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esteemed so abroad. In a comparative view, we tremely arduous; since the Theatres being con. shall find the English actor copying the picture stantly open, the exertions of the performer are of nature; while the French actor, attracted by in a continual state of requisition. trifl-s, too often runs into the pursuits of art. The penalties attached to any breach of pube

The performers on the French stage pay the lic engagement, are, unlike the following, severe most implicit attention to every circumstance of indeed. A favourite actor, having at one time the scene; and in general are so absorbed in their refused to perform, alledging that the weather own characters,' as to appear wholly unconscious was too hot,, was without further appeal, put into of an audience.

immediate confinement, The duties of the actor, here, must be ex

[To be continued.]

FAMILIAR LECTURES ON USEFUL SCIENCES.

THE CULINARY SYSTEM.

THIS is one of the most important branches of “ A book of cookery, says an elegant writer 03 domestic economy, as it relates to the conveni- | this subject, should as nearly as possible resemence and comfort of life; and, by general cus ble a college dispensatory, where the quantities tom, it has mostly devolved upon females. We are correctly stated, in consequence of the bulk do not, however, wish to be understood that the of the composition being previously determined art of cookery, in the lower and mere practical upon; but in the culinary art, where the quanpart, is a fit object of female study; but the tity contained in a dish cannot be ascertained, we knowledge of marketing, the taste and skill in are unavoidably left, in many cases, to depend the display and ornament of a table, and the ge on the taste and judgment of the cook, into neral management of a family, which involves whose hands we commit our own health, and the practice of many virtues (economy in parti- | that of our posterity.” cular), all these are very proper objects for the It is our purpose in this and the following esattention of females of every condition.

says, to take up the art of cookery as subsidiary Numerous books have been written upon the to economy, and to the elegant, but unostentasubject of cookery, and the press is daily groan- tious display of the table.- We shall not treat it ing with them. Most of these treatises have been as the science of epicurism and gluttony, or as deficient in design and order, and all have en one of the means of getting rid of the incumcouraged unbounded and shameful prodiga- || brance of a large fortune; we shall investigate lity in the management of a kitchen, and the and recommend it as the source of much domespreparations of the respective dishes. They pre lic comfort and credit, and as a branch of famipare receipts for the fortunes of Princes and East | liar knowledge necessary to every mistress of a India Directors, and write as if a whole estate | house, and to every female whether high or low, was to be consumed in dinners. At the same in the ranks of society. time they have no regard to the health or con In the precepts we give, it is not our purpose stitution, but with a merciless and unsparing to study originality, but cheapness, accuracy, hand, scatters gouts, indigestions, fevers, sur- | justness and elegance. We shall not be above feits, through their savory stews and ragouts.

borrowing from those who have written upon One would suppose that their favourite pre- this subject, provided we agree with them; for cept was “ eat, drink, and be merry, for to-morrow our object is to form a good, comprehensive, and you die;" since it must be confessed that those intelligible digest, rather than to propose any who should live after their plan would meet their new system of our own. fale in a very few years.

We shall commence with some miscellaneous But extravagance and general injuriousness | observations for the use of the mistress of a fato health are not the only objections against mily, by which much will be saved, and the gethese culinary writers; they are no less obscureneral appearance greatly iinproved. than prodigal in the directions they give, and the “ The mistress of a family should always rereceipts they prepare. A penny-worth of this, member that the welfare and good management and a pinch of that are indefinite expressions. of the house depend on the eye of the superior,

No.I. Pol. I.

accurate

that nothing is too trifling for her notice, byli must be charged.-Perhaps the irregularity of which waste may be avoided.

payment may have much evil influence on the “ If a lady has not been accustomed, whilst price of various articles, and contribute to the single, to think of fansily management (a cir- i destruction of many families in gradation down. cumstance, however, which should not be ne wards. glected in education), let her noty upon that ac “ It is very necessary that a woman should count, fear that she cannot attain it; she may || know the price and quality of all articles in comconsult others that are more experienced, and mon use, and the best times and places of puracquaint herself with the necessary quantities of chasing them. the several articles of family expenditure, in pro “ A false notion of economy leads many to portion to the number it consists of.

