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all cafes whatsoever." But his oppofition was fo languid, that he did not attend the Houfe when the bill was paffed; and only five Peers were found to follow his opinion, when it came under debate in the House of Lords.

"The declaratory act," as the American congrefs affirms, "comprehends all the grievances of which they complain." Yet that very congrefs, with peculiar effrontery, not only approve, but even praise the conduct of the very party by whom the bill was introduced, and the man, by whofe criminal acquiefcence (to ufe one of his own phrases) it paffed into a law. That party, and that man, being now in oppofition to government, the Americans endeavour to fecure their fupport, by flattering their vanity at the expence of truth! They forget paft demerits, in the hopes of prefent fervices. But when they expect to deceive a whole party into their intereft, they themselves are made the tools of that party; and, like the figure of the negro near Templebar, are turned round by the machine which they pretend to move.

35.

The congrefs, &c. [To be continued.] Effay on the trade, commerce, and manufactures, of Scotland. By David Loch of Over Carnbie, merchant in Edinburgh. Edinburgh, printed for the Author, and fold by the Bookfellers, THE patriotifm of Mr Loch has been fufficiently known. He has called, in particular, the attention of the public to the woollen manufacture; and he has difcovered a most fincere love of his country, by endeavouring to throw light up on other objects of its trade and commerce. He has availed himself of an experience in business, which has been long and extenfive; and it is to be confeffed, that many of his obfervations are of great ufe and importance.

In the publication before us, he has collected the matter of his former pieces [xxxvi. 603., and has made additions to it. He gives his ideas a better arrangement, and places them in a point of view that is more ftriking.

It is to be wifhed, that men verfant in bufinefs would oftener take an oppor tunity to fobniit their knowledge to the public. Topics of traffic and commerce would then be more generally underfood, and materials gradually be formed, on which politicians and philofophers may fpeculate with advantage. The

dunces, indeed, of literature loudly proclaim, that men in the exercife of trade must not write. But it is not for the catchers of fyllables to perceive, that the sketches of an intelligent merchant are of more value than all the pedantry of all our colleges.

In this country, which has more learning than is useful to it, and little wealth, we defiderate writers like Mr Loch. And, in cases of this kind, our pamphlet, which ruffles at times the placidity, and exposes the affectation, of profeffed fcholars, has not criticisms to offer, but panegyric. E.

THIS Effay is divided into fix fections, viz. 1. Of the propriety of increafing the number of sheep in this country, and the neceffity of getting a proper breed of that ufeful animal introduced into it. [xxxvii. 6927. - 2. Of the woollen manufactory: That it is the natural staple of Scotland, and therefore ought to be encouraged, by every true lover of his country, in all its various branches. 3. Of the fisheries: This being an article of trade, in the profecution of which we require no foreign aid, and may acquire many and great advantages, fhould there. fore be pursued with unremitting perfe verance and activity. 4. Of porter : That we ought to give encouragement to the brewers of it and other malt liquors in our own country, in preference to the London porter-brewers. - 5. Of the unhappy disputes which have for some time fubfifted between G. Britain and her American colonies.-6. Of trade in general, interfperfed with fuch observations as the author thinks, if duly weighed and confidered, may be productive of good effects to this country. Many things are omitted which Mr Loch once intended to have taken notice of, particularly our mines and minerals, of which, he obferves, this country is abundantly tored, and from which much riches may be expected.

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Remarks on British Antiquities, viz. 1. The origin and ceremony of Judicial Combats, 2. The folemnities of Ancient Writs. 3 The ancient and modern ufe of Armorial Figures. 4. The form of Funeral Service. By William Borthwick, Efq; 25 6d. Edinburgh, Gordon.

EXTRACT.

Of Public Proceffions.

No nation are fonder of public procef fions than the Scots: nor is this to be wondered

wondered at, when we confider them as

being the defcendents of a warlike people.

With regard to public proceffions, the article of precedency is of the utmost importance. Precedency among fubjects is thus established *.

Princes of the Blood, viz. fons, grandfons, brothers, uncles, &c. of the King The following great officers, by the gift act of Henry VIII. cap. 10. anno 1539, precede all peers.

