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it just as clearly denotes succession readings called the Keri, acknow. of time, as in Rev. xiii. 11, it de- ledged by the Jews themselves : notes synchronization. I quote the surely he is not unacquainted with Apocalypse without scruple, because the labours of the excellent KenniTalib roundly says " the sacred cott The Bible has various read. writers,” without specifying either ings as well as other books; and Hebrew or Greek Talib will find the idle fancy of a divine providence four other instances, where the miraculously preserving the Jewish is wanting, and yet consecution of scribes from error, has been long time spoken of, in Dank. iii. 1, iv. I, exploded. But Talib may say, that v. 1, and vi. 1. I may add, that in the errors of transcription are conthe Greek of the LXX. the very fined to single letters. What then conjunction on which this argu- does he think of the memorable ment of Talib is founded, is actually omission of two whole words in Gen. inserted: verse 4 begins with a nai; iv. 8.? The necessary speech of and most probably the true reading Cain, 77007 73%), which is wanting of the Hebrew would insert a ). in the Esdrine edition, is supplied

3. If then I have at all succeeded by the Samaritan. Still Talib may in proving that the vision of the say, that, respecting numbers, the ram comprehends a certain period scribes would be more careful : there anterior to the commencement of a mistake is impossible. Alas! the the ram's pushing, Talib's date of Esdrine edition of Daniel, as it now the vision must, on his own princi- stands, omits a number in Dan. ix. ples, be false ; and if, consequently, 26.; a number expressed by two he is unable to make the number, whole words. Commentators are according to any one of its three pretty generally agreed, that the readings, conterminate with the sense requires the insertion of seven 1260 years, according to his com- weeks before threescore and two putation of them, the presumption reeks. But what the sense palpably is, that bis computation is erroneous. requires, and what Aquila and the I might add, that 2300 years reck- Arabic have fortunately preserved, oned from the year A. Č. 508, will we shall vainly seek for in the preterminate A. D. 1793, not A. D. sent Esdrive edition. But Talib may 1792 ; but possibly I ought not to deem the omission of a number more quarrel with him for a single year, credible, than the alteration of one: more or less, certainly not for a few he thinks yang can never by any months, in so long a period. mistake have been changed into w'w

4. Talib strongly objects to my I scarcely know by what standard adopting the reading of the LXX. in- to measure the probability or the stead of that of the Hebrew; and improbability of a blundering pays so high a compliment to the scribe's mistakes: but this I know, accuracy of the Jewish scribes, as that I can produce an instance of 10 think it improbable,nay, al- the very mistake, which Talib deems most“ impossible,that they should improbable, not to say impossible. have written three instead of four; Let him forthwith turn to Gen. xi. and this argument he backs by the 13, and he will find that, where the divine inspiration of Ezra as an edi. Hebrew reads four hundred (MIND tor. All this seems to me strangely 1971), the Samaritan reads three foreign to the purpose. I doubt not, hundred (1189 ww). In which side that the Esdrine edition originally the error lies, I pretend not to say: contained the true reading : but how but it is obvious, that the identical is the inspiration of Ezra to preserve transcriptorial mistake, which Talib future scribes from error? Talib deems so incredible, bas here taken dwells largely on their extreme place; either yon has been written accuracy. Surely he is not ignorant for www, or wbw for y278. Talib will of the existence of those various moreover find a complete variation

