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few or many.
to spy out the land : and Moses called Hoshea the son of Nun, Joshua. "And Moses sent them to search the land of Canaan, and said unto them, Go up this way southward, and go up into the mountain. 18 And see the land what it is, and the people that dwelleth thereon, whether they be strong or weak, whether they be
19 And what the land is that they dwell in, whether it be good or bad, and what the cities be that they dwell in: whether in tents or in strong-holds. 20 And what the land is, whether it be fat or lean, whether there be wood therein or not: and be ye of good courage, and take of the fruit of the land ; (Now the days were the days of the first ripe grapes.) * And they went up made king himself, his first name is restored : people: see the notes on Gen. xii. 15. So nevertheless, through all the scripture he is in Ps. lxvi. 4, Let all the earth bow dowo called Joshua, because he was accustomed to thee,' that is, all peoples of the earth: thereto already.” By this reason, the change likewise in Ps. xcvi. ), and cx. 1, and often in of his name should seem to diminish from his the scriptures. So, house' for household, dignity ; whereas it was changed for his hon- or people in it, Gen. xlv. 11, 18. Cities' our ; as were the names of Abram, Sarai, for citizens, Josh. xvii. 12. WHETHER Jacob, and others, Gen. xvii. 5, 15; xxxii. THEY,] Heb. whether it be strong, &c. speak28 ; Neh. ix. 7; Is. Ixii. 2; Mark iii. 16, ing of the people, as one in multitude. 17.
Ver. 19.GOOD OR BAD,] This seemeth Ver. 17.-SOUTAWARD,] Or, by the south; to respect the wholesomeness of the country, as in ver. 22, meaning, “the south part of for air, waters, &c. as in 2 Kings ii. 19, the land of Canaan," as Chazkuni explaineth 'the situation of this country is good, but the it. For that was nearest unto them, and the water is bad, and the land causeth to misworst part of the land, because it was wilder. carry.' To this Chazkupi referreth it, saying, ness, and waterless, as the original word "or bad, if it cause the inhabitants thereof to Neyeb signifieth dry ground: and Caleb's miscarry, or to be barren,” as 2 Kings ii. daughter said to her father, Thou hast given 19, and hereupon they answered, “It is a me a south (that is, a dry) land, give me also land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof,' springs of water,' Judg. i. 15, and, rivers Num. xiji. 32. IN TENTS,] Or, in camps, in the south,' Ps. cxxvi. 4, meaneth, refresh. troops: the Chald. calleth them, villages (or ing after bondage and affliction. The Gr. unwalled towns,) the Gr. changeth the order here translateth, go up by this wilderness: saying, in walled or in unwalled towns. and so in that part was a wilderness, Josh. VER. 20.-FAT OR LEAN,] This respectxv. 1-3. And Sol. Jarchi saith, “Go up eth the soil itself, which if it be .fat' is ferthis way by the south; that was the worst tile ; il lean,' barren. The Chald. changpart of the land of Israel: for so is the manner eth the metaphor, saying, “ whether it be of merchants ; they show the worst things rich or poor.” So in Neh. ix. 25, 35, first, and afterward they show the best.” • They took strong cities, and a fat land;' and THE MOUNTAIN,] Which was inhabited by in Ezek. xxxiv. 14, ‘fat pasture.' Woop,] Amalekites, Canaanites, and Amorites, Num. Or, trees, as the Gr. and Chald. interpret it, siv. 40, 45; Deut. i. 44. Of this, Chazku- and Thargum Jonathan, trees of food ; that ni giveth a reason thus; “And when ye is, of fruit to be eaten. BE YE OF GOOD shall know how to subdue the mountain, the COURAGE,] Or, strengthen, encourage yourvalley will be easy to subdue.”
selves. THE FIRST RIPE GRAPES,] Or, the VER. 18.–THE LAND WHAT IT is,] This first fruits of grapes. And then, as Chazis again repeated in ver. 19, and the third kuni observeth, “ They had need to have time in ver. 20, which may thus be distin. courage, because the keepers (of the vineguished: by the land' here, is meant, the yards) watched them there. people' of the land, as aster Moses explain- VER. 21.–Of zin, ] Or, of Tsin : there eth it; by the land,' in ver. 19, is meant, was a wilderness into which they came bethe air of the country, and the cities, villages, fore, called “Sin,' so named of an Egyptian tents, which were by the hand of man set city Sin near it, Exod. xvi. 1; Ezek. xxx. thereon; and by the land,' in ver. 20, is 15, 16. This desert of “Zin,' seemeth to meant the soil or ground itself, and fruits be so named, as being a thorny wilderness; that
AND THE PEOPLE,] And for Zinnim (in the form plural) signifieth is here for explanation, that is, or, I mean the 'thorns,'. Job v. 5. And as the former Vol. II.
