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Adhyāya I.

PRAJĀPATI is the year ;' the Mahāvrata is his body; therefore one should not recite it for another, lest one place in that other the body of all beings. Again, the Mahāvrata is the body of Indra ; therefore one should not recite it for another, lest one place in that other the body of Indra. Again, the Mahāvrata is the body 2 of the man, composed of Ķc, Yajus, and Sāman verses, whom they make ready; therefore one should not recite it for another, lest one place in that other the body of all the metres. One may, however, recite it (for another) as Hots priest of Sattrins or for one's father or teacher. For in that case the recitation is really for himself, and by his own self he perfects the sacrifice. The Stoma of the Mahāvrata is of twenty-five parts. Twenty-four, indeed, are the half-months of the year, so that the year is made up. Again, Prajāpati, the year, is of twenty-five parts. Twenty-four parts are placed at the beginning, and the end is the twenty-fifth. A bull is to be offered to Indra and a goat to Prajāpati. That day, indeed, is Indra's; Indra is Prajāpati. (The goat) is the symbol of Prajāpati. Again, among animals the bull is the symbol of Indra. (1.)

The Ājya Sastra of the Mahāvrata is the twelve-verse hymn, • The guest of every man.' Twelve, indeed, are the months

See Eggeling, S.B.E., xliii, p. xxiii. 2 This confirms the view of the comm. on śānkhāyana Śrauta Sūtra, xviii, 2, 1, that in this school the litany is regarded as of human shape. For the idea, cf. iv, 6, and note.

3 In the two latter cases the Mahāvrata must be part, not of a Sattra, but of an Āhina or Ekāha, see note on Aitareya Aranyaka, v, 3, 3; i, 8, infra, rather contradicts this by recognising a friend also.

Samardhayati approaches the sense ‘unites' here, and in some passages of the Maitrāyaṇi Samhitā. The translation adopted is Prof. Eggeling's.

5 A reference to the Caturviņśa, which is de facto the first day of the Gavāmayana, Kauşītaki Brāhmaṇa, xix, 8. For the Ātman as 25, see Weber, Ind. Stud., v, 375, n. ; Garbe, śāmkhya Philosophie, p. 16.

6 RV., viii, 74, 1-12 (vv. 13-15 are a Dānastuti and so not used).


in the year; so the year is made up. In this hymn there are two metres, Gāyatri and Anuştubh. In the recitation one adds the twenty-five-verse hymn, . Agni, from fire-sticks, men with devotion.' For the Stoma is of twenty-five parts, and the Sastra is perfect in form when it corresponds with the Stoma. In this hymn there are two metres, Virāj and Triştubh. These make up four (metres). This all,a indeed, is fourfold, so that all this is made up. The Praüga Sastra is in Trișțubh. The Triştubh is the metre of Indra, and so he is united with his own metre. The (Trca %), · Were not they, who were magnified by praise,' is addressed to Vāyu, and contains the words 'great' and 'magnify.' It contains the word 'great,' for this day is described as 'great' (Mahā-vrata). The following Trca,4 • As far as the strength of the body, as far as might,' is addressed to Indra and Vāyu, because of the expression) · As far as men perceiving with vision.' "The fair eye of you two, Varuņa,' is (the Trca 5) addressed to Mitra and Varuņa, because of the expression) “The sun goes extending (the light) of the two gods.' 'Who will hear, who of those who merit worship,' is (the Trca 6) addressed to the Asvins, because of the expression) · Whom the daughter of the sun chose.' How, what priest's (sacrifice) has the great one magnified,' is (the Trca ) addressed to Indra, and contains the words 'great' and 'magnify.' It contains the word 'great,' for this day is described as 'great.' • Who is of you a protector, Vasus, who of you a guardian,' is (the Trca 8) addressed to the All-gods, because of the expression 'Varuņa, Mitra, from the stronger mortal.'

May this 1 RV., vii, 1. 2 Cf. Kausitaki Brāhmaṇa, ii, 1 ; xix, 4; xxviii, 7.

RV., vii, 91, 1-3. The statement that the words great' and 'magnified' are contained is not correct as regards the former, but the correctness of the version seems clear from ii, 7; 8, though but for the parallels one might render 'has the word “great,” having the word magnified ” = having the word “great.”

4 R.V., vii, 91, 4-6. The reasons given are only, I think, for the attribution to the deities, who correspond to those of the original Praüga, and it is not sought-as Friedländer, p. 32, n. 3, thinks—to prove that each verse has an equivalent of great.'

5 RV., vii, 61, 1-3.
6 RV., iv, 43, 1-3.
* RV., iv, 23, 1-3. Cf. for the Praüga, Aitareya Āranyaka, i, 1, 1.
8 RV., iv, 55, 1-3.



Sarasvatī, glad,' is (the Trca 1) addressed to Sarasvati, because of the expression 'He has opened the doors of ķta, 0 happy one.' This is the Praüga Sastra of Vāmadeva, arranged in Trcas in Triştubhs, and containing the word · Ka.'? Prajāpati, indeed, is Vāmadeva; in Prajāpati so do they obtain all desires.

