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Brāhmaṇa for it has been set forth already. The hymn1 is 'Who alone of mortals deserves oblation.' He recites it by Pādas. Taking out the second verse of it, he puts in as second (verse) the second (verse) of the hymn,2 All my other friends have come.' Thus he interweaves the two sides to prevent them separating. Therefore he performs all actions by (the use of) both sides. (4.)

Then he recites the hand (verses). They indeed are three. These are the joints of his hand. These he unites by those. The first is in an excessive metre. This is the thumb. So the thumb approaches all the fingers. The right side has the Rathantara, the left the Bṛhat, and the Brāhmaṇa for it has been set forth. These two sides, with Bṛhat and Rathantara, are of twenty-four parts. Twenty-four are the half-months of the year, so that the year is made up. (5.)


Then he recites the Caturuttara (verses). They are the spine. They are twenty-one verses. Twenty-one indeed are the joints * of the spine. These he unites by those. They make up seven Trcas. Seven indeed are the metres, so that all the metres are made up. They have the word 'hymn.' That is the symbol of this day. (6.)

Then he recites the (sets of) eighty verses. He recites them in correspondence with the Stotra verses, Gayatri (corresponding to) Gayatra, Uṣṇih and Bṛhati (sets) to Bṛhad and Rathantara. The Gayatri (set) is the right side, the Usnih the left, the Bṛhati the middle. In the middle indeed of the body is food deposited. Between the two Triṣṭubhs there is a Triṣṭubh in a Nivid. They belong to Viśvāmitra, are corresponding, and have the word 'hymn.' For Viśvāmitra was the seer of that (hymn). The strophes contain the word 'great,' and they have the word 'magnify.' It (the hymn) has the word 'magnified'

1 RV., vi, 22. See Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa, xxv, 5; 6.

2 RV., x, 28.

3 Hoernle, Osteology, p. 36.

• Possibly this means, as in Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, xii, 2, 4, 12 (Hoernle, Osteology, p. 106), the twenty transverse processes of the abdominal portion of the spine (udara), but the word is anūka and the number there is thirty-two, the spine itself in either case making the odd figure.

5 RV., iii, 31, 9 and 11; Śrauta Sūtra, xviii, 9, 4–7.

6 Read vṛdhavatyaḥ, etc., not vṛddha. For Viśvāmitra, cf. Kauṣitaki Brāhmaṇa, xxviii, 2.

and the word 'great.' It has the word 'great,' for this day is described as great.' (7.)



'Great Indra, who by might,' and 'is magnified by Vatsa's lauds' with this verse he commences the Gayatri (set of) eighty (verses). It (the verse) contains both the words 'great' and 'magnify.' It (the litany) has the words 'great' and 'magnified.' It has the word 'great,' for this day is described as great.' (8.)


'What joys thou didst bring, Indra,' and 'his praises magnify, great one': with this verse 2 he begins the Bṛhati (set of) eighty (verses). It (the verse) contains both the words 'great' and 'magnify.' It (the hymn) has the words 'great' and 'magnify.' It has the word 'great,' for this day is described as 'great.' 'May this delightful (Soma) for thee' and ‘Hither, with thy bay steeds, Indra,' are the two hymns.3 (The reason) why he recites them at the end is that he may commence the Uṣṇih (set of) eighty verses (after concluding) with perfect Bṛhatīs. (9.)



Indra in the poured libations,' and 'He gains the power that magnifies; for he is great' with this verse he begins the Usnih (set of) eighty verses. It (the verse) contains both the words 'great' and 'magnify.' It (the hymn) has the words 'great' and 'magnify.' It has the word 'great,' for this day is described as 'great.' These sets of eighty (verses) recited together make up 720.5 720 indeed are the days and nights of the year. Thus by these (sets of) eighty he obtains the days and nights of the year. Some make into Uṣṇihs the Gayatris by means of the ends of the Samans; others, again, add (to make the Uṣnihs) (sets of) four syllables. From the Bṛhati (set of) eighty (verses) he takes out eighty (sets of) four syllables; from the Kakubh Pragāthas twenty-four (sets of) four syllables; these 104 sets of four syllables he inserts in the

1 RV., viii, 6,,1. For sections 6-17, cf. notes on Aitareya Āraṇyaka, i, 4, 3; v, 2, 3-5; Sānkhāyana Srauta Sutra, xviii, 7–21.