of the patriarchal number, all the nate, if that number, when calcu. way through, between the Hebrew lated back from the supposed end of and the Samaritan, to say nothing the 1260 years; brought us not, acof the LXX. Talib adduces the MS. cording to any one of its three readof Dr. Buchanai). This proves his ings, to a probable commencement point just as little as his argument of the vision of the ram and the heÍt shews indeed, that it supports the goat, we might then be quite sure common Hebrew; but it does not ihat I had misdated the 1260) years; anoihilate the evidence of Jerome, but if the contrary, there would that there were copies in his time then be a strong presumption, both which read two hundred ; whence it that I had rightly dated the 1260 is plain, that even then the reading years, and that I had detected the three hundred was not established on genuine reading of Daniel's number. the firm basis whereon Talib would This I then said ; this I still say: place it; even then the accurate and this, in all human probability, Jewish scribes had blundered in a I shall continue to say. But I was Aumber. Nor is this all : I presume led to adopt the reading of the LXX. I need not tell 'Talib, that the Greek by the independent reasonableness of version of Daniel, which ordinarily the thing, as well as from an argubears the name of the LXX. and is ment a posteriori. My notions on now always printed with their ge- the subject are as follows; and it Doine translation of the rest of the Old might have been as well if I had Testament, was in reality the work introduced them into my work with of Theodotion, who flourished in the more definiteness than I have done. second century of the Christian era. The number is the length of the Hence it appears, that the Hebrew vision. Therefore it must be comcopy, which he used, and therefore puted from the opening of the vision. preferred (doubtless not without But the vision opens with a view of sonne good reason), contained the the ram, now having two horps, reading four hundred. For my own standing still on the bank of the part, I think it in the abstract quite river: and afterwards the prophet a matter of uncertainty which is the sees him begin to push; for such true reading: it must be determined clearly appears to me to be the ob-, by the event.

vious import of the narration, when 3. Accordingly, unless I be much it is not twisted from its natural mistaken, it is already determined. meaning to favour a system. ThereTalib very unfairly, just like one of fore it must be consputed from some the reviews (I forget which), repre- time, when the two-horned ram was seats me as ascertaining the true standing still, and before he began reading by an argument solely to push. But he first had two horns drawo from a conjecture respecting and first stood still in the first year the probable date of the 1260 years. of Cyrus, and he afterwards began What I really said was to this pur- to push successfully in the year pose- proved abstractedly, that A. c. 508. Therefore the date the 1260 years and the number in of the vision must be sought Dan. visi. 4, must conterminate : and for between the first year of the talidity of my proof is so fully Cyrus and the year A. C. 508. ac koowledged by Talib bimself, It cannot be the year A. C. that he builds his whole scheme 508 : because that would exclude a epon it. From various concurring portion of the vision, namely, the arcumstances 1 pitched upon a pro- period during which the ram was bable date for ihe 1260 years. I standing still ; whereas, the number then observed, that there were three comprehends the whole length of the various readings of Daniel's number. vision. Neither can any good reaI next argued, that since the 1200 son be assigned, why an intermediate years and Daniel's nomber contermie vear between the first of Cyrus and Carist. Observ. No. 109.


the year 4. C. 508, should be nequsness of those two readings. On pitched upon : because we may be the other hand, the reading 2400, morally sure, that a prophetic pe- preserved by the LXX. or rather riod ought to be computed from Theodotion, if reckoned from the some memorable era; whereas not first year of Cyrus, will bring us to one of those years furpishes a more A.D. 1865 or 1866 : and then 1200 memorable era than another. Hence years, reckoned back from that it is only natural to conclude, that epoch, will bring us to A. D. 606 ; the date of the vision is the first year which, from a variety of circumof Cyrus; and, would we be mi- stances, previously seemed to bid nutely particular, perhaps, some re- fair to be the true date of the 1260 markable occurrence (if any such years. can be found), within the limits of 6. To conclude: the jut of the that

year. This is so natural, that argument rests upon the point, wheI am persuaded any person, who ther Talib or I be right in our ideas had not a system to maintain, would of the opening of the vision. Talib immediately, say, that the date of denies that Daniel saw the ram the vision must be sought for in the standing in one particular place, first year of Cyrus; because then viz. the bank of the river, before he the ram first, had two horns, and saw him push. I assert, that the then first stood still in the symbo- propbet did see him, and on the lical attitude of the vision after his bank, before he saw him push. If previous conquests. I repeat it, that I be right, Talib's whole system I can hardly form a conception bow falls to the ground; for, by a nethe vision, and therefore, the num- cessary consequence, the vision ber, can commence from any other must be dated from the first year of than the first year of Cyrus: bę. Cyrus: if I be wrong, then Talib’s cause it must commence before his date of the 1260 years may prove to pushing in the year A. C. 508; and be the right one. I subjoin a literal because yo satisfactory reason can translation of the disputed passage; be given, why it should commence and let the unsystematizing reader from one year of his quiescence ra judge between us.

