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of philosophy, this word has very observations - delivered, however, little meaning; and, it is held, we in a style most strange and unacpresume, in no very high degree of countable--upon the bad tendency estimation by the Christian. -The of a democratic and discontented truth is, since heathenism went out spirit, the Bishop proceeds to inof fashion, good fortune ” has form his clergy, "ibat it is one of been consigned, as a loose expres. their duties to endeavour silently sion, to the unthinking part of the and quietly to heal these distraccommunity, and means," nothing tions, which exist among us, each at all.” The logic will therefore within his own province; to allay stand thus: “ We are indebted for heats and compose differences; to our preservation, humanly speaking, remove or to diminish the causes of either to the prudence of our rulers, offence," &c. (p. 11.) The advice or, to nothing at all.” The conclu- is good; but we much doubt whesion may be just, but the terms are ther the example of moderation and not happy.

justice, exhibited in the subsequent The degree of influence, which pages, be precisely of that character the Bishop of London attributes to which will “

compose differences" " good fortune," or " accident and tend to union. The subject is (the words, we imagine, are synoni- well deserving of attention. mous), is rather remarkable. In p. We are informed, in the same 10, we meet with the following ob- page, that the infidelity propagated servation : “ Hence the tendency to at the beginning of these troubles aggravate every fault of govern. (viz. the French Revolution), bas in. ment, and even every untoward clined many to “ licentiousness of accident which has befallen it, as in opinion, or indifference in religion." the course of events, in such times,

“ The extreme into which others have many must occur.” We wish that run, shocked at this growing evil, has been his lordship bad furnished us with equally prejudicial to sober and sound relia few exemplifications.

gion. Men have sought for separation, For a good exposition of the when the circumstances required the strictdoctrine of luck, or chance, or “ ac- est union; and to rebuild the shaken faith cident,” or “good fortune,” we beg of Christians on the Auctuating basis of ento refer our readers to the History thusi»şın; and to heal the wounds which of Betty Brown, the St. Gjles's Christian obedience had received from corOrange Girl, as contained in one of ruption of mind, profligacy of manners, and the Cheap Repository tracts. “ Poor vitiousness of life, not by the evangelical

doctrine and Beity,” says the narrative," here

repentance, as the burst into tears of joy and gratitude, conversions, the inventions of men af

Gospel teaches, but by new and unheard of crying out,' What! shall such a poor heated imaginations, or ambitious views. friendless creature as I, be treated They have bewildered themselves and their so kindly, and learn to read the followers in the mysteries and depths of word of God too? Oh, madam! Calvinism, in distrust or contempt of the what a lucky chance brought me to simplicity of the Gospel. Hence has there your door!'— Betty,' said the lady, been engendered a new schism, halting be

what you have just said, shews tween the church and dissension from it. the need you bave of being better which, whilst it professes to follow the puiaught: there is no such thing as rity of our churclı, or even to refine upon, chance; and we offend God, when it, is continually undermining the establishwe call that luck, or chance, which ment, and acts also occasionally at the head is brought about by his will and of the most discordant sects in opposition to

it. By nothing more than this has the pleasure. None of the events of your life have happened by chance; turbed, whilst the most respectable ministers,

peace and credit of our church been disbut all have been under the direc- if ilicy enlist not themselves under this sect; tion of a good and kind Provie aje vilified by the uncharitable reflections dence.'” (Tracts p. 117.)

and arrogant pretensions of these new puri. After two or, three pages of just tans. Nothing more than this has coruzi.

grace of

buted in aid of other civil causes, to shake Again : “They have bewildered the just subordination of ranks amongst us; themselves and their followers in while it exalts the meanest and most igno- the mysteries and depths of Calvinrant of men into a spiritual superiority, ism." It is well known, that every teaches them to despise others, and draw Methodist (properly so called) in around thein a train of followers as igno- the land that is to say, every folrant as themselves. Add to this, that the notions of sudden conversion, absolute elec

lower of Mr. Wesley-is, by profestion, and the utter inefficiency of our own

sion, an Arminian, and therefore reexertions and righteousness, (whatever jects the peculiarities of Calvin. they be of themselves, as I hold them to “ Hence has been engendered a he most unscriptural,) are certainly not the new schism."— Though we cannot means of prodncing Christian innocence and in general compliment the Bishop simplicity of life, but contain within themi the seeds of pride, separation, dissension and Longinus calls oYouATWY exãoyn xal

for those ornaments of style, which mutual animosity, and for that reason, if for no other, are justly to be suspected; nor