2 RV., viii, 97, 1.

3 RV., iii, 44; 45.

4 RV., viii, 13, 1.

5 For this, see Aitareya Āraṇyaka, p. 36, and notes on v, 2, 3-5 : Eggeling, S.B.E., xli, 111 seq.

104 Gayatris. So the Gayatris are turned into Uṣṇihs. But one need not be concerned with this. The (result) is here brought about. 'Sing to Indra the Sāman': (the reason) why he recites this 2 last is that he may commence the vasa (hymn), (after concluding) with perfect Usnihs. (10.) Then he recites the vaśa (hymn 3). The belly is the vasa hymn. With it, when made ready, whatever is outside it would come into immediate proximity. Thus it matures what is within the belly. Therefore many deities and many metres are recited in the vasa (hymn). Therefore much variegated food is deposited in the belly. Then (he recites) the two halfverses 4 which were taken out. Then (he recites) the sūdadohas (verse). It is then left out (afterwards). Here it has been recited twenty-four times. (11.)

Then he recites the Dvipadas. Metre indeed is a support, so that the Dvipadās serve as a support. (12.)

Then he recites the hymn to Indra and Agni, reciting it as in Gayatri. Indra and Agni are supports, so that support is obtained. (13.)

Then he recites the Avapana.

The Avapana is a support, so that support is obtained. Then these go on again straight forward. (14.)

Then he recites the Anustubh text. Speech indeed is this day; speech the Anustubh. So in speech he places speech. 'Ye have gone to the sky, ye have gone to the sky': with this hymn he approaches the gods. the gods. The Trca 'He, of old, inspiring sages,' has the word 'hymn,' and by reason of it is


1 i.e. the precise method of the transformation.

2 RV., viii, 98, 1; cf. ii, 9. The hymns are Usnih and Bṛhati respectively. Samsiddha is a metaphor from cooking, like samskṛta.

3 RV., viii, 46. See Pischel, Vedische Studien, i, 7 sq.; Aitareya Aranyaka, i, 5,,1; Eggeling, S.B.E., xli, 112, n. 2.

ii, 1; cf. Satapatha Brahmana, viii, 6, 2, 4, and for the Aindrāgna Sūkta (RV., viii, 40), Eggeling, 1.c., p. 113, n. 1.

i.e. insertion, which explains the last words. Cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, i, 5, 2; Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, viii, 6, 2, 3; Śankhayana Śrauta Sūtra, xviii, 17.

The Bodleian MS. reads jaya for yaya. The reference is clearly to RV., viii, 34, 1d-15d.

The Bodleian MS. reads, correctly, pratnathā and kavivṛdha; see RV., viii, 63, 4.


perfect. The last verse is in Gayatri, and by reason of it it is perfect. In Thou art the great ruler here' there is the word 'great,' for this day is described as 'great.' (15.)


Then he recites the hundred Tristubhs. The Tristubh is Indra's metre; so he perfects him with his own metre. The Hiranyastupa 2 hymn and the Yātaūtīya3 hymn correspond to the Bṛhat and Rathantara. For the Bṛhat and Rathantara are put in front. The Sajaniya hymn and (the hymn 5) Priests, bear to Indra the Soma' make up twenty-seven verses. Twenty-seven are the Nakṣatras; thus he obtains the majesty of the Nakṣatras. He should recite (a hymn) of Viśvāmitra, for Visvamitra beheld it. He should recite (a hymn) of Vāmadeva, for that is pleasant to the gods. He should recite (a hymn) of Vasistha, for that is best for the gods. Then before the Udubrahmīya7 (hymn) he recites (the verses) with interwoven Pādas. All desires, indeed, are within this hymn. Just as having shut cattle in a pen one puts a bar and a pin (to keep them in), so by these intertwined verses he grasps all desires on either side and places them in the body. Again, of the Udubrahmiya hymn the last (verse) has the word 'hymn.' That is the symbol of this day. He concludes by repeating this (verse) thrice. Having concluded he mutters the Ukthavirya. The one-day form comes first; the one-day is a support, so that support is obtained. The Mahāvrata form comes next. In 'Thou art great' there is the word 'great,' for this day is described as great.' (16.)


