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(Sastra). (The strophe) contains the word 'great' because of the occurrence 1 of 'we choose.' (The Sastra) has the word * great,' for this day is described as "great.' "To-day, god Savitr' is the antistrophe. It contains the word "great' because of the occurrence of the words ‘May we win all good things.' (The Sastra) has the word 'great,' for this day is described as 'great.' That desirable greatness of the god Savitr' is a Savit; hymn. It has the word “great,' for this day is described as 'great. They, heaven and earth, all propitious,' is a hymn 4 to heaven and earth. (The verse 5) • Widely-capacious, great, never-failing,' contains the word • great,' for this day is described as 'great.' Why has the best, why has the youngest, come to us,' is a hymn to the Ķbhus. (The verse) We blame not the bowl of great birth contains the word 'great,' for this day is described as “great.' 'Of the aged, grey-haired Hotr,' is the · Water' hymn, addressed to the All-gods. For that is the water of the gods. He places a Nivid in the (hymn) of the one-day rite. The one-day (rite) is support, so that support is won. The (hymn of the) one-day rite is addressed to Vaiśvānara. The one-day (rite) is support, so that support is won. 'The Maruts rushing onwards with gleaming lances,' is a hymn to the Maruts. (The hymn) contains the words mighty' and 'great' in ‘Ye great ones, mightily and wide ye rule,' for this day is described as great. Of a truth the fair refulgence was established' is a hymn 10 to Jātavedas. The last (verse), “With hymns of might hath Agni now been praised,' contains the word 'hymn.' That is the symbol of this day. These are the hymns of the Āgnimāruta (Sastra).

These are the hymns of this day. So ends the Agnistoma. 11 Brahman(n.) is the Agnistoma. Brahman is this day. So they place Brahman in Brahman. They obtain immortality who observe (the ritual of) this day. (18.)

1 The sense seems to be that vrnīmahe gives mah, as dhimahi below. 2 RV., v, 82, 4-6.

3 RV., iv, 53, 1. 4 RV., i, 160.

5 RV., i, 160, 2. 6 RV., i, 161.

9 RV., i, 164, 1. 8 RV., iii, 3. 9 RV., v, 55, 1.

10 RV., i, 141, 1. 11 Cf. Aitareya Āranyaka, v, 3, 2 fin. The Agniştoma is the Prakrti of the Mahāvrata.

Adhyāya III. Citra Gāngyāyani,' being about to sacrifice, chose Āruņi (as the priest). He sent his son, Svetaketu, saying, “Perform the sacrifice. Him when he had arrived (the King) addressed, * Thou art the son of Gautama. Is there a secret place in the world where thou wilt set me, or is there any road and wilt thou set me in the world to which that road leads ?' He said, 'I do not know that. I will ask my teacher.' Going to his father he asked him, saying, “Thus did he question me. How shall I reply?' He replied, 'I also do not know that; we will learn in his house and gain the knowledge, for even others give to us. Come, we will both go. With fuel in his hand he went to Citra Gāngyāyani, saying, “Let me approach thee.' He said to him, “Thou art fit to receive the knowledge of Brahman,3 since thou hast not been proud. Come, I will instruct thee.' (1.)

He said : Those who depart from this world all go to the moon. Their breaths swell the first fortnight (of the moon); in the second it brings them to birth again. The moon is also the door of the world of heaven. Him who can answer, it sends

1 More likely than the obvious v.l. Gārgyāyani of Sankarānanda's recension.

2 The question is vague and mysterious. Yasya and anyataro, suggested by Max Müller, would be easier, but mystery is in place, and too much need not be made of it. Deussen paraphrases it satisfactorily as 'Is there any end of transmigration, and will you set me on the path to it?' Sankarănanda's recension has the very unsatisfactory anyam utāho for anyatamo, and renders vādhvā as baddhvă, contrasting a secret with a non-secret place. Max Müller renders ‘Is there a hidden place . .. or is it the other way. Böhtlingk, Ber. d. süchs. Ges. d. Wiss., xlii, 198, adopts practically the same view as Deussen does.