and searched the land, from the wilderness of Zin, unto Rehob, to the entrance of Hamath. 2 And they went up by the south, and he came unto Chebron: and there were Ahiman, Sheshai and Talmai, the children of Anak: now Hebron was built seven years, before Zoan in Egypt. And they came unto the bourne of Eshcol, and cut down from thence a branch, and one cluster of grapes;
Sin' bordered upon · Egypt,' so · Zin' bor. “Who is my brother?" and that he was so dered on the land of Canaan,' Num, xxxiv. called, because “none in the world was bro3, 4; Josh. xv. 3. RenoB,] Or, Rechob, ther to him (that is, like unto him) in called in Gr. Roob, (as • Rechabham or Re- strength:” yet Caleb slew him and his two hoboam,' i Kings xii. 1, is written in Gr. by brethren; Josh. xv. 14; Judg. i. 10. SHEthe Holy Spirit, Roboam,' Matt. i. 7.) SHAI,] In Gr. Sesei. TALMAI] In Gr. This • Rehob' was a city in the west part of Thelamei. CHILDREN OF ANAK] In Gr. the land of Canaan, near unto Sidon, which generations of Enak: in Chald. sons of the fell by lot to the tribe of Aser, Josh. xix. 28; giant (or, of the mighty man.) Anak was Judg: i. 31. TO THE ENTRANCE,] Or, to the son of Arba, whereupon Chebron was in the entering in of Hamath : so in Num. former times called Kirjah Arba, that is, xxxiv. 8; Josh, xiii. 5; Judg. iii. 3; Amos the city of Arba,' Josh. xv. 13; Gen. xxiü. vi. 14, and so the Chald, here translateth it, 2. BEFORE ZOAN,] Or, Tsoan, called in Hamath or Chamath, called also • Hemath Gr. and Chald. Tanes: (as of Tsor or Zor, is the great,' Amos vi. 2, was a city on the Tyrus in Gr.) This declareth not only the north part of Canaan, and on the east side, antiquity of Chebron, but by consequence the (as • Rehob' was on the west) Num. xxxiv. goodness of the land. For the Anakims 8; Josh, xiii. 5. By this description of which reigned over all, seated themselves in their voyage, they went from south to north, the best places. Sol. Jarchi saith; “It may and from west to east, so viewing the whole be that Cham builded Chebron for his younger land. This • Hamath' is in Thargum Jona- son Canaan, before he builded Zoan for Mizthan called • Antiochia,' (and so Hamath raim his elder son, &c. Of all countries, was aster named of king' Antiochus:) and it none excelled Egypt; as it is written, ‘Like was situated under mount Lebanon, by the the garden of the Lord, like the land of river Jabok.
Egypt,' (Gen. xiii. 10.) And Zoan was the VER. 22.-By the south,] Or, south. most excellent in the land of Egypt, for ward; Gr. by the wilderness: see ver. 17. there the kings dwelt, as it is written, • For AND HE CAME TO CHEBRON,] Or, unto He. his princes were at Zoan,' (Is. XXX. 4,) but bron; a place in the south parts of Canaan, Chebron was seven times better than it." where Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, with their VER. 23.—Bourne,) Or, ralley, brook. wives, had been buried, Gen. xxiii. 2, 19; The Heb. nachal signifieth both a valley, xlix. 31, see the notes on Gen. xiii. 18. By Gen. xxvi. 17, 19, and 'a river' or 'brook' "he came,' Sol. Jarchi and others, under- running in a valley: our English word stand “ Caleb only;" as if the twelve spies .bourne,' answereth to them both. Eshcol' went not in one company, but one or two of signifieth a 'cluster;' and of the Israelites them together: and Caleb's coming thither is cutting of the cluster, this place had the specially mentioned in Josh. xiv. 9, the name, for a memorial, ver. 24. The Gr. land whereon thy feet have trodden, shall be translateth it, the valley of the cluster: this thine inheritance;' and in ver. 12, ‘now place is reported to have been in the tribe of therefore give me this mountain, whereof the Dan, within a little of the valley Sorek' Lord spake in that day;' and in ver. 14, mentioned in Judg. xvi. 4. A BRANCH,] Chebron 'therefore became the inheritance To wit, of a vine, “ and one cluster of grapes of' Caleb. Others understand he came,' upon it," as the Gr. version saith ; and so that is, “they came;" as Chazkuni saith, Jarchi explaineth it, “a branch of a vine, “ It is the manner of the scripture, to speak and a cluster of grapes hanging upon it.” ON of many spies and liers in wait, in the singu- A STAFF,] Or, on a bar; the Gr. translateth, lar number; as (in Josh. viii. 19,) The lier on bars (or levers) and omitteth the words in ambush rose quickly out of his place.”' following, .by two:' which seemeth to favour The Gr. translateth, “they came;" the Chald. the exposition that Chazkuni giveth here, hath in some copies “ Atha, he came;" in " they bar it on a bar of the branch, with other some “ Atho, they came.” Ahiman,) two other bars.” But the more simple and Or, as the Gr., writeth him, Achiman: he plain meaning is set down in Thargum Jonawas one on the heathen giants dwelling in than, thus, “ on a bar, on the shoulders of Chebron: the Hebs. interpret his name, two of them.”
