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Engraved june 1. 1806.frIchn Pillbeuthampton Stud. Brand.

es the Ithericke opretty for Sa Poolte Ajsembla

Bell's

COURT AND FASHIONÁBLE

MAGAZINE,

For MAY, 1806.

BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES

OF

ILLUSTRIOUS LADIES.

The Fourth Number.

THE QUEEN OF WIRTEMBURGH.

HER ROYAL HIGHNESS CHARLOTTE Her Royal Highness, the present Queen Augusta Matilda, Princess Royal of of Wurtemburg, can scarcely be said to England, and wife to his Majesty the pre- have lived a public life till her marriage. seut King of Wurtemburg, was born | In the domestic retirement of her own Sept. 29, 1766, and married May 18, 1797, family she was always distinguished for the to his

Highness Frederick Charles felicity of her talents and the amiable quaWilliam, at that time Hereditary Prince, || lities of her heart. For those accomplishbut who became, upon the death of his ments which are considered as the ornafather, in the year 1798, Reigning Duke ments of her sex, she evinced an early of Wurtemburg Stutgard; and has since taste, and her ambition led her beyond the been elevated to the kingly dignity, and common boundaries of female education. received a considerable accession of terri- She became at an early period, a mistress tory and power.

of almost all the modern languages of EuOur readers have already perceived that rope, and such was her thirst of knowit is not within the plan of our biographical ledge, that she attained to considerable sketches to enter into the details of private excellence in every branch of polite litelife or character, but to connect with the || rature. genealogical account of distinguished per Such were the accomplishments of this sonages such historical facts, or incidental | amiable lady previous to her marriage.descriptions, which, so long as they do Since her union with the King of Wurtemnot violate the integrity of our plan, are burg, she has been removed beyond the infinitely more amusing and instructive reach of the common biographer; but the than an indiscriminate profusion either of fame of her hospitality, and friendship eulogy or censure.

towards her countrymen, has reached us No. IV. Vol. I.

Аа

teenth year.

from the report of many who have tra However this may be, it is certain that velled in Germany, and who have acknow- the first Duke of Wirtemburgh was creledged, with much sensibility, the libera- | ated by the Emperor Maximilian the First, lity and kindness they have met at the

in 1495.

Ile was called Eberhard the Court of Stutgard.

First. He reigned over the Duchy but a In the late storms of the Continent the year, and was succeeded by Eberhard the ancient Duchy of Wirtemburgh hias been | Second. Eberhard, with a singular mothrown into a new shape, and assumed the desty, thinking himself incapable of reignrank it ought to fill among the States of iing, abdicated in favour of his brother, Germany. With this country every Eng- || who, in a short time, followed the example lishman has a natural relation; some ac of Eberhard, and the sceptre passed to count of it, therefore, will not be deemed bis son Ulrick, who, being an infant, uninteresting.

submitted to a regency, which he was Wirtemburgh in fertility, in natural || fortunate enough to shake off in his sixbeauties, in diversity of mountain and plain,-of wood and water, yields to no C'nder the reign of the Emperor Charles province of Germany. The wines of Wir

the Fifth, l'Irick was deprived of his kingtemburgh are celebrated not only in France, dom by the league of Swabia; and saw it Italy, Hungary, and in the Grecian Isles, || bestowed upon Ferdinand, the brother of but in the extremest parts of the North || his Conqueror. The duchy remained unand of the East,-in Russia and Persia. l der the Austrian dominion from 1519 to Wirtemburgh has likewise to boast other

1534, when Philip, the Landgrave of Hesse, favours of Providence; baths and mineral || assisted by France, re-established Ulrick, waters; and her three celebrated rivers, and, a league having dethroned him, a the Necker, the Ens, and the Rems. The league was made to protect him. A concountry is divided by a small chain of dition however was attached to the duchy, mountains in two parts. Unter Steig is that the Princes should receive their inthe name of that portion of country be- || vestitures from the bands of the Emperor. yond the mountains; Oier Steig is the The children of Ulrick died without name of the expanse below them.

posterity in the year 1795. Frederick, the The Castle of Wirtemburgh, delight- | nephew of Clrick, succeeded to the estates fully ituated on the Necker, is the resi of his uncle, and became the origin and dence of the Princes of Wirtemburgh; a founder of the present Ilouse of Wirfamily as ancient as any in Germany, but | temburgh. whose origin, with that of many other dy Frederick obtained from Rodolph the nasties, is lost in the obscurity of feudal Second an exemption from all kinds of genealogies, and the confusion of remote vassalage by the payment of 425,000 flualliances.

rins; but it was agreed, should the llouse The antiquity of the House only is of Wirtemburgh become extinct, that the known; the stream cannot be traced to its line of Austria should inherit the duchy.

