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Ye grateful vassals, ye who sing,
And tireless still the chant repeat,
With homage true, unfettered sweet,
In praise of the Eternal King :
Sweet denizens of wood and mead,
Wild poets of the flower-pied dell,
Whose thrilling anthems joyful swell,
Glad Nature's sacred spring-time creed :
Sweet birds of air, would but

On wings like yours could mount to GOD!
Would but my heart-an earth-bound clod,

you, could strains of rapture roll!
Still life's approaching winter skies,
The wings of faith must soar beyond,
The sunless tomb,—death's icy bond, -
Will merge in JESU's Paradise !

K. B. K.


Reviews and Notices. Confirmation, by a Deaconess, with Preface by the Dean of Chester (Griffith and Farran,) is in advance of many similar treatises, by giving the right defi. nition of that Rite as a means of strengthening the regenerate soul and so avoiding the once popular theory of the candidate confirming his own vows. At the same time the prominence given to the idea of a covenant goes far to neutralize the better theory, for it implies that God only acts on the condition of man doing something on his part; whereas really the presence of the Holy Ghost, as in Baptism and in the Eucharist and Ordination, is absolute and certain. He is present either for good or evil, and hence the great awfulness of those Sacraments and Sacramental Rites, which can on no account be repeated. Another mistake which the writer makes is to connect the term Sacrament with the Roman military oath. It is simply a sacred Rite derived from the Latin adjective, sacer.

We are glad to see that a new Edition (the eighth) of The Sinless Sufferer (Skeffington,) has been called for. The sermons are very genuine and unconventional.

We have been much pleased with two little volumes, Boys and Girls, their work and influence. (Skeffington.) Under the head of Religion the writer does not hesitate to advise young persons to resort to a Priest when spiritual difficulties beset them, for counsel and if need be for absolution.

The Religious Tract Society has published a valuable and learned work on The Jewish Temple and its Services, by Dr. Edersheim. We notice in it one silly remark about not turning to the east in prayer ; but on the other hand his testimony to the Gregorian Tones is, as coming from an unexpected quarter, worth recording. “There is no reason to doubt (he writes) that in the so-called Gregorian Tones we have preserved to us a close approximation to the ancient Hymnody of the Temple.” In other words they partake in a measure of the inspiration of the Psalter.

The new edition of The Priests Book of Private Devotions, (Mowbray,) to which the name of Dr. Oldknow and Mr. Crake were originally attached, is a great improvement on its predecessor both as to arrangement and contents. It is now the best book of the kind with which we are acquainted.

Meditations from the French of Madame Swetchine, (Hayes,) though of course devout, do not read well in the English. The fault may be in part that of the translator, but French books seldom commend themselves to us.

We are glad to meet Miss Jones again in a series of Stories. These are on the Catechism, (Hayes,) and will be quite a treat to juvenile readers. At the end of each number will be found some useful catechetical instruction.

Helps to Worship: a Manual for Holy Communion and Daily Prayer, (Mowbray,) bearing the Imprimatur of the Bishop of Oxford, are very simple, and we are not surprised that they have reached a Third Edition. There is a copious selection of Hymns appended.

The Rev. G. C. Caffin, whose devotional writings are of considerable merit, has published Words about our Lord, (Masters,) which are really four sermons for Passiontide and Easter ; we should have been glad to have been able to recommend them at an earlier date. They contain much pious thought.

Debrett's Peerage, Baronetage, and Knightage for 1879, illustrated with armorial bearings, edited by Robert H. Mair, LL.D. (Dean and Son, London.) The two very handsome volumes which under the above designation give the most complete and detailed information respecting the titled personages of the British realms, have a value far beyond that which they possess as accurate books of reference. They are historically interesting, and much light is thrown on the past of our own and other countries by their careful statements of the origin and circumstances of many notable families. These volumes certainly fulfil the purpose for which they are compiled, with perfect success.

Our readers will not have forgotten a charming tale entitled Regent Rosalind, which appeared in our pages some years since, and a second by the same author, Phil's Mother, also brought out by us somewhat later. Both these admirable works have now been published separately by Messrs. Tinsley, London. They form two volumes decidedly attractive both externally and internally, and the last of the two has the addition of a couple of very pretty new stories, Edith and Patty, and Georgie's Christmas Holidays.

Under the nom de plume of Cherith, Miss Surtees has published three small vols. of tales, (Partridge and Hatchard.) They are nicely written, but somewhat too didactic, several being intended to enforce the duty of temperance, of which the authoress is an earnest advocate, as well she may




S. Paul says

[The Editor is not responsible for the opinions of the Correspondents.]

To the Editor of the Churchman's Companion.

will, however, notice that I built no

theory upon this point. ANCIENT LITURGIES.