and they bare it on a staff, by two: and (they brought) of the pomegranates, and of the figs. * That place was called the bourne of Eshcol, because of the cluster which the sons of Israel cut down from thence. 2 And they returned from searching the land at the end of forty days. 28 And they went and came to Moses and to Aaron, and to all the congregation of the sons of Israel, anto the wilderness of Pharan, to Kadesh: and brought back word unto them and unto all the congregation; and shewed them the fruit of the land. * And they told him, and said, We came unto the land whither thou sentest us: and surely it floweth with milk and honey, and this is the fruit of it. 2 Nevertheless, the people is strong that dwelleth in the land ; and the cities fenced very great: and moreover, we saw the children of Anak there. Amalek dwelleth in the land of the south : and the Chethite, and the Jebusite, and the Amorite dwelleth in the mountain ; and the Ca
VER. 25.—AT THE END OF FORTY DAYS,] PENCED,] With strong holds, high walls and In Gr. after forty days. In Thargum Jona- munition; the Gr. expresseth it by two than there is added, “in the month of Ab words, fenced, walled : in Deut. i. 28, and (which we call July) at the end of forty ix. 1, it is said, fenced up to heaven:' and days.” And Chazkuni explaineth it further, in Deut. jii. 5, fenced with high walls, that they began on the twenty-ninth “of Si- gates and bars. CHILDREN OF ANAK,] In van (which we name May) and ended on the Gr. the generation of Enak, in Chald. sons eighth of Ab (or July.") So many days, our of the giant : so in Deut. i. 28, the Gr. Lord Christ after his resurrection, viewed his translateth them, sons of the giants; see bedisciples, being seen of them forty days, fore on ver. 20. Of these there went a proActs i. 3. And according to this number of verb, “Who can stand before the sons of days, the Israelites had years allotted them to Anak?' Deut. ix. 2. And of the Gr. bor. wander and perish in the wilderness, because rowed the word Anakes, to signify kings: they believed not God, but refused to go into and by interpretation Anak signifieth & the good land proffered them, Num. xiv. 33, chain,' Prov. i. 9, which is an ornament for 34. Of the mystery in this number forty, kings and great personages, and of old, upon see more in the notes on Deut. xxv. 3. their beasts' necks also, Judg. viji. 26. And VER. 26.
To Kadesh,] Called also · Ka- many such men were chained with pride,' desh-barnea,' Deut. i. 19. There was a city as Ps. Ixxiii, 6. of the Edomites called • Kadesh,' Num. XX. VER, 29.--AMALEK,] That is, the Ama16, whereupon the wilderness by it was called lekites, the posterity of Amalek the son of also .Kadesh,' Ps. xxix. 8, and the same Esau; of whom see Exod. xvii. 8, &c. “Be. was called the wilderness of Zin,' Num. cause they had been smitten by Amalek, xxxiii. 36. Chazkuni here saith, “The (Deut. xxv. 17, 18,) the spies do now make wilderness of Pharao, and the wilderness of mention of him, to make them afraid,” saith Zin, and Hazeroth, and Kadesh-barnes, and Jarchi on Num. xiii. This Amalek (who Rithmah, (Num. xxxiii. 18,) were one near was the first of the nations,' Num. xxiv. to another." This Kadesh in Gr. Kades. 20, and an enemy to Israel) would hinder, as The Chald, nameth Rekam.
they thought, their entrance on the south VER. 27.—THEY TOLD HIM,] To wit, side. IN THE MOUNTAIN,] That is, the moun. Moses, in the hearing of all the congrega.