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A letter to Lord Cathcart, President of the
beard of Police in Scotland, concerning
the recovery of perfons drowned, and feem-
ingly dead. By William Cullen, M. D.
&c. Is. Elliot, Edinburgh.
THis letter is dated, Edinburgh, Aug,

8. 1774.; and annexed to it there is
an extract from the journals of the board
of police, Aug. 11. 1774, containing-a
Lord Cathcart, on the subject.
paper prefented to that Hon. Board by

Dr Cullen begins his letter with remarking, that few endeavours are used for the recovery of drowned perfons; because the by-ftanders, and even phyfi, cians and furgeons, form conclufions too foon with refpe& to their death, and irreto coverable ftate: The Doctor therefore would have it obferved, That in men, and other animals, life does not immediately ceafe upon the ceffation of the action of the lungs and heart, and the confequent ceafing of the circulation of the blood. Though the circulation of the blood is neceffary to the fupport of life, the living state of animals does not confift in that alone, but especially depends upon a certain condition in the nerves, and muscular fibres, by which they are fenfible and irritable, and upon which the action of the heart itfelf depends. It this condition, therefore, which may be properly called the vital principle in animals; and as long as this fubfifts, or though much weakened, as long as it can be again restored to its activity and vigour, while, at the fame time, the organization of the parts remains entire, heart and lungs, the circulation of the it is prefumed, that the action of the blood, and therefore all the functions of life, may alfo, though they have many of them long ceafed, be again entirely restored.

Speaker of the Houfe

of Commons.
Viscounts eldeft fons.
Earls younger fons.
Barons eldest fons.
Koights of the Gar-

Lord Treasurer.
Lord Prefident of the
Privy Council.
Lord Privy Seal.
Peers, according

Lord Chief-Justice of
the King's Bench.
Mafter of the Rolls.

Lord Chief-Juftice of

the Common Pleas.
Lord Chief-Baron of

the Exchequer.
Juftices and Barons in
the Courts of Law.
Viscounts younger
fons.
Barons younger fons.
Baronets of England.
Baronets of Nova Sco-

tia.

Baronets of Ireland..
Knights of the Bath.
Field and Flag offi-

cers.

ter.

Privy Counsellors.
Chancellor and Un-
der-Treasurer of
the Exchequer.
Chancellor of the Du-
chy of Lancaster.

Knights Bachelors.
Mafters in Chancery
Serjeants at Law.
Baronets eldeft fons.
Efquires.

Citizens.

Burgeffes. The following officers, whether they are peers or commoners, precede all others of their own rank.

The Lord Great
Chamberlain.
Lord High Conftable.
Earl Marthal.
Lord High Admiral.
Among women, precedency is due ac-
cording to the rank of their husbands or
of their fathers.

Lord Steward of the
Household.
Lord Chamberlain of
the Household.
Secretaries of State.

At the coronation of Charles I. the predency of the Scots nobility was ordered to be the fame with that of the English; and

VOL. XXXVIII.

After fome further obfervations in cor

roboration of the foregoing opinion, the Doctor gives the following advice and di, rections to those who attempt the reco, very of perfons drowned.

"The first step to be taken for their re, to prevent differences among them, it was ordered, that thofe of the fame degree of dency over Scots peers of the fame degree; England, fhould in England have the prece and that alfo thofe of the fame rank in Scotland, fhould in Scotland have precedency over English peers of the fame rank.-[Quar. Does the 23d article of the Union make any alteration in this matter?]

E

covery

covery is, to restore the heat of the body, which is abfolutely neceffary to the activity of the moving fibres. For this purpose, the body, as foon as poffible, is to be ftripped of its wet cloaths, to be well dried, and to be wrapped up in dry, and, if poffible, warm coverings; and it is to be wifhed, in all cafes, as foon as the report of a perfon's being drowned is heard, that blankets fhould be immediately carried to the water-fide; fo that, as foon as the body is got out of the water, the change of covering juft now mentioned, may be inftantly made; or if the body has been naked when drowned, that it may be immediately dried, and defended against the cold of the air. Befides covering the body with blankets, it will be further of advantage, if it can be done without lofs of time, to cover the drowned body with a warm shirt or waistcoat immediately taken from a living perfon.

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be still practised, if the accident has hap pened in or very near a town or village, when a great many fires may be at once employed in heating fmall quantities of water; for in this way the neceffary quantity may be foon obtained. To en courage this practice, it is to be obfer ved, that one part of boiling water i more than fufficient to give the neceffary heat to two parts of spring or fea wate as it is not proper to apply the bath at firft very warm, nor even of the ordinary heat of the human body, but fomewhat under it; and, by the addition of warm water, to bring it gradually to a heat very little above it.

If the drowned body be of no great bulk, it may be conveniently warmed by a perfon's lying down in bed with it and taking it near to their naked body changing the position of it frequently and, at the fame time, chafing, and rub bing with warm cloths, the parts which are not immediately applied to their warn body.