Reckoning in the sudadohas verse, recited once, which has to be supplied throughout the litany, but without the silent recitation, there are a thousand Bṛhatis. In this thousand

1 RV., x, 152, 1. Also quoted in xii, 7 fin. ; see Sūtra, xviii, 18. 2 RV., i, 32; Aitareya Brahmana, iii, 24.

3 RV., vi, 25; Śānkhāyana Śrauta Sútra, xviii, 19, 3.

4 RV., ii, 12.

5 RV., ii, 14, 1. The next hymns referred to are iii, 43; iv, 16; vii, 24. • Vamadeva's own allusion to his name; cf. Aitareya Aranyaka, ii, 2, 1. 7 RV., vii, 23; Sānkhāyana Srauta Sūtra, xviii, 19, 10; 20, 6. For the interweaving, cf. note on Aitareya Aranyaka, i, 5, 2; v, 3, 1; Eggeling, S.B.E., xli, 113, n. 1; Roth, Z.D.M.G., xxxvii, 106.

8 Argaleşike must have this sense or something like it. Add. to dict. 9i.e. in the Mahāvṛata form, Sānkhāyana Srauta Sūtra, xviii, 20, 8. Cf. note on Aitareya Aranyaka, v, 3, 1.

Bṛhatīs there are thirty-six thousand syllables. So many are the days of a hundred years; thus he obtains the days of a hundred years. Some say (the thousand) is composed of Anustubhs. Speech indeed is that day, speech the Anustubh, speech all beings; again, speech is this all, so they say. But it is fixed that it is composed of Bṛhatīs. For he that gives heat here is connected with the Bṛhati; so he perfects him with his own metre. Three times he calls (to the Adhvaryu). Three indeed are these worlds; so he obtains these worlds. The Yajyā verse is taken from the one-day (rite). The one-day (rite) is a support, so that support is obtained. They loosen the swing, before the secondary vasat 2 cry is made. He descends towards the east (to meet) him who bears the Graha as he advances. He thrusts away to the west the plank of the swing. Touching the Graha, he mutters, 'This victory I have won, let me be associated with it, lest I sever myself from this victory.' The Atigrahya is for Viśvakarman. Prajapati's indeed is this day, Prajapati is Viśvakarman; thus he perfects him with his own symbol.

This day Indra proclaimed to Angiras, Angiras to Dīrghatamas. Therefore did Dirghatamas live ten lives of man. This, too, the Ṛși has recorded, Dirghatamas, son of Mamatā, in the words In the tenth stage of eld.' If a man desire life, this is the Sastra to use, so said Kauṣītaki. So he who knows thus and recites (the litany of) this day, lives all his life in this world and obtains immortality and imperishableness in the world of heaven. (17.)

'We choose that of Savitṛ' is the strophe of the Vaiśvadeva5

Read with the Berlin and Bodleian MSS.: tavanti satasamvatsarasyāhāni bhavanti tac chatasamvatsarasyāhāny āpnoti.

2 For this and the following, cf. Hillebrandt, Vedische Opfer und Zauber, p. 102; note on Aitareya Aranyaka, i, 2, 4; Śānkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xviii, 21; I read, of course, prājaiṣam.

RV., i, 158, 6, which presumably really means 'in the tenth decade.' Repeatedly referred to in the Kauṣītaki Brāhmaṇa, and again in iv, 1; 7; xv (Kahola). The word is a mere patronymic, and we must probably distinguish two members at least of the family, Viśvajit and Kahola, the latter being perhaps the Kausītaki par excellence.

5 This section contains the hymns for the two Śastras of the evening Soma-pressing. See RV., v, 82, 1-3; note on Aitareya Āraṇyaka, i, 5, 3; Sankhayana Srauta Sūtra, xviii, 22 and 23.

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