3 Deussen reads agraņār for grāhī; Sankarānanda has brahmārghaḥ, but the text, if less easy, is certain.

4 Gladdens them not,' in Sankarānanda's version. Max Müller's conjecture apara pakşe is not necessary.

5 I follow Deussen. The moon is the centre of the Devayāna and Pitryāna, and sends on the one who can reply. Sankarānanda, Cowell, Max Müller, take pratyāha as "reject. For the theory, cf. Brhadāraṇyaka Upanişad, vi, 1= 2 K.); Chāndogya Upanişad, v, 3-10 ; and Deussen, Sechzig Upanishad's, pp. 137-40, with whose view of the priority of these two Upanişads to the Kausītaki I agree. Max Müller recognises two classes : the former, which rejects the moon and is set free at once ; the latter, which rejects Svarga, and is then set free, but the sense 'set free' is hardly to be got out of atisrjate. It means 'sends on.'

on; him who answers it not, it rains down on earth, becoming itself rain. He is born on earth as a worm, or a grasshopper, or a fish, or a bird, or a lion, or a boar, or a snake (?),' or a tiger, or a man, or another creature, in one or other station according to his deeds and his knowledge. Him, when he has arrived, it asks, “Who art thou ?' To it should he reply,? * From the light I came as seed, O seasons, from that produced as the fifteen-fold fatherland. In the man as creator ye placed me, and by man as creator impregnated the mother. I am born and again born as the twelve-month (year) and the thirteen-month (year), from the twelve-fold, the thirteen-fold father. I know this and I recognise this. Then do ye bear

i Paraśvān. Sankarānanda has dandaśūkavišeşaḥ vāśabdūd vrścikādiḥ, Böhtlingk's Dict. compares parasvant, 'wild ass' (Atharva Veda, Paipp.); ‘Beisstier,' Deussen ; 'dog,' Weber, Ind. Stud., i, 396.

2 What follows is in verse, and as it has been much misunderstood (even in Bloomfield's Vedic Concordance) I give the text as I restore it

vicakşaņād ştavo reta ābhrtam pancadaśāt prasūtät pitryāvatas |
tan pumsi kartary erayadhvam pumsā kartrā mātari māsişiñca || 1 |||
sa jāyamāna upajāyamāno dvādaśatrayodasopamāsaḥ |
dvādasatrayodas'ena pitrā sam tad vide 'ham prati tad vide 'ham

tan martavo 'mrtyava ābharadhvam || 2 || I keep erayadhvam ; Deussen suggests airayadhvam, but the augment is not needed. For the nişim ca of the ordinary recension (including the Berlin and Bodleian MSS.), or the māsişikta of Sankarānanda's recension, adopted by Deussen, I read -āsişiñca as 2nd plur. perf. with strong form (Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, p. 284) metri causa. Bloomfield, p. 588a, conjectures nişiñcata, but this would hardly have been corrupted, and the conjecture ignores the fact that, though the first two Pādas are in Jagatī, the third and presumably the fourth are in Triştubh. The verse occurs in Jaminīya Brāhmaṇa, i, 18; 50, where tam pumsi is, of course, palæographically the same as tan, which (=retas) I prefer, and the last Pāda reads pumsaḥ kartur mātary ăsişikta, also a Triştubh. In v. 2 jāyamāna is Deussen's certain restoration for jāya (Berlin reads jāyamānaḥ, only showing how easy the omission was). For dvādaśatrayodasopamāsaḥ, Cowell's MS. A, Berlin and Bodleian MSS. have dvādaśatrayodašo māsah, Sankarānanda's recension otrayodaśa upamāsaḥ, which gives perhaps the pronunciation of the real text, though it is much more probably düū, as in Pāda 3. I read sam, not āsam, and metri causa begin a new Pāda with it; vide I recognise as a yerbal form, not an infinitive. In his version Cowell accepts one view of Sankarānanda that rtavaḥ is in the first verse abl., in the second acc., and that vide is infin., āsam, 'I was.' Deussen takes the other view of Sankarānanda in the first case, in both cases rightly, of rtavaḥ as voc., but adheres to āsam, vide as infin., and reads mrtyave for amrtyave, which is unnecessary, since we need not take the verb as imperfect. His martavo for the archaic ma rtavo I have accepted metri causa. The Berlin MS. in a correction reads ārabhadhvam, like Anand. MS. Gh. Max Müller agrees with Cowell, and both render the first two second persons as if third persons. Anand. has nişikta. Cf. J.A.O.S., xix, 118.

me, seasons, to deathlessness. By that truth, that penance, I am the season of the seasons. “Who art thou ?' 'I am thou.' He then sends him on. (2.)

He having reached the road of the gods arrives at the world of Agni, then at the world of Vāyu, the world of Varuņa, the world of Indra, the world of Prajāpati, the world of Brahman.? Of that world 3 is the lake Āra (of enemies), the moments Yeştiha (which destroy the sacrifice 4), the Vijarā (unaging) river, the Ilya 5 tree, the Sālajya 6 city, the Aparājita (unconquerable) palace, Indra and Prajāpati the doorkeepers, the hall Vibhu, the throne Vicakṣaṇā, the couch Amitaujas (of unsurpassed splendour), the dear Mānasi (spirit of mind), her peer Cākṣușī (spirit of the eye), who weave the worlds holding flowers in their hands, the Apsarases, Ambā 8 and Ambāyavī, and the streams Ambayāḥ. The knower advances to that world. Brahman says of him, “Run to meet him with the glory due to me. He has won the unaging river. He shall never grow old. (3.)

