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and now is the whole man governed with one: so that if he have wit enough to keep himself warm, let him bear it for a difference between himself and his horse; for it is all the wealth that he hath left, to be known a reasonable creature.-Who is his companion now? He hath every month a new sworn brother.

MESS. Is it possible?

BEAT. Very easily possible: he wears his faith"

And, in another part:

"But if a phrenzy do possess the brain,

"It so disturbs and blots the forms of things,

"As fantasy proves altogether vain,

"And to the wit no true relation brings.

"Then doth the wit, admitting all for true,

"Build fond conclusions on those idle grounds-."

The wits seem to have been reckoned five, by analogy to the

five senses, or the five inlets of ideas. JOHNSON.


if he have wit enough to keep himself warm, let him bear it for a difference &c.] Such a one has wit enough to keep himself warm, is a proverbial expression.

So, in Heywood's Epigrams on Proverbs:

"Wit kept by warmth."

"Thou art wise inough, if thou keepe thee warme,

"But the least colde that cumth, kilth thy wit by harme." Again, in The Wise Woman of Hogsden, 1638: "You are the wise woman, are you? and have wit to keepe yourself warm enough, I warrant you." Again, in Cynthia's Revels, by Ben Jonson: " - your whole self cannot but be perfectly wise; for your hands have wit enough to keep themselves warm.

To bear any thing for a difference, is a term in heraldry. So, in Hamlet, Ophelia says:

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you may wear your rue with a difference."


sworn brother.] i. e. one with whom he hath sworn (as was anciently the custom among adventurers) to share fortunes. See Mr. Whalley's note on-" we'll be all three swornbrothers to France," in King Henry V. Act II. sc. i. STEEVENS.


he wears his faith-] Not religious profession, but profession of friendship; for the speaker gives it as the reason of

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but as the fashion of his hat, it ever changes with the next block.1

MESS. I see, lady, the gentleman is not in books.2


her asking, who was now his companion? that he had every month a new sworn brother. WARBURTON.


with the next block.] A block is the mould on which a hat is formed. So, in Decker's Satiromastix :

SC. vi.

"Of what fashion is this knight's wit? of what block?” See a note on King Lear, Act IV. The old writers sometimes use the word block, for the hat itself. STEEVENS.

the gentleman is not in your books.] This is a phrase used, I believe, by more than understand it. To be in one's books is to be in one's codicils or will, to be among friends set down for legacies. JOHNSON.

I rather think that the books alluded to, are memorandumbooks, like the visiting books of the present age. So, in Decker's Honest Whore, Part II. 1630:

"I am sure her name was in my table-book once." Or, perhaps the allusion is to matriculation at the University. So, in Aristippus, or The Jovial Philosopher, 1630:

"You must be matriculated, and have your name recorded in Albo Academiæ.”

Again: "What have you enrolled him in albo? Have you fully admitted him into the society?-to be a member of the body academic?"

Again: "And if I be not entred, and have my name admitted into some of their books, let," &c.

And yet I think the following passage in The Maid's Revenge, by Shirley, 1639, will sufficiently support my first supposition: "Pox of your compliment, you were best not write in her table-books."

It appears to have been anciently the custom to chronicle the small beer of every occurrence, whether literary or domestic, in table-books.

So, in the play last quoted:

"Devolve itself!-that word is not in my table-books." Hamlet likewise has,-" my tables," &c.

Again, in The Whore of Babylon, 1607 :

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"His name hath in her tables."

BEAT. No: an he were, I would burn my study. But, I pray you, who is his companion? Is there no young squarer3 now, that will make a voyage with him to the devil?

Again, in Acolastus, a comedy, 1540:

We weyl haunse thee, or set thy hame into our felowship boke, with clappynge of handes," &c.

I know not exactly to what custom this last quoted passage refers, unless to the album; for just after, the same expression occurs again: that “ -from henceforthe thou may'st have a place worthy for thee in our whyte: from hence thou may'st have thy name written in our boke."

