Of this breath which

i Prāna and ghrāna are so alike in Devanāgarī that one need have little hesitation in accepting here ghrāna with Cowell's MS. A, the Berlin and Bodleian MSS., though prāna could mean 'smell,' and frequently is used decisively in that sense, especially when a verbal form of prān is used. Sankarānanda adds (so Weber, but not Anquetil) after the eye, touch and the skin.

2 Such a use is decidedly against Oldenberg's theory of the meaning of upanişad as 'worship.' Čf. Deussen, Phil. of the Upanishads, p. 13, and see Oldenberg's articles, Z.D.M.G., 1, 457, and liv, 70. Pariveştri is rendered housekeeper' by Max Müller; waitress' by Deussen.

is Brahman after speech the eye envelops ; after the eye the ear envelops ; after the ear the mind envelops ; after the mind breath envelops. To this breath which is Brahman all these deities, unasked, pay homage; so to him who knows this all beings, unasked, pay homage. His secret rule is, ' One must not beg.' Just as one having begged through a village without getting anything sits down, (saying), ‘I would not eat anything given from this (place),' then those who formerly refused him invite him, thus is the rule of him who begs not. The givers of food invite him, (saying), “We give. (2.)

Then follows the obtaining of a choice portion of wealth. If a man desire a choice portion of wealth, on the night of full or new moon or in the bright fortnight under an auspicious Nakşatra, on one of these seasons, he places the fire, sweeps round, scatters (grass) about, sprinkles (water), purifies (the ghee), and bending his right knee offers oblations of ghee with a ladle. The deity, speech by name, is the obtainer. May she obtain this for me from N. N. To her svāhà. The deity, smell 4 by name, is the obtainer. May he obtain this for me from N. N. To him svāhā. The deity, the eye by name, is the obtainer. May it obtain this for me from N. N. To it svāhā. The deity, the ear by name, is the obtainer. May it obtain this for me from N. N. To it srāhā. The deity, mind by name, is the obtainer. May it obtain this for me from N. N. To it svāhā. The deity, intelligence by name, is the obtainer. May she obtain this for me from N. N. To her sráhā.' Then, having inhaled the fragrance of the smoke, and having anointed his limbs with ghee, he should go forth, restraining his speech, and declare his desire to the man in question), or send a messenger. He then obtains it. (3.)

1 This appears the best rendering of the somewhat doubtful text, ārundhate being a 3rd sing. from a by-form of rudh. The reading of Sankarānanda and Max Müller, ārundhe, may be dismissed as a facile conjecture, and Cowell's conjecture, ārudhyate, is not necessary. For the sense, cf. Taittirīya Upanişad, ii. Max Müller renders 'stands firm behind,' and reads śrotraparastāt, which, though not essential, is very probable.

? The absence of vă after nakșatre suggests three seasons (parvan), each to have an auspicious Nakşatra. Sankarānanda thinks there are four, the dark half being a vikalpa ! Cowell gives four, Deussen three.

3 Omitted by accident in Cowell's text. Sankarānanda's recension has with a ladle, camasa, or kamsa. Cf. Brhadāranyaka Upanişad, vi, 3; infra, xii, 8, for the ritual.

4 Possibly ghrūno should be read, the unusual gender helping the alteration to prāno. Similarly, in iv, 4.

Then follows the divine desire. If a man desire to be dear to any man or woman, or men or women, on one of these seasons, he places a fire and offers in the same manner oblations of ghee. “Thy speech I offer in myself here, sráha. Thy smell I offer in myself here, svāhā. Thine eye I offer in myself here, stáhā. Thine ear I offer in myself here, svāhā. Thy mind I offer in myself here, svāhā. Thine intelligence I offer in myself here, scāhā.' Then, having inhaled the fragrance of the smoke, and having anointed his limbs with ghee, he should go forth, restraining his speech, and should seek to place himself in contact (with the object of his desire), or should stand in his wind addressing him. He indeed becomes beloved ; of him they have desire. (4.)