3. The point about 1 Cor. ii. 9 is that SIR,—If, in writing upon the Ancient

as it is written.” Now, Liturgies, I have been led by enthusiasm

although PHILALETHES employs some into the error of ascribing a too early

very able special pleading to show that origin to them, I err in the very best

the passage may be in agreement with company, as I have but followed in the the laws of grammar, yet he has not steps of Archbishop Wake and the au

brought forward sufficient evidence to thor of “Origines Liturgicæ.” Is it

render the other opinion untenable, not possible for persons to be led astray

while, whether it be or not, there is one by prejudice? This by the way.

statement which he has not dared to Passing by the opinion that “Angli- make, viz., that the passage is anything can” and “Catholic” are necessarily

like a verbal quotation of Isaiah lxiv. 4. synonymous terms, and the remark about There remains therefore this question“strained and inconclusive reasoning,”

Will the facts warrant the statement that I come to Criticism No. 1. Let me say

S. Paul has only quoted the “ general at once that I am obliged to PHILALE

idea?” The answer to this is to be THES for it, and would accept it, but for obtained by examining all the places two considerations. First, I don't feel

where he uses the expression “It is certain that the expression in the Egyp

written.” This I proceed to do. tian version is an idiom, because it may

S. Paul says “It is written” twentybe; Secondly, I doubt very much indeed

nine times, exclusive of the passage whether a Greek Liturgy of a Greek- under consideration. Of these (a) fourspeaking and I believe, cultured Church,

teen introduce a verbal quotation from would go out of its way to copy an Egyp

the LXX., viz. :-Rom. i. 17; iii. 4; iv. tian translation. I think it more reason

7; viii. 36, ix. 13; xiv. 11; xv. 3; xv. able to suppose it took the passage from

9; xv. 21; 1 Cor. ix. 9; 1 Cor. x. 7; its own Greek Testament.

2 Cor. ix. 9; Gal. iv. 27; 1 Tim. v. 18; The statement was made on the au- (6) two introduce verbal quotations from thority of Hammond's Liturgies Eastern the Hebrew, viz. :-Rom. x. 15; 1 Cor. and Western. (Introd. p. lii.) Mr. iii. 19; (c) five introduce quotations Hammond, I know, is not led away by which do not agree with the received enthusiasm, but I have called his atten- Greek or Hebrew, but are supported by tion to the objection.

some various readings. These are Rom. 2. Us His Apostles. (1.) The Li- iii. 10 (agrees with the Vatican Text and turgies do retain features which are obso- some ancient translations) Rom. xi. 26 lete, as witness the formula for Expul- (a minor difference, but a various text sion of Catechumens; so that this supports S. Paul); 1 Cor. i. 19, (verbal criticism will not hold. (2.) It may be except last word, one MS. of LXX. 80; the theory is at any rate no better supports S. Paul) ; 1 Cor. xiv. 21 (agrees than Dr. Littledale's. (3.) I cannot see with Aquila's version); 2 Cor. viii. 15 how this applies; the point is not us, (difference of one word—which agrees but“ us His Apostles.” Your readers with Hebrew) (d) three introduce quo

tations which are pieced together from two places, but are in literal agreement with both. These are Rom. ix. 32, 33 (all the words can be obtained from the two-nothing is added) xi. 8 (a similar case) Rom. xii. 19 (half strictly Hebrew; half strictly Greek); (e) four are substant lly accurate, viz. : 1 Cor. i. 31, (abridged, gives leading words) 1 Cor. xv. 45 (inserts “first man Adam,” necessary to argument). Gal. iii. 10 (exact in spirit—one word for another). Gal. iii. 13 (substantially verbal.) (f) one is not an attempt at quotation, but an historical statement-Gal. iv. 22, “For it is written, that Abraham had two sons, the one by a bond-maid, the other by a free-woman."

The answer then to the statement that S. Paul quotes only the general idea, is that in the twenty-eight other instances in which he prefaces a quotation with the phrase“ It is written,” the quotation is either literal or substantially verbal, though he does not always quote the same version; and that therefore since in this particular instance he departs so strikingly from the only passage which has been brought forward, he is quoting, not directly from that passage, but from some document, which, did it exist, we should probably find was borrowing from Isaiah, not however by actual quotation, but by imitation of phrases and ideas.

And in the Anaphora of the venerable Liturgy of S. James we have a document which not only contains the identical passage (with the slight difference between Vocative and Nominative) and an expressed antecedent to ha ophthalmos, and does undoubtedly borrow from Isaiah; but also does actually, in the immediate context, appear to borrow phrases and ideas from the context of Isaiah lxiv. 4. It opens in language resembling a part of the Gloria in Excelsis, (language which I believe is borrowed from the Jewish Church, since it occurs in the Passover Service of the Mishna) goes on to speak of the celestial Jerusalem, using a term (paneguris) which at least may come from Is. lxvi. 10 and be quoted