It should seem from the following passage in The Taming of a Shrew, that this phrase might have originated from the Herald's Office:

"A herald, Kate! oh, put me in thy books!"

After all, the following note in one of the Harleian MSS. No. 847, may be the best illustration:


"W. C. to Henry Fradsham, Gent. the owner of this book: "Some write their fantasies in verse

"In theire bookes where they friendshippe shewe,
"Wherein oft tymes they doe rehearse

"The great good will that they do owe," &c.


This phrase has not been exactly interpreted. To be in a man's books, originally meant to be in the list of his retainers. Sir John Mandeville tells us, "alle the mynstrelles that comen before the great Chan ben witholden with him, as of his houshold, and entred in his bookes, as for his own men. ✓ FARMER.

A servant and a lover were in Cupid's Vocabulary, synonymous. Hence perhaps the phrase-to be in a person's bookswas applied equally to the lover and the menial attendant.



There is a MS. of Lord Burleigh's, in the Marquis of Lansdowne's library, wherein, among many other household concerns, he has entered the names of all his servants, &c. Douce. young squarer-] A squarer I take to be a cholerick, quarrelsome fellow, for in this sense Shakspeare uses the word to square. So, in A Midsummer-Night's Dream, it is said of Oberon and Titania, that they never meet but they square. So the sense may be, Is there no hot-blooded youth that will keep him company through all his mad pranks? JOHNSON.

MESS. He is most in the company of the right noble Claudio.

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BEAT. O Lord! he will hang upon him like a disease: he is sooner caught than the pestilence, and the taker runs presently mad. God help the noble Claudio! if he have caught the Benedick, it will cost him a thousand pound ere he be cured. MESS. I will hold friends with you, lady.

BEAT. Do, good friend.

LEON. You will never run mad, niece.
BEAT. No, not till a hot January.

MESS. Don Pedro is approached.

Enter Don PEDRO, attended by BALTHAZAR and others, Don JOHN, CLAUDIO, and BENEDICK.

D. PEDRO. Good signior Leonato, you are come to meet your trouble: the fashion of the world is to avoid cost, and you encounter it.

LEON. Never came trouble to my house in the likeness of your grace: for trouble being gone, comfort should remain; but, when you depart from me, sorrow abides, and happiness takes his leave.

D. PEDRO. You embrace your charge too willingly.—I think, this is your daughter.

LEON. Her mother hath many times told me so.

your charge-] That is, your burden, your incumbrance. JOHNSON.

Charge does not mean, as Dr. Johnson explains it, burden, incumbrance, but "the person committed to your care." So it is used in the relationship between guardian and ward. Douce.

BENE. Were you in doubt, sir, that you



LEON. Signior Benedick, no; for then were you a child.

D. PEDRO. You have it full, Benedick: we may guess by this what you are, being a man. Truly, the lady fathers herself: -Be happy, lady! for you are like an honourable father.

BENE. If signior Leonato be her father, she would not have his head on her shoulders, for all Messina, as like him as she is.

BEAT. I wonder, that you will still be talking, signior Benedick; no body marks you.

BENE. What, my dear lady Disdain! are you yet living?

BEAT. Is it possible, disdain should die, while she hath such meet food to feed it, as signior Benedick? Courtesy itself must convert to disdain, if you come in her presence.


BENE. Then is courtesy a turn-coat-But it is certain, I am loved of all ladies, only you excepted and I would I could find in my heart that I had not a hard heart; for, truly, I love none.

BEAT. A dear happiness to women; they would else have been troubled with a pernicious suitor. I thank God, and my cold blood, I am of your hu

-fathers herself: This phrase is common in Dorsetshire: "Jack fathers himself;" i. e. is like his father. STEEVENS.


Is it possible, disdain should die, while she hath such meet food to feed it, as signior Benedick?] A kindred thought occurs in Coriolanus, Act II. sc. i:

"Our very priests must become mockers, if they encounter such ridiculous subjects as you are." STEEVENS.

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