Then follows the restraint of Pratardana.? They call it the inner Agnihotra. So long as a man speaks, so long he cannot breathe. Then he offers breath in speech. So long as a man breathes, so long he cannot speak. Then he offers speech in breath. These eternal, immortal, oblations he ever offers, awake or asleep. Again, other oblations are not eternal, for they are compact of action. Therefore ancient sages did not offer the (ordinary) Agnihotra. (5.)

The hymn is Brahman,' so says Suşkabhạngāra. Let him worship it as Řc. All beings, indeed, are won by worship 3 for his excellence. Let him worship it as Yajus. All beings indeed, are yoked to him for his excellence. Let him worship it as Sāman. All beings, indeed, bow to him for his excellence. Let him worship it as prosperity. Let him worship it as glory. Let him worship it as splendour. Just as it is among the Sastras ! the most prosperous, glorious, and splendid, so among all creatures he who knows this becomes the most prosperous, glorious, and splendid. The Adhvaryu prepares the self to be connected with sacrifice 2 and compact of work. In it he weaves what is compact of the Yajus. In what is compact of the Yajus, the Hoţr weaves what is compact of the Ķc; in what is compact of the Ķc, the Udgātr weaves what is compact of the Sāman. He is the soul of the threefold knowledge; he is the soul of Indra,; who knows this. (6.)

This and the next chapter are curious examples of sympathetic magic, of which the Vedic ritual is so full. Cf. Caland, Altindisches Zauberritual;

2 Cf. Kausītaki Brāhmana, xxvi, 5, for him as a teacher. The similarity of 1 Cor. x, 31, cited by Deussen is not obvious.

3 Sankarānanda renders as active, and so Cowell ; Zujauchzen gemacht, Deussen ; 'will praise him, Max Müller, who renders also below * will join before him.' The Berlin MS. has abhyarcante.

Then follow the three meditations of Sarvajit 4 Kausītaki. Sarvajit Kausītaki adores the rising sun, having put on the sacrificial thread, and having brought water, and having thrice sprinkled the cup of water, (saying), “Thou art the scatterer ; scatter away my sins. In the same manner (he adores him) at the zenith, (saying), “Thou art the utter scatterer; utterly scatter away my sins. In the same manner (he adores him) at his setting, (saying), Thou art the complete scatterer; completely scatter away my sins.' Thus, whatever evil by day or night he does, this he scatters completely. Therefore, he who knows this in this manner adores the sun. Whatever evil he does by day or night, this he scatters completely. (7.)

[Weapon,' Sankarānanda, followed by Cowell, and Max Müller, forgetting that the Aranyaka treats of this very Sastra. Cf. Eggeling, S.B.E., xli, p. xiv.

? Sankarānanda reads and translates aiştakam ; hence Cowell's version, 'connected with the sacrificial bricks. For the sense, cf. i, 1; Aitareya Āranyaka, ii, 1-3; Deussen, Allgem. Gesch. der Phil., i, 328.

3 Max Müller takes this differently. He translates above, conceives the fire of the altar, which is used for the sacrifice, to be himself. In it he (the Adhvaryu) weaves,' and adopts the text of Sankarānanda's recension, slightly modified, sa eşa sarvasyai trayyai vidyāyā ātmā, eşa u evāsyātmā. Etadātmā bhavati ya evam veda, He (the Adhvaryu or prāna) is the self of the threefold knowledge ; he indeed is the self of it (of prāņa). He who knows this is the self of it (becomes prāna).' Sankarānanda himself takes asya as uktāyās trayyai.

4 I think this must be a proper name, though Sankarānanda does not so take it, and is followed by Cowell, Max Müller, and Deussen. But see Weber, Ind. Stud., i, 404. The use of the sacrificial cord is noteworthy ; Max Müller compares Taittiriya Brāhmaṇa, iii, 10, 9, 12. For varga, cf. Hillebrandt, Ved. Myth., iii, 271.

5 Omitted in Anand. ed.' Akarot is curious ; see p. xiv.

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