I have said my ther than from another; from the say; and I suspect that Talib has third year of Cyrus (for instance) said his : let us cease then to weary rather than from his sixth; from the the public with the endlessness of tirst of Cambyses rather than from repetition. I lift up my eyes, and I his second. But, if it be little less. sarv, and behold, one ram was standthan absolutely certain, that the ing before the river, and to him were vision commences, from the first (two) horns I saw the ram butting year of Cyrus, then the event has westward, and northward, and southproved that 2400 must be the true ward. reading of the number. The first of

7. Independent of all that has Cyrus began in the spring of A. A.C. been said respecting Daniel's num536, and ended in the spring of ber, my objections to Talib's plan A. A.C. 535. Now, if we reckon of making the 1260 years expire in the number 2300 from this era, we the year 1792, remain just as strong shall be brought to A, D, 1765 or as ever. They are set forth at large 1766, according, as we calculate in the preface to the second edition from the former or the latter part of my work on the Jews. My main of the first year of Cyrus : if the objection, which I shall never give number 2200, to A. D. 1665 or 1666. up until confuted by the event, is But at neither of these epochs did this; with Mede, More, Jurieu, the 1260 years end, with the termic Whitaker, and (uuless I misundernation of which Daniel's number stand them) Bishop Hurd and Dean allowedly conterminates: therefore Woodhouse, I think it abundantly the event itself has proved the erro- clear that the era of the restoration of Judah is the era of the expiration that they must be near the end of the of the 1260 years. But 18 years 70 weeks ; eractly at this period, a have elapsed since Talib's supposed systematic attempt to convert the end of ihat period ; and still are Jews is made by a society, formed the Jews a dispersed nation, nor is within the empire of the greatest there any appearance of their inme. maritime state that ever existed ; a diate return into their own country. state, moreover, precisely answering I think it indeed absolutely certain to the prophetic description of that (I speak not these words lightly), that power, to which the blessed work the restoration of Judah cannot be is ascribed by Isaiah. What sucsery remote, though I doubt whe-cess the London Society may have, ther it will take place quite so soon and whether or not their attempt be as Talib's principles must lead him premature, God only can tell : but to expect : because, from whatever of this I am sure, that both tinie and precise epoch the 1260 years be com- circumstance, as set forth to us in pated, history itself, according to prophecy, hold out to them every the admirable practical argument encouragement to persevere in their of Bishop Hurd, will teach us, that work and labour of love. I might we must be comparatively near their dwell largely on other circumstances end, inasmuch as the corrupt system besides the one which I havé menof popery has prevailed at the least tioned: I might urge the fearful 12 centuries; and whenever the signs of the times, which have oce 1260 years end, the Jews will be curred during the last twenty years; pot in motion. But, since they are I might urge those mighty political still led away captive into all na- revolutions, which have ahered the tions, I cannot believe that the face of the whole western empiré, times of the Gentiles have yet ex- and which exactly correspond with pired. To this positive assertion I those that were erpected to usher in scruple not to add a remark, which the restoration of the Jews by our most however be couched in terms best commentators on prophecy long Somewhat less peremptory. Since one before the events of the present day portion of the Jews will clearly be took place. For myself, I cannot restored in a converted state, their behold them unmoved : and I think conversion must evidently precede it as much the interest as the duty, their restoration ; and whal precise of every Englishman, to give his setime may elapse between the two rious attention and encouragement Events, we are not authorized to pro- to the efforts which are now making nounce. Now there is much reason to convert the Jews : for, if we be to believe, that some mighty mari- the mighty maritime nation for time nation of faithful worshippers which the conversion of Judah is will, towards the close of the 1260 reserved, we may set at nought every years, be the instrument both of effort of our enemy; we may rest converting and restoring one branch assured, that, though to him may be of Judab. Such being the case, given the domination of the contisince we must (agreeably to Bishop nent, to us will belong the trident Hurd's argument) be near the end of the ocean. That mysterious of the 1280 days, I think it at the people, the Jews, seem destined to least highly probable that we now be- be either a blessing or a burdensome hold the beginning of Judah's con- stone to every nation connected with version. For, consider the strange them in the last ages. However coincidence of time and circumstance. weak the present attempt to convert Eractiy at a period when (as Bishop them may be at its commencement, Hurd excellently argues) we may we ought not to despise the day of be just as sure that we are near the small things. The greatest moral end of the 1260 years, as the Jews revolutions, even Christianity itself, at the advent of Christ were sure so far as outward appearances are


concerned, have ordinarily arisen out of the smallest beginnings. I QUOTATIONS FROM THE OLD TESTAconsider the attempt, an attempt