If none of these measures can be con veniently practifed, the body is to b laid upon a bed before a moderate fire and frequently turned, to expose the dif ferent parts of it; and thus, by the hea of the fire gradually applied, and by rub bing the body well with coarfe towels or other cloths well warmed, pains ar to be taken for restoring its heat. Thị will be promoted by warm cloths applie and frequently renewed under the ham and arm-pits, and by hot bricks, 0 bottles of warm water, laid to the feet. In the practice of rubbing, it has beer proposed to moiften the cloths applies with camphorated fpirits, or other fuch ftimulating fubftances; but I think thi muft prove an impediment to the rub bing; and I would not recommend an practice of this kind, except, perhaps the application of the vinous fpirit of ammoniac to the wrifts and ankles only.

For recovering the heat of the body it has been propofed, to cover it all ove with warm grains, afhes, fand, or falt and where thefe, fufficiently warm, an ready at hand, they may be employed but it is very feldom they can be obtain ed, and the application might often inter fere with other measures that may be ne ceffary All, therefore, that I can pro pofe with refpect to the ufe of thefe, to obferve, that bags of warm and dr falt may be amongst the most convenien applications to the feet and hands drowne

drowned perfons; and the quantity neceffary for this purpofe may be got pretty quickly, by heating the falt in a frying pan over a common fire.

While these measures are taking for recovering the heat, means are at the fame time to be employed for restoring the action of the moving fibres. It is well known, that the inteftines are the parts of the body which, both from their internal fituation, and peculiar conftitution, retain the longest their irritability; and therefore, that, in drowned perfons, ftimulants applied may have more effect upon the inteftines than upon any other parts. The action, therefore, of the inteftinies, is to be supported or renewed as foon as poffible, as the restoring and fupporting the action of fuch a confiderable portion of moving fibres, as thofe of the inteftines, must contribute greatly to restore the activity of the whole fyftem.

For exciting the action of the intefines, the most proper mean is, the application of their ordinary stimulus of dilatation; and this is moft effectually apphed, by forcing a quantity of air into them by the fundament. Even the throwing in cold air has been found useful; but it will certainly be better, if heated air can be employed; and further, if that air can be impregnated with fomething, which, by its acrimony, alfo may be powerful in ftimulating the inteftines.

From all thefe confiderations, the fmoke of burning tobacco has been moft commonly applied, and has, upon many occafions, proved very effectual. This will be moft properly thrown in by a particular apparatus; which, for other purposes as well as this, fhould be in the hands of every furgeon; and, at leaft, fhould, at the public expence, be at hand, in every part of the country where drownings are kely to happen. With regard to the afe of it, I have to obferve, that, till the tobacco is kindled in a confiderable quantity, a great deal of cold air is blown through the box and tube; and as that, as binted above, is not fo proper, care fhould be taken to have the tobacco very well kindled, and to blow it very gently, till the heated fmoke only paffes through. If, upon certain occafions, the apparatus referred to fhould not be at hand, the measure, however, may be executed by a common tobacco-pipe, in the following manner: A common glyfter-pipe that has a bag mounted upon it, is to be in

troduced into the fundament, and the mouth of the bag is to be applied round the small end of a tobacco-pipe. In the bowl of this, tobacco is to be kindled; and, either by a playing card made into a tube, and applied round the mouth of the bowl, or by applying upon this the bowl of another pipe that is empty, and blowing through it, the fmoke may be thus forced into the inteftines, and, in a little time, in a confiderable quantity.

If none of thefe means for throwing in the fmoke can be employed, it may be ufeful to inject warm water, to the quantity of three or four English pints. This may be done by a common glyfter-bag and pipe, but better by a large syringe; and it may be useful to diffolve in the water fome common falt, in the proportion of half an ounce to an English pint; and alfo to add to it fome wine or brandy.

While thefe measures for recovering the heat of the body, and the activity of the moving fibres, are employed, and efpecially after they have been employed for fome time, pains are to be taken to complete and finish the bufinefs, by reftoring the action of the lungs and heart."

We add an extract from Lord Cathcart's paper.

"It has long been known, That perfons drowned, strangled, frozen, or suffocated by noxious vapours, are capable of being brought back to life, though feemingly dead, by renewing their animal heat, and putting their blood again into motion, upon the fame principles that perfons fainting are recovered from a fwoon; and that, in winter, birds of the fleeping kind, cold, motionlefs, and dead in appearance, are, by gentle warmth, reftored to their ufual circulation and vivacity.

