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munication with Spain to be open at least for large bodies of troops. Lord Wellington has also received some additional troops from this country.

In Spain the French are evidently gaining ground. It is said to be the intention of Bonaparte to annex that country to France. The Hanse Towns have at length been formally annexed to France. We may expect shortly to hear of some change in Denmark. The confiscation of ships and cargues from this country, and of British produce and manufactures, proceeds with great rigour.

Bonaparte, in addition to his demands on the Hanse Towns, and on Sweden and Norway, for seamen to man his fleets, has issued a decree for organizing a marine conscription to be raised in the maritime departments, wisich are therefore to be exempted from the military conscription. The number to be raised is 40,000, and they are to consist of youths from 13 to 16 years of age. A farther military conscription is likewise or

dered.

Another decree announces Bonaparte's purpose of joining the Baltic to France by means of inland canals. The thing is with out doubt practicable, the greatest part of the distance being already navigable by

means either of rivers or canals.

and the proclamation which the President had issued in consequence, and of which we have already spoken. The message notices the growing prosperity of the United States, and recommends the revisal of their laws relative to trade and navigation. It recom. mends also the institution of a national university. We were particularly pleased to observe that the President strongly denounces the African slave trade still carried on by American citizens, and recommends it to Congress to take farther steps for repressing the evil.

The papers laid before Congress, as well as some documents from France of a later

date, prove that America has been far too precipitate in supposing that Bonaparte had any serious intention of altering his commercial policy. He seems still determined to retain all the American property he has already seized, and to seize as much more

as he can, without any regard to the remonstrances of America. America now demands of England not only the revocation of the

Orders in Council of Nov. 1807 and April

1809, but also those of May 1806, blockading the coast from the Elbe to Brest, and of January 1807, prohibiting neutral vessels from carrying on trade between hostile ports. This shews that their complaints are directed

A dreadful insurrection of the Janissaries nistration as the present, took place lately at Constantinople; but

full as much against Lord Grenville's admi

Mr. Pinckney, the American Ambassador,

they appear to have been subdued, after has been ordered to suspend his functions at

committing great excesses, by the troops of

the Grand Seignior.

The

our court, and to commit the management of any affairs which may require the inter

message of the American President view of the foreign relations of the United present in America no minister of Mr. st the opening of Congress, gives that States which might be expected; complains Pinckney's rank; no step having yet been

vention of a minister, to a Chargè d'Affaires. This is done avowedly because we have at

of all the belligerents, but announces the

revocation of the Milan and Berlin decrees,

taken to replace Mr. Jackson,

GREAT BRITAIN.

Tut present state of political affairs, though Oppositionists generally become more calm en the whole peculiarly cloudy and por

tentous, is not altogether without its brighter approach the threshold of office. They na. rurally reflect, that conciliation will soon become their leading interest; and that they, like the King or Regent whom they serve, must lay aside the colours of a party, if they hope successfully to govern a great nation, Mr. Perceval is generally allowed to have

and measured in their language when they

parts. The illness of our beloved Monarch has called forth the affectionate sympathy both of his immediate servants and of the people; and the yet untried political chaacter of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales, has led persons of very different

parties to entertain favourable hopes respecting him; hopes in which we cordially

risen in general credit by the very able and manly manner in which he has contended

participate, and which are much encou- in favour of his own views on the subject of Taged by the dignified silence, as to the the regency; and it he has erred on this question who shall be his ministers, which point, he has erred by following the example he has maintained up to the present period. of Mr. Pitt; and he has also erred in comThe violence of party has a little abated.

mon with Lord Grenville. His lordstrip has

maintained his consistency on the great constitutional doctrine at issue, and this unquestionably has been the chief matter. He has evidently magnified in an undue degree the smaller points of difference between himself and Mr. Perceval