purchase as bargains what is not wanted, and A minute account of the annual income, sometimes never used. Were this error avoided, and the times of payment, should be taken in more money would remain for other purposes. writing; likewise an estimate of the supposed “ Some things are better for keeping, and, amount of each article of expence; and those || being in constant consumption, should be laid in who are early accustomed to calculations on do accordingly; such as paper, soap, and candles, mestic subjects, will acquire so

a Of these inore hereafter. knowledge of what their establishment requires “ A proper quantity of household goods should as will give them the happy medium between | always be ready, and more bought in, before the prodigality and parsimony, without acquiring others are consumed, to prevent inconvenieiice, the character of meanness.

especially in the eountry. “ Ready money should be paid for all such * A bill of parcels and receipts should be rethings as come not into weekly bills; and the quired, even if the money be paid at the time of best places for purchasing be industriously purchase ; and to avoid mistakes, let the goods inquired out. In teas, particularly, a large dis- | be compared with these when brought home” count is allowed in London, and other cities; “ Meats, sugars, &c. &c. should be weighed and those who thus pay are usually best | when brought in, and compared with the charges. served.

The butcher should be ordered to send the “ Under the idea of buying cheap, people weight with the meat, and the cook to file these usually go to new shops; but it is safest to go to checks to be examined when the weekly bill tradesmen of established credit, and acknow shall be delivered. ledged fair dealers, who do not dispose of their “ Thus regularly conducted, the exact state goods by underselling.

of money affairs will be known with ease; for it “ To make people wait for their money in- is delay of payment which occasions confusion." jures them greatly, besides that a higher price

(To be continued.)

BOTANY.

Directions for forming a Collection of dried Plants, or Hortus Siccus.

That science which teaches us to distinguish || of a plant, and its use. This we shall accordingly one plant from another, and leads us to tlie | do in a future Essay; but we must first premise knowledge of its properties, is called Botany. a few necessary hints and general observations.

To the credit of the age, this science which || Our fair readers, therefore will receive this as had been so long neglected in this country, is their first lesson in Botany. cultivated with considerable success, and some The first object of a student is to acquire an knowledge of Botany, and the management of accurate knowledge of every plant as it falls in the Flower-Garden, is thought necessary to com her way, whether straying in the fields, or walkplete the education of a fashionable female. ing in the green-house. She must possess what

In this and the following Essay, it is not our may be called a Botanical eye, that she may be intention to go into the more abstruse, parts of able to examine with readiness the stems, the the science, but to give some precepts easily re leaves in all their varieties, the mode of infiotained, and highly useful to the lovers of Botany. rence, and all the other conspicuous parts of a

To teach this science properly, we must make || plant, so as to distinguish it with accuracy from the student acquainted with every particular part I those which resemble it. In this way she learns

to know plants by their external appearance or for some minutes, and then dried in blossoin habit.

paper, in the usual way; but the paper must be With this knowledge, however, she must not often changed. The flowers must not be allowed be contented, but endeavour to attain an intimate to get wet, and they must be pressed softly. acquaintance with the parts of the flower of the 6. Succulent, and at the same time, tender fruit; so as to be able to form distinct characters | plants, such as the Iris, must be dried between from these particulars; and till she has attained folds of writing paper; but this paper must not this acquaintance, her knowledge cannot be said || be opened till the whole plant is thoroughly to rest on scientific principles. To derive the dry. proper advantages from such knowledge, she

7. The Lechens are dried in the common must endeavour to imprint the form of the plants way. upon her memory. But, as from the immense 8. But the Musci mast be carefully plucked number of plants, this is almost impossible, and asunder, and thrown into a vessel of water, and often at particular seasons of the year, plants, then laid between two leaves of moistened writwhich we wish to compare together, are not to | ing paper, which may be put in an old book, be found, we must endeavour to assist ourselves, with a considerable weight upon it. by a collection of dried plants, usually called, a 9. A press is likewise used for thistles and Hortus Siccus, or Herbarium.

other strong leaved plants. The rules to be observed in forming such a col. 10. The Fungi are not easily preserved; but lection, are the following:

the smaller kind may be dried; and a few of the RULES FOR FORMING A HORTUS larger may be prepared by plunging them into SICCUS.

boiling water, 1. The plant is to be laid between folds of

When a collection of dried plants is thus made blossom paper, the parts of it properly spread the first slep to the knowledge of Botany) they out, and the paper often changed, that the plant

are to be laid each in a sheet of white paper, and may not shrivel or become black.- This is to be arranged according to some system, and kept in done in a place moderately warm, where the sun

a close cabinet, that they may not be eaten by enters freely, and the current of air is not inter- insects. rupted.