Our senses teftify, that heat and motion are neceffary to life; and that where thofe principles are extinct, death is the certain confequence. It is therefore easy to conceive, that in bodies yet entire, where thofe circumftances are only fufpended, from an accidental caufe, not extinguifhed, by diffolution, from difcafe, they may, by proper counteracting application, if taken in time, be re- ftored; nor has it yet been determined, how much time may elapfe before that recoverable state ceafes, or how long the proper endeavours may be ufed, without producing the defired happy effect, and £ 2

yet

yet produce it at laft; circumstances, which ought to recommend trial in every cafe, where, from wounds or putrefaction, it does not manifeftly appear impoffible to fucceed, and perfeverance, though fuccefs thould not follow fo foon as might have been expected.

a

Thefe truths, obvious in themselves, are confirmed by the records of philofophical focieties, by traditions, in almoft every village, and by the experience of almost every individual: and yet, tho' no nation in any age could be suspected of infenfibility to the joy of restoring father to the fatherless, a husband to the widow, or a living child to the bofom of its mournful parents; yet no effectual fteps were ever taken to turn the public attention to this object, and to make proper arrangements for the immediate fuccour of unfortunate perfons to whom fuch accidents befal, till the year 1767, when the Dutch inftituted a fociety at Amfterdam, in favour of drowned perfons; which, by an advertisement, informed the inhabitants of the United Provinces of the methods proper to be used on fuch occafions; and offered rewards to those who fhould, with or without fuccefs, use thofe methods for recovering perfons drowned, and feemingly dead. [xxxi. 521.]

The laudable and humane example of the Dutch was followed, in the year 1768, by the magiftrates of Health in Milan and Venice; afterwards by the magiftrates of Hamburg, in the year 1771; by those of Paris, (where, betwixt the 16th of June 1772, and the 25th of March 1773, of twenty-eight perfons drowned in the Seine, no less than twenty-three were restored to life); and lastly, this fummer, by a fociety in London.

There is no country, which, from its fituation, furrounded by the fea, and every where interfected by rivers, lakes, and bays, calls more loudly for effectual measures, for affording immediate relief to perfons feemingly dead, from drowning, than Scotland; no nation more likely eagerly to adopt fuch meafures, if propofed; nor any, where, from the nature of its government, fuch measures may fo cafily be carried into

execution."

dicated. Being [thirteen] difcourfes on the parable of the prodigal fon, and on the wo man countenanced by the Lord, in the house of Simon the Pharifee By Benjamin Wallin, 35. fewed. Keith, &c.— M. A. -Plain, pious, and practical, in the Calvinistical

train. M.

LONDON.

Religion, Morality, Controversy, &c. Superabounding grace, in the forgiveness of petent tranfgreffors, exemplified and vin

Confiderations on the present state of Chriftianity, and the behaviour of unbelievers towards it: In a series of letters, tranflated from the French of J. Roustan, pastor of the Helvetic church, London. 2s. 6d. Taylor.

We are informed, that this tranflation "was made by a fond parent, to counterplot the zeal of modern infidelity; and put into the hands of a favourite child, just entering into the gay world, where he was likely to ftand in need of fuch prefervatives as are to be found in thefe letters." They ap pear to be well adapted to answer the propofed end. M.

"

Obfervations on divers paffages of fcripture. edition of this work was published in 1765, i vols. 11 s. boards. Fobufon. -The firft in one volume: the prefent is enlarged with a great number of obfervations, derived from books of travels, which the author had not then feen. Notwithstanding the various revolutions which have happened in the East, we are affured by many writers, that there is a ftriking resemblance between the patriarchal and the prefent oriental customs and manners. From this work the reader will perceive, that commentators have not extended

their inquiries far enough when they have examined a text with grammatical nicety; but that it is abfolutely neceffary to pay a particular attention to the customs of the Eaft. and contains illuftrations of 700 or 800 pafIt is compiled with accuracy and judgement, author is Mr Harmer, who in 1768 published fages another work, intitled, The outlines of a new commentary on Solomon's fong. C.

the Old and New Testament. The

The doctrine of faith and good works flated and explained: the fubftance of a fermon on the annual commemoration of Mr Weft's charity, at St Giles's, Reading, Berks, By John Hallward, A M. 6d Vallance and Simmons.As rational a difcourfe as we ufually meet with on Calvinific principles. C.

A letter to a young nobleman fetting out on his travels. 1 s. Owen. - The defign of thefe reflections is," to point out the true fource from which the leading principles of our actions ought to flow." C.

A free addrefs to Pro eftant diffenters, on

the fubject of church-difcipline; with a preliminary difcourfe, concerning the spirit of Christianity, and the corruption of it by falle notions of religion. By Jofeph Priestley, LL. D. 2s. 6d. Johnjon.

An appeal to the ferious and candid pro feflors of Chriftiauity, on the following b jects.

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