Rumour says that Earl Grey is to be the Premier under the Regent, and that his lordship's party, and that of Lord Grenville, without any addition, are to constitute the new ministry. In the mean time, the commercial difficulties of the country are great; and our inanufacturing interests more and more declining. The burning decrees of Bonaparte appear effectual for the present. America is returning to her former ill-humour with us, and France is urging her to direct hostility. Affairs in Spain and Portugal are in a very doubtful state. A vast French navy is preparing; and the coasts of Europe are almost all under the power of our enemy. How important is it, in these circumstances, to be at peace at least amoug ourselves: and if we cannot now unite the discordant parties in the state, let us hope at least that the more respectable members of each body may in some degree approximate, and that the difficulties which they severally experience may prepare for some future and truly patriotic union.

The whole of this month has been consumed in Parliament in debating the different stages of the proceedings respecting the appointment of a Regency. Resolutions having passed both Houses relative to the restrictions under which a Regent should be appointed, differing little in their import, except in what regarded the royal household, from the outline given in our last number (p. 794), a deputation from both

Houses waited on the Prince of Wales, and read to him these joint resolutions. The answer of the Prince signifies his acceptance of the Regency under the limitations proposed; but feelingly regrets that, by the imposition of such limitations, he was prevented from manifesting towards his father that affection and reverential delicacy which he should have rejoiced to have shewn him. The Queen likewise accepted the trust reposed in her, with the aid of a council, of the care and custody of the royal person. A Bill having been brought in, fonunded on the ba sis of the Resolations, it has passed through the House of Commons and also through the House of Lords, without undergoing any very material alterations, though by very small majorities.

NAVAL INTELLIGENCE.

Farther accounts from the East Indies announce the re-capture of the Isle de Passe, by the French. The Iphigenia frigate fell into their hands at the same time. Another frigate, the Africaine, Captain Corbet, has since been taken by the same squadron, but was afterwards abandoned by the French, and has been retaken.

Severe losses have been experienced at sea, in consequence of the severity of the weather. A British seventy-four, the Minotaur, was wrecked on the coast of Holland, and of her crew, consisting of 590 men, only 110 were saved. The Elizabeth Indiaman was also wrecked on the French coast, near Dunkirk. The crew consisted of 100, besides 250 Lascars, and 30 passengers. The whole perished, except the captain and his two mates, three passengers, and 16 Lascars.

ANSWERS TO CORRESPONDENTS.

K. S.'s Hymn contains lines of good promise; but we recommend it to him to read and write much more before he ventures before the public.

We are much obliged to CLERICUs for his manuscript of the Consecration Service.

We should think it right for E. W. to read the book to which he reters before he publicly discusses the subject of it,

W.; MONIALIS; HANO; PHILEMON; have been received,

J. A. B. has told us to return his paper, but he has not stated to whom it is to be returned. T. Y.; THEOLOGUS; A BAXTERIAN; will appear,

We agree with o Bßλos, but think the discussion which he proposes inexpedient,

We are much obliged to E. S. for the correction of a mistake into which we were led in our review of Bishop Horsley's Sermons, by not consulting original authorities on the point. We shall take an opportunity of publishing his letter.

We do not recollect to have seen the Sermon mentioned by L. B. S.

THE

CHRISTIAN OBSERVER.

No. 110.]

FEBRUARY, 1811.

[No. 2. Vol. X.

EXTRACTS FROM

RELIGIOUS COMMUNICATIONS.

ENCE OF THE FIRST
MISSIONARIES TO INDIA.

(Continued from p. 6.) OWARDS the close of the year 1714, Ziegenbalgh left India in order to visit Europe. A letter from him to the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge, dated at the Cape of Good Hope, January 15, 1715, explains the reasons for this step to have been, the hindrances they had hitherto met with in carrying on their work, and their desire" to see such obstacles removed as had hitherto lain in their way, and obstructed the conversion of the Gentiles, so happily begun."