in Heb. xii. 22, 23; and continues in language which is derived from Is. vi. 2, and 3. Then, directly after the words of Institution, the second coming of our LORD is mentioned, and this seems to have suggested Is. lxiii. 1, et seqq., for the Liturgy goes on to speak of our LORD's glorious and terrible coming as Judge, to recompense (cf. Is. Ixiii. 4, 7, LXX.) It then, after working in a passage from Ps. ciii. 10, beseeches God, according to His gentleness and ineffable love to man, (cf. Is. lxiii. 7.) to blot out the handwriting which is against His suppliants, (a passage which may be the original of Col. ii. 14,) and grant them His heavenly and eternal bounties which eye hath not seen, &c. (Is. lxiv. 4.) "and upon the heart of man have not ascended,” (cf. Is. lxv. 17,) and which He has prepared for them that love Him, (returning to Is. lxiv. 4.) Then it goes on directly to beseech God not to set at nought His people (cf.' Is. lxiii. 8, LXX.) because His people and His Church supplicate Him, (cf. Is. lxiv. 9, "for we are Thy people”) and then passes on into a quasi-intercession on behalf of Sion. (cf. Is. Ixiv. 9, 10.)

Perhaps PHILALETHES will call this “strained and inconclusive reasoning,” but the fact that in the Liturgy there are traces of borrowing from Isaiah, while there are none in the Epistle, (save the allusion to the Holy Spirit, which may have come from the Liturgy,) is surely a strong argument that the Liturgist, and not S. Paul, threw this passage into the form in which they both have it. I believe that the argument is not even yet fully stated, but I think this alone ought to settle the question.

I hope PHILALETHES will bear with me while I make some remarks upon his last paragraph, even if he should think them “strained and inconclusive reasoning."

The point is, not whether the Liturgies contain terms not used by the Apostles, for such terms may conceivably “be a

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translation of the language of one intel- places where the Liturgy of S. James is lectual period into the language of ano- quoted, and further, that whatever other ther," but whether they represent primi- objections may be reasonably brought tive teaching. I believe they do. For, (1) against the theory, at any rate that of there are five liturgical families, repre- impossibility is not one of the number. senting six or seven separated bodies of Apologising for the length of this letChristians, so divided as to be clear of any ter, I am, &c.,-D. B. JONES. suspicion of collusion. (2) Some have P.S. Since writing the above I have been divided since A.D. 451, some since received a letter from Mr. Hammond, A.D. 431, and anything common to the from which I extract the following: five must be as old as A.D. 430. (3) But The main point of my argument rests they all, without exception, teach a doc- on Prof. (Bp.) Lightfoot's estimate of trine flatly opposed to modern Protestan- the Memphitic Version of the N. T. given tism, to wit, that of the Real Presence. in Scrivener's Introduction to the Cri(4) But further, this doctrine must be pri- ticism of the N. T., p. 343. "The Memmitive, for controversy upon this subject | phitic Version is for the most part a had not arisen till long after the date faithful rendering of the original . named. (5) That the type of service is This Version may generally be consulted primitive is also evident from these facts: even for minute variations in the text.' (a) No early Council enjoined a Liturgy, “This argument of mine is noticed by and no Church existed able to force its Prof. Dr. G. Bickell, of Innsbruck, with Liturgy on others; (b) So little did the approval, in a review of my book in a early Christians care about uniformity German periodical. He is an oriental that each bishop had the right of draw- scholar of no mean repute. ing up his own Liturgy; and the uni- “This however does not prove anything versal adherence to the one type can for a period earlier than the second cenonly be attributed to (a) intense conser- tury-nay, I had rather say (as I put vatism, or (B) a belief that it had des- it in my book) 'not later than the cended from the Apostles or apostolic fourth.'men. For practical purposes these are

E. C. A. equally valuable. (6) Passing by other allusions in early writers, since they may

SIR, --In answer to EUGENE TEESbe denied, we come to the fact that S.

DALE, the letters E. C. A. represent the

Eastern Church Association, and Messrs. Justin Martyr's writings prove one of two things, either (a) that he quotes the

Rivingtons published the papers alluded Clementine Liturgy, or (b) that he al

to.-Yours, &c., D. BURNARD JONES. ludes to one formed on precisely the same

OUR LORD ON THE CROSS. model; for (not to dwell upon the very curious verbal coincidences between the SIR,—I was interested in the question Liturgy and chap. xxx. of his Dialogue of your correspondent Anatomist, and with Trypho) there are, in the descrip

consulted a distinguished art critic upon tion of the Eucharistic Service contained it. He tells me that in all the most in his First Apology, no less than nine ancient representations of the crucifixion distinct points mentioned, with all of the wound is depicted on the right side, which, in their order, the Clementine

but there is no indication that any sigLiturgy exactly corresponds. This brings nificance was attached to the circumus to A.D. 150. (7) But there is no rea- stance. Theories with regard to the son to suppose that S. Justin's Liturgy rupture of the pericardium are quite of was an innovation-and so we are enti- modern date. In earlier times the flow tled to consider that the rise of a Li- of blood and water being simply acturgy took place in the Apostolic age. cepted as miraculous, it was a matter of In conclusion, allow me to express my

indifference on which side the wound was belief that 1 Cor.ü. 9 is only one of several portrayed-no tradition having indicated

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