η τροπικη και πεποιημενη λεξις, can any one shew that we are enjoined in yet we must confess that the meta. the Gospel to teach men so." pp. 12, 13.

phor in this last sentence is pre-emi. All these events, be it remember- nently happy. The schismatics ed, have arisen, according to the thus produced, have, it appears, the Bishop's view of the subject, from following marks: the French Revolution, and are 1. They profess“ to follow the therefore, in the order of time, pos. purity of the church." terior. Now let us come to the his- 2. They act « occasionally at torical fact. Is it true that men

the head of the most discordant sects have embraced wild theories of sud- in opposition to it.” den conversions, and other inven- 3. They are new puritans," tions of enthusiasts, in order « to reviling by » uncharitable reflecrebuild the shaken faith of Chris. tions, and arrogant pretensions," tians," shaken by the infidelity of those "respectable ministers" who the French Revolution? We jook will not « enlist themselves under around us in vain for the proof.- this sect.” Therefore Are the men to whom the Bishop

4. They are a

sect." alludes, in the church of England? 5. They are“ ignorant” persons. We presume that they are not.- 6. They hold the doctrine of Are they among the Methodists? “ sudden conversion :" The history of Methodism will 7.

of « absolute elecprove that sudden conversions, ac

tion :" cording to their notions of the mat. 8.

of “ the atter ineffiter, were common and notorious ciency of our own exertions and nearly half a century before the righteousness." commotions in France. We need If, with all these marks, we can. only cite, in proof of this fact, a not discover the individuals, we witness whom bis Lordship will shall have no reason to boast of our allow to be competent: we mean good fortune. Bishop Lavington. The circum- The first and eighth marks-thc stance, therefore, of the prevalence last heing taken in a certain senseof such conversions since the French apply, or ought to apply, to the Revolution, proves nothing: it is, bishops and the whole of the clergy. at the most, merely a continuation The second will suit Bonaparte; or of the old system.Does he mean the Archbishop of Canterbury, who the regular dissenters? Sudden con- stands at the head of the Naval versions are, we believe, little known and Military Bible Society. among them: we are persuaded, The third, fourth, fifth, sixth, that there is scarcely any class of seventh, and eighth-the last being these dissenters which does not re- taken in its widest meaning-apply zard such conversions with some to the Antinomians. portion of jealousy and distrust. The first, fourth, sixth, and eighth

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(in a restrieted interpretation), apply out repentance, hope, love, dread, to the Methodists : perhaps also the and the fear of God, to be joined the fifth, although certainly some with faith in every man that is jusof them have no title to rank under tified; but it shutieth them out from this description.

the office of justifying."- '_" All the The fourth, and perhaps the se- good works we can do be impercond, belong to the Socinians. fect, and therefore not able to de.

Several classes of the dissenters serve our justification; but our jusmay possibly be found to divide tification doth come freely by the among them ihe third, fourth, fifth, mere mercy of God.” sixth, seventh, and eighth; but We are far from intending to afthere is little need for us to adjust firm that the Bishop dissents from their respective claims,

this view of the subject ; though his Our readers will perceive, that, words naturally lead to that conclu. with regard to the eighth mark, we sion. We think it possible, that, cannot speak with confidence. The after all, the real object of the paparenthesis “ (whatever they be of renthesis is to intimate, that, whatthemselves, as I hold them to be ever our exertions and righteousness most unscriptural)” probably means, be of themselves, he holds them to that the doctrines just recited are be an unscriptural ground of reliinconsistent with Scripture. But ance. If we be right in this conwhat, in that case, the Bishop under- jeciure of charity, we must at least stands by the words “the utter in- allow that the Bishop has marvelefficiency of our own exertions and lously failed in point of perspirighteousness," we do not well cuity. comprehend. The doctrine is cer- From our examination of the se. tainly, in some way or other, held veral marks, which have been proby our church, as might be shewn duced as descriptive of some trouby means of a certain Enchiridion blesome sect, it is evident that his published some years since by the lordship is alarmed without reason. learned author of this Charge: but No sect, we will venture to say, we know not that we can better ex- exists in this country, which will plain it, than in the words of the answer to the description. His church herself, in her Homily on lordship had before partly attributed the Salvation of Mankind.