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THE CORRESPOND- naging the whole so far as to keep
PROTESTANT up things, not only in the state
wherein they are at present, but
also, through his unwearied applica-
tion and care, under Divine Provi-
dence, more and more to advance
them. And that particularly, our
printing press might not be unem
ployed with books of the Malabar
character, I committed into the
hands of my fellow-labourer one
part of the New Testament, revised:
likewise a book of hymns, and one
treating on doctrinal divinity, with
several others, composed for the use
of our schools; and I do not ques-
tion, but he will take all possible
care to see them exactly printed,
since he very much applies himself
to the study of the Malabar tongue.
His assistant has also solemnly pro-
mised, faithfully to discharge all
such things as relate to the books
to be printed in the Portuguese
language. As to my labour on board
the ship, I beg leave to acquaint
you, that I have discharged hither-
to my pastoral duty, with respect to
those that travel with me. I have
also begun to translate part of the
Old Testament into the Malabar
tongue.
tongue. Besides this, I hope to
get time for composing a small Da-
mulian grammar, to be printed in
Germany, for the service of those
who desire to learn this language
in Europe. But lest this tongue,
during so long a voyage, should be-
come less familiar to me, I have
brought with me a young man out
of our Malabar school, in order to
converse with him in this tongue,
and constantly to hear it from his

My departure from India" (he
says) "was, for divers reasons, not
only uneasy to myself, but also to
many others, both Christians and
heathens.
The members of our
church did particularly express a
deep concern at this voyage: but
nevertheless we judged it very ne-
cessary in respect of their future ad-
vantage, which we hope will cer-
tainly ensue, some fair prospect of
fering itself to our view. Every one
of our young and old men have
wet even my hands and feet with
their tears, and would not consent
to my departure, till I had solemnly
engaged my word, that, with God's
leave, I would most certainly re-
turn to India. I have undertaken this
royage with the greater confidence,
(and without which indeed it would
have been very grievous to me),
that I know that my beloved fellow-
labourer, Mr. Grundler, is capable,
my two years' absence, of ma-
CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 110.

in

This grammar he completed, during the voyage, in the Latin tongue. K

own mouth. He writes down every thing with his steel pen which is to be translated into the Malabar language. He is a youth of a good disposition, and who, by the quickness of his genius, comprehends things easily, and communicates them to others again, by a lively way of speaking and writing in his native language. I hope this voyage will give an addition to the qualities of his mind, and that he will be able, after his return to India, to describe the spiritual happiness of Europe to the men of his own nation, and to sow the seeds of true wisdom among the unwise."

Ziegenbalgh having reached Hamburgh, writes thence to the society, soliciting their attention to a variety of points connected with the propagation of the Gospel in the East, but observing, that, after all, "his greatest hope is in the seminary or college of missionaries, designed to be erected in India itself." This work, I need not say, remains still to be accomplished. From Hamburgh he went to Copenhagen, where he states himself to have succeeded better than he could have expected, the Danish East-India Company having sent ample and pressing instructions to the governor at Tranquebar, to see the mission set on a better foundation, and to remove the difficulties which had hitherto obstructed its progress. He then visited Hall in Saxony, where he printed his Tamul grammar, and some narratives respect ing the mission. He came to England in December 1715, and on the 29th of that month he was received by an assembly of the Society for promoting Christian Knowledge; on which occasion the Rev. William Nicols, rector of Stockport in Cheshire, addressed him in the name of the society in a Latin speech, in which, after congratulating him on having so "fervently and happily performed the work of an evangelist, brought light to them that sat in darkness, mightily promoted the kingdom of Christ, erected schools,

planted churches, and thereby brought many souls to salvation," and noticing some other points, he thus concludes.

"The divine oracles give us just ground to believe, the time is coming, when all the nations of the earth shall bow to Christ's sceptre, and with one heart, and one voice, glorify the God of heaven. Why should we not hope, that this may be accomplished in our days? Let us do those things which conduce to so great a happiness, and leave the mighty event to God, who hath promised, and is faithful. Go on then, worthy sir, to deserve well of your own country, of us, and the whole world, firmly hoping, that you will find the great and good God a plentiful rewarder of all the labours you sustain, for the enlargement of his church and kingdom on earth."