The Lay Electors, who refused to acknowBy some it is said that the House of ledge the original vassalage of WirtemWirtemburgh descended from the French burgh, disputed likewise the right of sucKings, and that Clovis bestowed upon a cession in Austria, alleging, in case of the German Baron, of his own blood, the ter extinction of tlie Wirtemburgh fainily, ritory of Wirtemburgh as a royal fiet-that the succession, eventually, belonged Some contend that Conrad, the first Earl, to the Empire. or Count, of Wirtemburgh, received his In 17.10, on the death of Charles the dignities from Henry the Fourth of Ger- || Sixth, the male race of Charles the Fifth many. The confusion is easily cleared up. becoming extinct, the Dukes of WirtemA French King, Clovis or some other, || burgh considered themselves exempt from gave the original fief at a time when the all feudal dependence; but it was preFrench Monarchs had the whole sway oftended that the House of Lorraine succeedGermany, and the Emperor of Germany led to all the rights of the House of Austria. conferred the personal honours.

This question would have remained unde

source.

cided to this day but for the treaty of || raised his country so high in the estimation Presburgh, which, by elevating Wirtem- of Lurope. burgh to the dignity of a kingdom, hias The population of the States of Wirtememancipated her from all feudal, obsolete, i burgh does not exceed 700,000; their reand oppressive vassalage.

venue is about five millions of Horins. Under Ulrick the Protestant religion was The five cities of the Danube; Ehingen, established in Vitemburgh.

with the rich Abbey of Benedictines; Among the Princes of li irtenburgh the Munder hingen, in a position naturally forname of Charles Eugene is most cele-tified; Riedlingen, Mengen, and Swalgau, brated; he was a patron of the arts and with their fertile territories; the Upper sciences, and several useful establishments and Lower Province of Hohenburgh, were formed under his reign, which was which contains so many wealthy seiguories, long and giorjous. Le protected industry and wisich, by its situation in the Black and commerce; he collected a splendid Forest, gives a superior compactness to library at Stutgard, and augmented the Wirtemburglı, are among the valuable posglory and powei of his fan.ily.

sessions of this duchy. In 1782, the niece of Charles Eugene, It can cause no regret that this ancient the mother of the piesent reigning Emperor state is thus raised in the scale of empire, of Russia, was married to the Grand Duke and though we may all lament the circumPaul, who afterwards became Emperor ofstances which have occasioned it, and the all the Russias, and whose folly and tyranny hands which liave constructed the edifice; caused him to be cut ort by private assas- it must be the common wish that it may sination. This alliance was a glorious flourish with safety and glory through all epoch for the Sovereigns of Wirtemburgh, the storms and contentions which we fore. and particularly for that Prince who had || see in Germany.

ORIGINAL CORRESPONDENCE.

CRITIQUE ON IIUMOUR

THE celebrated St Evremond gave the follow- | the mind, who, by this remedy, has affected ing advice to his friend the Count d'Olonne, who many miraculous cures, shall be my guide. The was exiled from the Court of Louis XIV. “The English call this antidote humour. Aristophanes, unfortunate ought not to read books which ex- among the Greeks, was the first inventor of ii; cite affliction at the misery of men, but rather and, after him, Lucian, and subsequent authors, such as invite them to amuse themselves at their carried it to perfection. Plautus, Horace, Petrofolly; prefer then, Lucian, Petronius, and Donnius, Seneca, among the ancient Romans; and Quixote, to Seneca, Plutarch, and Montagne.” Jamong the mod-ro Latinists, Erasmus, Chancellor In my early youth, chance made me acquainted Moore and lovely Among the Italians, Pulci, with this passage, and I have since sunietimes Ariosto, Cesar Caporali, Passeroni, Gozzi, Gol. reflected on this grand truth, that events, appa- doni. Among the Spaniards, Cervantes, Que. rently of little importance, have often the great. vedo, Mattheo Allemann, Husado de Mendoza, est influence on the happiness or misery of men, Liego de Luna, Duis Velez de Guevara, and in the course of their lives.

Father Isla, Among the French, Rabelais, The lively impression which the counsel of Cyran de Bergerac, Sorel, Moliere, Regnard, St. Evremond made on my mind, engaged me Dufresnoy, la Fontaine, and Scaron in his Roman early to follow it; and as often as vexatious Comique. Ainong the English, Shakespeare, cvents, or other causes, affected me too strongly, Ben Johnson, Builer, Congreve, Farquhar, Swift, I had recourse to his remedy, and always with the Addison, Steele, Arbuthnot, Fielding, Smolle!, most happy success. An enquiry into the na Sterne, &c. &c. I say nothing of the Germans, ture of this powerful antidote against inelancholy, and beg my readers will fill up the chasm. By will not perhaps be displeasing to those who, mentioning no one,

none of that country, tormented by its black vapours, may stand in need who may have pretensions to humour, can be of such assistance. celebrated physician of || offended at being forgotten.

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