1. Who am I? Who art thou ?' in Sarkarānanda's recension. The father and son are both here identified with the year of twelve or thirteen months (upamāsa is curious and refers to the intercalary month). The question "Who art thou ?' is probably the moon's (so all the translators). It might be rhetorical, and the omission of iti is doubtful ; see Synt. Forsch., v, 533 ; Eggeling, S.B.E., xliv, 61, 355.

? We need not doubt the personal Brahman anywhere in this Upanişad. On the other hand, neither the Aitareya Brāhmaṇa nor Aranyaka, i-iii, know him ; cf. von Schroeder, Ind. Lit., p. 91.

3 Cf. Chăndogya Upanişad, viii, 5, 3, where occur the Somasavana tree, the Aparājitā city, the Prabhuvimita, and the Airammadīya lake, the Ara and Ņya seas, etc., and Weber, Ind. Stud., i, 398, 399.

4 This is Weber's rendering, taking yești from yaj. It is admittedly conjectural, but yești is read in Cowell's MSS, and the Berlin MS., and is probably correct.

5 Sankarānanda derives it from ilā, so evidently read ilya, not ilpa. Deussen accepts this. Cf. Hillebrandt, Ved. Myth., iii, 312, n. 3.

6 · Protected by bow-strings thick as Sāl trees,' Deussen with Sankarānanda.

7 āvayato (not 'tau as Sankarānanda) and probably caiva for vai ca should be read. For jagāni, a vox nihili, read jaganti, an easy corruption, as the į is easily confused with an ā-i. Below Deussen joins 'with my glory' with the following words, but this is against their place in the sentence.

8 Weber, p. 183, has ambāyavāh, like Ānand. MS. Gh. The form is irregular, and may be an error for ambüyavīḥ. The exact sense of these expressions must remain in doubt, but probably they are all variants of 'mother,' Böhtlingk's Dict., s.vv.

Five hundred Apsarases advance towards him, a hundred with fruit? in their hands, a hundred with unguents, a hundred with garlands, a hundred with garments, a hundred with aromatic powders. Him they adorn with the ornaments of Brahman. He, adorned with the ornaments of Brahman, knowing Brahman, advances to Brahman(n.). He arrives at the lake of enemies. He crosses it by his mind. Men who know but the present, on coming to it, are overwhelmed. He arrives at the moments which destroy the sacrifice. They flee from him. He arrives at the unaging river. He crosses it by his mind alone. His good deeds and his evil deeds then shake themselves off. His dear relatives obtain his good deeds, his enemies his bad. Just as a man driving on a chariot may look down at the wheels of the chariot, so may he look down at day and night, good deeds and evil deeds, and all opposites. He, severed from good, severed from evil deeds, knowing Brahman, advances to Brahman(n.). (4.)

He arrives at the Ilya tree. The odour of Brahman reaches him. He arrives at the Sālajya city. The savour of Brahman reaches him. He arrives at the unconquerable palace. The splendour of Brahman reaches him. He arrives at Indra and Prajāpati, the doorkeepers. They flee from him. He arrives at the hall Vibhu. The glory of Brahman reaches him. He arrives at the throne Vicakşaņā. The Sāmans, Brhad and Rathantara, are its eastern 3 feet; Syaita and Naudhasa its western feet; Vairūpa and Vairāja the sides south and north; sākvara and Raivata the sides east and west. It is knowledge, for by knowledge he discerns. He arrives at the couch of unsurpassed splendour. It is breath. The past and the future are its eastern feet; prosperity and food its western feet; (the Sāmans) Bhadra and Yajñāyajñīya are the

i Sankarānanda's recension has phana, ornaments,' a mere misreading.

2 Read dhunvāte, which alone accounts for the variants dhunutevā, dhunvate, dhunuvõte, J.R.A.S., 1908, p. 388.

3 These expressions are taken with Sankarānanda, Cowell, and Max Müller, as local, not merely front, etc., though the two would coincide. I read tiraścye, see Whitney on Atharva Veda, xv, 3, 5. Cf. also Aitareya Brāhmaṇa, viii, 12; Jaiminiya Brāhmaṇa, ii, 24. In Lătyāyana Srauta Sūtra, iii, 12, 2, anūcī and tiraścī are read. Cf. Weber, Ind. Stud., i, 401 ; Aufrecht, ibid., pp. 122 seq.

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