The answer of Ziegenbalgh was also in Latin. I give it entire, as it was translated by direction of the society.

"Rev. and honoured Gentlemen,

"All praise and glory to Almighty God, who, of bis infinite mercy, hath raised up, in divers parts, and daily stirs up among Christians, men, who are not only solicitous in promoting the practice of true piety in the Christian world, but employ also much of their labour, study, diligence, and care, in planting and propagating Christianity in heathen countries, that the worshippers of idols may be invited, by the preaching of the Gospel, to adore the true God, and so, as the great apostle of the Gentiles teacheth, be turned from

darkness unto light.'

"In the number of these persons I rank you in a particular manner, most worthy patrons: for when it became known in Europe (some years ago), that the light of the Gospel began to shine out to the Indian heathen in the east, you, noble sirs, excited by the divine Spirit, did, by your counsel and assistance, greatly further the propaga

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tion of it. You did not only invite us, most unworthy teachers of the pagans, to a friendly correspondence with you by letters; you did not only testify to us, by several eminent instances, your singular good will and favour; not only vouchsafe us many helps for the increase of our church and schools; not only procure us many other contributors to this design in Great Britain: but also, of your own free will, you generously furnished us with a printing press, for publishing the divine oracles in the Malabarick tongue, for the benefit of that nation: "Hence it is, that you have not enly his most serene majesty, Frederick IV. king of Denmark (the first and great promoter of this mission) very much your friend; but also gained to yourselves the wishes, and prayers, and congratulations of all good men, by supplying the inhabitants of the coast of Coromandel, their children and latest posterity, with the happy means of being instructed from their infancy in the way to eternal life. Add to this, that the calumnies of our adversaries, with which they have plentifully loaded the endeavours used for the conversion of the heathen (studying thereby, to put a stop to the course of the Gospel), have not been able to alienate your minds from us, nor from the whole design

of this mission.

"Wherefore, I give you most bumble thanks, illustrious gentlemen, for the many benefits you have so readily and abundantly conferred on us, and on the members of our church. And since neither myself, nor my fellow-labourers, nor yet the pagans who have been partakers of these benefits, can render you in this world deserved acknowledgments; we implore Almighty God, the rewarder (as well as author) of every good work, to recompence your beneficence to us an hundred fold in the next; not doubting but those pagans, preserved through your kind assistance

to life eternal, will for ever thank you for it in that happy state.

"If we consider the success of this mission from its first beginning; it hath not yet indeed been answerable to our desires. The iniquity of the times, fewness of the labourers, the perverse lives of some Christians among us, the rudeness of the pagans, the dignity of the employment itself, and our own insufficiency for it; the want still of more necessary helps, together with other impediments, have been the cause, why this work hath hitherto made no greater advances. The seed of the word sown here and there, would have seemed as dead to us, unless we had believed in hope even against hope,' that after so many tempests and commotions, it would in time spring up, and bring forth fruit abundantly. Almighty God, who is never wanting either to the planter or to the waterer, can give that increase to us, or to those who may come after us in this arduous affair, as was hardly to be expected from so small beginnings.

"I was at the Cape of Good Hope last January, when an English ship arriving there, first brought advice of king George's peaceable and happy accession to the throne of Great Britain. Now that the Divine Providence hath raised up this great and good prince to sway the British sceptre, and opened to him a large field both in the eastern and western world, for spreading of the Christian faith under his royal favour and protection, we justly congratulate you, and other nations on this mighty event, which nothing but the finger of God could have accomplished.

"In the mean time, I condole with you the death of the most reverend archbishop Tenison, your friend, and ours, whom I always embraced with a most filial affection, even in the distant Indies; whose favourable opinion of, and good wishes to this mission (whereof he hath left

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