MENT IN THE NEW, COLLATED WITH unknown in former ages,

THE SEPTUAGINT. one among the many remarkable

(Continued from Vol. IX. p. 740,) signs with which the close of the 1260 years is ushered in: as such, in Acts xiii. 47. This quotation is made my judgment, it ought not to be exactly from the Alexandrian Sepslighted. It may indeed come in

tuagint; though it varies from the nothing, because the time possibly tion of the Hebrew, merely omitting

Roman. It is also a literal translamay not have arrived: but who shail venture to pronounce that to be the the pronoun ; salvațion, instead of case. The presumption is certainly in my salvation, (1s. xlix. 6.) favour of the contrary opinion, on

xv. 10, 17. This quotation, in gen account of the singular coincidence neral, seems to be taken from the of time and circumstance which I Septuagint, (Am. ix. 10, 11): but have already noticed.

with several verbal variations. Me8. I shall take the opportunity of our Favice seves peuvo, xas avoixoãou yow, mentioning an idea which has re

(Acts)-- Eyty que por EXELVT, araş7;56 cently occurred to me. Talib has (Sept) - Ta xalet%a4U.EYC aut avoften objected with some vehemence oικοδομησω, και ανορθωσω αυτην, to my translating onaba organa, in (cts.)- avoirodou YoW TA TIETTWXOle Dan. viii. 23, in the futurity or con

αυτης, και τα κατεσκαμμενα αυτης Now,

arasnow, sequency of their kingdon.

και ανοικοδομησω αυτη, although I still continue to think, x4.Jws ar nuegas Te alwvos. (Sept.) with Buxtorf and Parkhurst, that OTWS av. (Acts.)-OTWS. (Sept.). consequency or futurity is one of the TOV xup.oy (Acts.) not in Sept. --The senses of me, and therefore that passage, however, varies more matemy translation was tenable; I am

rially from the Hebrew, especially half inclined to suspect, that both in the clause, " That the residue of Talib and myself have erred in sup- which is rendered in our version

men may seek after the Lord;" posing the word, as it here occurs, to relate to tine. It is well known,

from ihe Hebrew, That they may that, with its cognates, it denotes possess the remnant of Edom.”place as well as time. In tbis sense

The Septuagint evidently read yiit occurs in Psalnı cxxxix. 9.; and droshu, not yiroshu, and Adam, not such probably is its import in the Edom; and the quotation of it by present passage. If then we trans- the apostle, or the historian, accordlate the phrase in the extremity, or ing to that reading, gives great sancin the back part of their realm, every

tion to it. difficulty of a chronological sort will

xxii. 5. From the Septuagint, be removed, and we sliali obtain an agreeing with the Hebrew. exact local description of Arabia

xxviii. 26, 27. (See on Matt. xiii. with reference to the Greek empire of Alexander and his successors, $t. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. the scite of Arabia is behind and upon the extremily of that empire.

6. 17. Ο δε δικαιος εκ πιςεως ζήIt may be observed, that in Dan.

(Sept. Hab. ii. 4.) O CE vü. 24, the LXX. translate the cog. δικαιος εκ τιςεως με ζησεται. The nate preposition is belind, not Hebrew is “ by his faitli," " But he, afler ; and that they render the who is righteous by his faith, shall present phrase en' es yazwy, which live.” (The quotation is in the same more probably relates to place than words Gal. iii. 11, and Heb. x. 38.) time *

ii. 24. το γαρ ονομα τ8 Θε8 (To be continued.)

di vuas, &c.—(Sept. Is. lii. 5.) Ai * See Parkhurst's Gr. Lex, Vox. Erxatos)

δια παντος το ονομα μ8,

&c. giv,

EV TOLS EIVECIY (“ among the


14, 15.)

σεται. .

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