Others say the (sastra of the) morning pressing should not be in Triştubhs. Otherwise it confuses the (parts of the service) which have fixed metres. (The Sastra) should be that of the one-day rite. The one-day rite is Brahman ; 8 this day is Brahman; so Brahman is perfected by Brahman. (2.)

Thee as a car for help' is the strophe 4 of the Marutvatiya Sastra. *This juice pressed, Vasu,' is the antistrophe. This is the regular scheme 6 for the one-day rite. The Brāhmaṇa as to it has already been set forth. After reciting first the (hymn 8 of) Vasukra, “Fair has been the singer's onset,' he inserts a Nivid in the Trișțubh (hymno), Great, hero-like, controlling men, is Indra.' Now (the reason) that he recites the Vasukra hymn first is that Indra is Vasukra, and (the reason for reciting) Great, hero-like, controlling men, is Indra,' is that it contains the word 'great,' for this day is described as 'great.' (3.)

Then he offers the oblations of ghee. Thus he wins success for the calming of the sacrifice and the healing of the sacrificers. There are eight (oblations). By these, indeed, the gods obtained 10 all success ; thus also do sacrificers by means of them obtain all success. Then he mutters the mutterings


RV., vii, 95, 4-6. 2, As only three Trcas are from RV., iv, this is curious, but the comm. on Śrauta Sūtra, xvii, 8, 10, explains that the three new Trcas give the name to the whole to distinguish it from the Vasiștha Praüga, Kaușītaki Brāhmaṇa, xxv, 2, of the Vișuvant. 3 Cf. Kausītaki Brāhmaṇa, xxv, 3.

RV., viii, 68, 1-3. 5 RV., viii, 2, 1-3.

6 This must be the sense here, not addition' as taken by Sāyaṇa on Aitareya Āranyaka, v, 1, 1; cf. Friedländer, p. 34, n. 4.

? Cf. Kausitaki Brāhmaṇa, xv, 2. 8 RV., X, 27.

RV., vi, 19. 10 An untranslatable play on aşti and aştau, as in Kaușītaki Brāhmaṇa, xvii, 3 ; xix, 5. For the Mantras of the eight oblations, see Sārkhāyana Srauta Sūtra, xvii, 12, 1-4, and note on Aitareya Aranyaka, v, 1, 1.


accompanying the Parimāds. They are Parimāds (those which boil around). The waters indeed are Parimāds, for by the waters all this is boiled around, and so they are the Parimāds. Now the hymn is food. The waters indeed come first before the coming of food, and the waters are the Parimāds. Again, the Parimāds are the nails, teeth, body, and hair. Therefore are they to be employed, for they are bringers of good fortune. There are twenty-five and the conclusion. The Angirasa (Sāman) serves as a support; of that it is a symbol. (Then comes? the) Bhūtechad (Sāman); (in reciting it he feels) 'I have reached Indra's dear abode.' Then the Krosa and Anukrosa (they use)—(thereby) have they won; then the Payas (Sāman)—(thereby) have they won; then the Arka and Arkapușpa (Sāmans). Arka is Agni here; Arkapuspa is Āditya. If the Sāman singers sing a round according to these (Sāmans), then they say to the Hotř priest, Mutter after us.' If they sing, he should mutter after them ;3 if they sing thus, or even if they do not sing, he should mutter all the same.

(4.) These are the seven divine metres ; 4 therefore he should mutter after the (Saman singers). Again, Indra's indeed is this day, for Indra are the mutterings; therefore he should mutter after them. Then standing there he adores the fire in each of its members, saying Honour, Honour.' For the gods are not above receiving honour. He should honour the parts of the fire when it is kindled, if it is on the high altar. Then

For the Parimāds (connected with mad, ‘be glad,' by. Sāyaṇa on Śatapatha Brāhmaṇa, x, 1, 2, 8, but see Weber, Ind. Stud., ix, 235), see especially Eggeling,,S.B.E., xliii, 288, n. 2. The seven, names are given here, not in the Satapatha. It is clear that the Satapatha follows a similar rite to the Śānkhāyana, while Tāņdya Mahābrāhmaṇa, v, 4, 1-13, and Lātyāyana Śrauta Sūtra, iii, 9, recognise thirteen Parimads with diverse Dames.

2 The following passage is so brief as to be of doubtful interpretation, but I follow Friedländer in regarding the remarks as Arthavāda. It would probably be more natural and perhaps better to take priyam Indrasya dhāmopajagāma as a description of the Krośa and Anukrośa, for jagāma in early texts is usually third person, Whitney, Sanskrit Grammar, p. 283.

3 For the ujapa, see Sānkhāyana Srauta Sūtra, xvii, 12, 5.
4 i.e. the seven Sāmans. Cf. Satapatha Brāhmaṇa, vii, 3, 1, 41.

5 See note on Aitareya Aranyaka, v, 1, 2, and cf. Sānkhāyana Srauta Sūtra, xvii, 13, 6.

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