In the drawers of such cabinets may be placed 2. In drying the plant, care must be had, that small bits of sponge, dipped in oil of rosemary, we give the parts no direction which is unnatural by which these depredators may be kept off. to them; for instance, we must not give to a flow Some Botanists, and Linnæus himself, advise er which naturally hangs duwn, an erect posi- the glueing or pasting of the plants to paper ; tion; flower-stalks that are attached to one side, but many inconveniencies attend this practice; must not be turned to both; a bent or procum. for in this case we can only see one side of the bent stem, must be preserved in that state, &c. leaf or the flower, and when it is small we can.

3. The plants must be gathered at that parti- not see it all. For a botanist, it is much more cular season, when they possess all the characters convenient to keep the plants loose, because it by which they are distinguished from others. is often necessary to unfold the flowers, and obIf ti difference be found in the root, in the ra serve their forms, and we can occasionally subdical leaves, or in the fruit; those parts, as be- stitute a better specimen for an indifferent one, ing essential to a right discrimination of it, must which is not so easily done when the plant is not be wanting.

pasted. If the student, however, wishes to fit 4. Plants must not be gathered in moist wea his plants, slips of paper may be used, laid over ther, because at that time they generally turn the stem, and pasted on both sides; or they may black in drying; and when it so happens, they be fixed with a thread. must be left to dry for some time in the air.

In our next we shall describe the outer sur. 5. Succulent plants are dried either with a face or exterior qualities of plants, by which they warm stone or hot iron; or, which is better, may be easily known, and the students guided they are dipt in boiling water, and kept there in their collection.

(To be continued.]

G2

HERALDRY.

SIR,

Observing that you have devoted a portion of your Magazine to a familiar elucidation of the Science of Heraldry, I offer myself to undertake this department. My claim, as an Instructor of your Readers, is that of nearly thirty years passed in the study of Heraldry, which is likewise my profession.

So much has been already written about the fairly; ever ready to accept and acknowledge su. origin of Armorial Ensigns, without coming 10 perior information or to bow to correction. any positive decision upon the subject, that it The first rudiments of any science are generally seems as it would be wasting time either to renew dry and barren of entertainment; in Heraldry the question, or repeat the assertions or argu this is particularly the case, for though its prace ments of others. The modern use, too, is so dif tice is the object of daily and hourly observation ferent from antiquity, that a description of the and interest, its origin and laws are so connected one would scarcely be in the slightest degree ap with the remotest antiquity, that it is difficult to plicable to the other. The modern use, how relish or comprehend the one, without a refer. ever, is apparent, and it will therefore be perhaps ence to and taste for the other. more easy, and very probably more ag:eeable, to To obviate this, I propose to divide my future exemplify the ancient by the modern, than the papers on the subject into two parts :- 1st. A modern by the ancient.

Summary Detail on the Laws and Regulations of I propose, therefore, to take, for the present, | Heraldry and Blazon, as now practised; and the practice as we find it; to speak of that prac 2dly, Of such Heraldic Anecdotes, of ancient tice as we think it deserves, and occasionally, of or modern Dates, as may appear to offer amusecourse, to compare the manners of our contem

ment or interest to my readers, and serve as a poraries with those of our ancestors. In doing kind of comment on the first. this we shall endeavour to avoid all interference

I am, &c.

JP with the Professors of the Science of Heraldry, N. B. Any Heraldic Queries, transmitted while, at the same time, we shall claim the pri- | through the Editor to the writer of this article, vilege of offering our sentiments candidly and will obtain an answer.

FINE ARTS.

M. DE WICAR's
Account of the Education, Talents, Works, &c. of the late celebrated Painter,

M. Harriet.

SIR,

success; but the rapidity of his progress was con"' I received your letter, in which you re-l spicuous, as soon as he entered the Academy of quested some details of the late M. Harriet, an M. David, the first painter to the Emperor of artist of the most distinguished talents.

the French, and most assuredly, with the single “ What I shall venture to say of him, must | reservation of the English West, one of the first be brief, as I was only acquainted with him artists in Europe of the present age. After during the two years that I studied with him at having obtained all the Academy prizes, our M. David's Academy. You must therefore young artist disputed the principal laurel for the consider my narrative rather as my obse, va- l year 1794. The subject was, The Funeral of tions of his studies, than a continued history of Junius Brutus. Harriet was then only 17 or 18 the different epochs of the life and works of that years of age; he produced, however, a painting distinguished Painter, having been deprived of full of force, sentiment, expression, and dignity, his company since the year 1796, the time in a promise of what might one day be expected which I left Paris, till the moment of his arrival of him. at Rome.