tains, or, as the Gr. translateth, the moun. tion.AND HONEY,] That is, with all good tainy part, for these nations here reckoned, things: see the notes on Exod. iii. 8. were the most mighty; and the Chethites Thus they acknowledged the truth of God's possessed mount Thabor, the Jebusites Jeru. promises; they said, “It is a good land salem and mountains about it, the Amorites which the Lord our God doth give unto us,' mount Heres, &c. Judg. xxi. 34-36, and Deut. i. 25.
these Amorites were high as cedars, and VER, 28.--NEVERTHELESS,] Or, but that. strong as oaks, Amos ii. 9, so the land This latter part of the speech, was from the seemed in their eyes impossible to be conten spies (not from Caleb or Joshua) who quered. THE COAST,) Or, side, Heb, the here take occasion to terrify the people from hand of Jordan; which was towards the east, going to possess the land, Deut. i. 28. as the sea was to the west.
naanite dwelleth by the sea, and by the coast of Jordan. Caleb stilled the people before Moses, and said, Going up, let us go up and possess it, for we are well able to overcome it.
31 But the men that went up with him, said, We be not able to go up against the people ; for they are stronger than we. 32 And they brought up an evil report of the land which they had searched, unto the sons of Israel, saying, The land through which we have gone to search it, is a land that eateth up the inhabitants thereof; and all the people that we saw within it are men of stature.
33 And there we saw the giants, the sons of Anak, which come of the giants : and we were in our own eyes as grasshoppers, and so we were in their eyes.
VER. 30.-CALEB,] And Joshua with him ful. EATETH UP,] consumeth ; in Chald. afterward, Num, xiv. 6, 7; though now at killeth the inhabitants ; which may be underfirst it may be Joshua purposely held his stood of their civil wars, whereby they depeace in prudence, because he was Moses' voured one another. For the Amorites had minister, and let Caleb speak. STILLED conquered the Moabites, Num. xxi. 28, 29; THE PEOPLE BEFORE Moses,] Or made the the Caphtorims (or Philistines) had destroyed people to keep silence before or unto) Moses: the Avims, Deui. ii. 23. This phrase was that is, the people beginning to murmur and afterwards used against the land, when the speak unto Moses and against him, Caleb heathens had destroyed the Israelites in it, stilled them. The Chald. expoundeth it, • thou (land) eatest up men, and hast bereav“ he made the people to attend (that is, to ed thy nations, Ezek. xxxvi. 13.
OF STAhearken) unto Moses ;" and Jonathan in his TURES,] Or, of dimensions of measures ; that Thargum saith, “ he stilled the people, and is, of great stature, tall, and great ; as the caused them to attend unto Moses." And it Gr. translateth, exceeding tall men.
And as appeareth by Deut. i. 29, 30; that Moses the prophet openeth it, 'high as cedars, himself spake to encourage the people ; but strong as oaks, Amos ii. 9. An example of they would not obey. AND SAID,] That is, such a man of stature, we have in 2 Sam. Caleb said, as the 31st ver. manifesteth ; and xxi. 20, that had on every hand six fingers, the Gr. addeth, he said unto him.
and on every foot six toes,' &c. ; and anoWELL ABLE TO OVERCOME IT,] Or, prevailing ther of an Egyptian five cubits high, with a we shall prevail over it meaning the land ; spear in his hand like a weaver's beam,' I which the Gr. explaineth, over them, the peo- Chron. xi. 23. So in Jer, xxii. 14, a house ple. And this was a speech of faith, believe of measures, (or of statures,) is for a large ing in the power and promise of God, for high house. Caleb now spake as it was in his heart, Josh. VER. 33.-Giants,) Heb. Nephilim, such xiv. 7.
as were before Noah's flood; see Gen, vi. 4, VER. 31.--BUT THE MEN,] Heb, and the with the annot. As GRASSHOPPERS,] Or, as men ; meaning ten of the twelve, all the locusts; that is, low, weak, base in compaother spies except Joshua, Num. xiv. 6. rison with them, So it is said of God, he
VER. 32.-AN EVIL REPORT,) an infamy sitteth upon the circle of the earth, and the or defamation : of which Solomon saith, ‘he inhabitants thereof are as grasshoppers,' Is. xl. that uttereth it is a fool,' Prov. x. 18. And 22. IN THEIR EYES,] That is, they so es. for this their sin, these men
• died by a teemed us. And by reason hereof, it may plague before the Lord,' Num. xiv. 37. This be the spies passed through their land more infamy, the Chald. calleth an evil name ; the safely, while these mighty men despised and Gr. here, a dread of the land ; but in Num. neglected them, as the Philistine disdained xiv. 36, the Gr. expoundeth it, evil words. to meddle with little David, 1 Sam. xvii. 24. And whereas the Heb. Dibbah, siguifieth but The Heb. doctors to show this, feign this exa speech or report, though commonly of faults planation, “ we heard them say one to anowhich may be done without sin ; the word ther, There are pismires in the vineyards, evil is added by Moses, in Num. xiv. 37; to like unto men." Chazkuni on Num. xiij. show that this their defamation was very sin- 33.