The Judges, composed of the most cele“His first studies were constantly crowned with Il brated artists and literary men, adjudged him the

nence.

palm, after a most learned and scientific public conceptions of the nature of his su'vject. He discussion, of which I was witnes.

traced out no study, he made no preliminary “ This triumph was highly important to young sketches like many great masters. It was ou tlie Harriet, as many competitors disputed with him naked canvass that he composed, it was here the honour, who appeared to possess a more alone that he traced and painted from nature, consuminate talent in some details of the art, and every object that was to form the composition of who have enjoyed in France a well-merited re that great work. If that buld, and almost unex. putation among the painters of the first emi-ampled method in the annals of painting has

dilficulties which are not alwayss timely disco“ After so brilliant a success, obtained with | vered, it has indubitably the inestimable adsuch honours, what might not have been ex vantage of giving that vivacity, energy, soul, pected from the exalted talents that our young and even movement, and particularly that origiartist evinced? If the circumstances of the French nal truth, which is necessarily diminished when Revolution had not constantly opposed the de- copies are made from things already copied. parture of the State Pen ioners to Rome, Har This is the true character which has exalted ihe siet might have adorned that city since the year name of M. Harriet, in what he has left us of 1795; but he continued to study with the great- his painting; the same energy, the same design, est success at the Academy of our illustrious | the same sentiment of expression, of colouring, master, and his progress was so astonishing, that and of touch, which distinguishes the works of David himself was proud of the productions of the celebrated David, and to the extent, that an artist who seemed to have understood the the beholder might be induced to believe, that great maxims which have assigned to him alınost | the production is entirely from the pencil vi that the first place in modern painting.

illustrious inaster. “ What shall I say of his arrival at Rome? “ Death has lately torn this valuable artist he caire there with the project of executing one from the praises and fond hopes of the nation. of the most brilliant and difficult subjects of His loss is universally regretted at Rome, partiRoman history : Horatius Cocles defending the cularly among the artists, and the amateurs of Sublician Bridge against the whole Army of Por- the art: his personal qualities corresponded with senna, a painting of about 20 feet long, by 26 his great talents. wide.

“ I have neither solicitude nor talent for the “ Persuaded, like his master, that it was at profession of writing, it is solely to satisfy your Rome alone where such subjects should be ex- desires, to render homage to truth, and to pay a ecuted, he brought with him some exquisite tribute to the illustrious master who adurns the colours, made at Paris, and commenced the French nation, and to his exalted student who is painting of the dimensions, in a manner which no more, that has induced me to send you the astonished the boldest and most enterprising ar above sketch. tist. Scarcely had he marked out the first figure, “ I entreat you to accept my highest consiand the first groups on the vast canvass, than he deration, and am, Sir, resolved completely to change his sketch : Rone

Yours, &c. had already exalted his ideas, and given him new

WICAR."

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SOME ACCOUNT OF THE LATE JAMES BARRY, R. A.

SIR, As I perceeide that it falls within the plan of your Miscellany to consider the Fine Arts as holding no inconsiderable rank in the amusement and instruction of polished society, I avail myself of this opportunity to give you some account of the late James Barry, a Painter of the English School, and who, with all his eccentricities, must ever be regarded by men of taste and genius, as inferior to one Artist only of the present day; I mean the late President of the Royal Academy; and in pronouncing hinn second only to him, I conceive, Sir, that I cannot soar much higher in my encomiums.

The fine arts were deprived of this distinguish Mr. Barry was born in the year 1738-9. His ed Painter on Saturday, Feb. 22. He died at the parents were settled at Cork, in Ireland. They house of a friend, Mr. Bonami, in Titchfield- | intended to have educated him as a Priest for the street. His death was occasioned by an apo- || Roman Catholic Church; but he discovered in plectic fit.

very early youth an aversion to this plan of life,

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