1. The Israelites weep and murmur at the news that the spies brought out of Canaan ; and speak of returning into Egypt. 6. Joshua and Caleb labour to still and encourage them, but the Israelites would have stoned them. 11. God threateneth to destroy the people. 13. Moses entreateth for them, and obtaineth pardon. 23. The murmurers are deprived of entering into the land, and condemned to wander forty years in the wilderness and die there. 36. The spies who raised the evil report, die by a plague. 39. The people hearing the sentence of God against them, mourn, and offer themselves to go up; but Moses forbiddeth them. 44. Yet they presume to go up, and are smitten by their enemies.
' AND all the congregation lifted up, and gave their voice, and the people wept that night. * And all the sons of Israel murmured against Moses and against Aaron : and all the congregation said unto them, Oh that we had died in the land of Egypt ! or, in this wilderness, oh that we might die! And wherefore doth Jehovah bring us into this land, to fall by the sword ? our wives and our little ones shall be for a prey: were it not better for us to return into Egypt? * And they said every man unto his brother, let us
Ver. 1.--LIFTED UP,] To wit, their voice, words of unbelief and despair, and of great as after followeth, and as is expressed in Gen. unthankfulness: compare Exod. xvi. 3; Ps. xxi. 16, she lifted up her voice and wept.' cvi. 24, 25. The Gr. translateth, if we were Or, all the congregation took up, that is, re- dead: which is a form of wishing, both in ceived, to wit, the evil report which the spies the Gr. and Heb. tongues, as in 1 Chron. iv. gave of the land, Num. xiii. 32. So the 10, if thou wilt bless me,' that is, “oh, phrase is used, in Exod. xxiii. 1, 6 thou shalt that thou wouldest bless me ;' so in Luke xii. not take up a vain report.' This latter, the 49, “if it were (for, oh, that it were) already Gr. Fersion favoureth. GAVE THEIR VOICE,] kindled ;' and so the Syriac version there That is, cried out. This manner of speech explaineth it. is used to signify any loud voice, noise, or Ver. 3.-TO FALL,] i. e. that we should cry of any creature, or of God himself; as fall, that is, die by the sword. Here they in Ps. xviii. 14, the Most High gave his murmur against God himself through unbevoice;' in Jer. ii. 15, the lions gave their lief; as David saith, they contemptuously voice ;' in Ps. civ. 12, the fowls give the refused the land of desire, (the pleasant land,) voice ;' in Ps. Ixxvii. 18, the skies gave a they believed not his word, but murmured in voice ;' in Hab. iii. 10, the deep gave his their tents; they heard not the voice of Jevoice ;' and in 2 Chron. xxiv. 9, men are hovah? Ps. coi. 24, 25. WERE IT NOT BETsaid to give a voice, when they made a pro- TER,] Or, were it not good! The Gr. clamation through Judah and Jerusalem. So changeth the phrase thus, ' now, therefore, this people here openly rebelled, and uttered it is better for us to turn back into Egypt.' their evil hearts without fear or shame. So, are they not written,' 2 Kings xx. 20; THAT NIGHT,] Heb. in or through that night, is explained thus, 'behold they are written,' which the Gr. explaineth, that whole night. 2 Chron. xxxii. 32.
VER. 2.-AND AGAINST AARON,] Which VER. 4.–LET US MAKE A CAPTAIN,] were the Lord's ministers, therefore their Heb. let us give a head : whereby give is murmuring was not against them only, but meant make or appoint, as the Chald. exagainst the Lord, as Moses told them, in poundeth it; and by head they mean a capExod. xvi. 2, 8; and as after appeareth in tain or chief governor ; as in Num. xxv. 4 ; ver, 3. OH, THAT WE MIGHT die,] Or, 1 Chron. iv. 42 ; xii. 20; and as the Gr. (would God) that we were dead: they are here explaineth it. Thargum Jonathan pa