our happiness to "good fortune”. “ Because all men be singers and that is, to nothing at all; and thereoffenders against God, and breakers fore, to strike the balance, it was of bis law and commandments, but fair to charge our miseries upon therefore can no man, by his own a siinilar phantasy. It is thus, they acts, works, and deeds (seem they tell us, that algebraists set off their never so good), be justified and made negative against their positive quanrighteous before God."--"No man,” tities, and, after engendering equasaith St. Paul, “ is justified by the tions, often produce nothing. works of the law, but freely by faith We are perfectly at a loss to conin Jesus Christ. And again he saith, jecture, where his lordship can We believe in Jesus Christ, that we be have gained his historical facts. justified freely by the faith of Christ, He tells us (p. 15), that with “the and not by the works of the law, be- old dissenters, such as Presbyterians, cause that no man shall be justified Independents, and Anabaptists”by the works of the law,"_" And “ there was honest ground of distherefore St. Paul declareth here sent;” and “ in the fundamental nothing upon the behalf of man, doctrines of Christianity they did concerning his justification, but not differ from us." only a true and lively faith; which, We are next told, that the monevertheless, is the gift of God, and dern dissenters hold the doctrines of not man's only work without God. Calvin. And did not the old dissentAnd yet that' faith doth not shuters, with scarcely an exception, do

the same? And if the latter were 6, “ Different and variable as conscientious and honest men, does' their doctrines are," they draw not charity require us to believe congregations “ from their legal that many of the former may be teachers.” conscientious also ? And if, notwith- 7. They “assume to themselves standing the known and avowed the exclusive title of Gospel MiuisCalvinism of the old disseniers, the ters.Bisbop admits that " in the funda- 8. They gather“ followers from mental doctrines of Christianity the province of another.” they did not differ from us,” by 9. They flatter “them with dewhat process of reasoning, we would lusive hopes of special privileges inask, does he arrive at the conclu- dependent of innocency of life, and sion, that Calvinism, in the present with a speedy and summary mode day , constitutes a fundamental dif- of salvation, in lieu of the gradualference between the church and any progress of true evangelical repentother class of religionists?

ance." “ But look again," says the 10. Attempts have been lately Charge, “ to the present state of made “ to introduce preachers of these dissenters.” For the sake of this stamp as lecturers into the Lonconciseness and perspicuity, we will don churches, which I hope will be just enumerate bis new marks of obviated.” the schism, as they stand at pages Are these things said of one class 16 and 17.

of men, or of many classes? Of 1. “ At one time they incline to churchmen, or of dissenters ? Of the extreme rigour of Calvinism.” Calvinists, or of Arminians ?

2. " At another time they susten The 1st article seems to bear upon down the same doctrines.”

rigid Calvinists. 3. “ They partly continue within The 2d, upon the moderate Calthe church, partly “ separate from vinists, or perhaps upon Arminians. it.”

The 3d, glances at the Metho4. " When separated, they do dists. not even know what denomination The 4th, seems to point to the tu give themselves.”

Theophilanthropists. 5. They are called, however, The 5th, happily specifies the “ Pædo-baptists, Anti-pædo-bap- parties to whom it alludes; but tists,” “ Dissenters, Protestant Dis- the variety of names is a sufficient senters,” “Wesleyans, Whitfieldi- proof that all the marks specified ans *, &c.”

cannot apply to each.

The 6th, resers, we presume, to • This," says the Bishop,“ is the very saine thing, I conceive, with that which St.

dissenters in general, although disPaul exclaims against with so much indig senting teachers are also legalised nation ; • I am of Paul, I of Apollos, and I teachers. of Cephas.'” p. 16.

The 7th, we believe, is not strictly We have some doubt, whether this inter- correct with respect to any body of pretation be correct. The argument of St. gether with God, always bear in mind, that Paul in this place implies, that certain of the ye belong neitlier to Paul, nor to Apollos, Corinthians transferred to individual apos- but that'ye are God's husbandry, ye are tles a degree of honour which ought only to God's building.' be paid to God. Hence he contends, in Whilst we notice this misconception, we terms which may be thus paraphrased, must also state, ibat we do no more viwii. are noibing as of ourselves, but must be con- cate the multiplicity of nanies than the sidered merely as instruments.

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multiplicity of sects. The “ Whitfieldians," disposed to look upon us as the authors of &c. &c., imply nothing else, we presume, your re.igion; whereas we can do no more by this distinctive appellation, than this; than plant and water: the blessing and the viz. that they understand the Scriptures increase are from God alone; to himn attri. according to the interpretations of their rebute the glory. And whilst you love and spective leaders. So long as sects exist, it is obey us for our works' sake, as labourers tua evident that they musi have a name.

You seen

men. If any persons within the rations of his clergy, which state church do assume the name, it is the want of churches to be one probably by way of distinction from cause of the growth of dissenters; those who arrogate to themselves and he justly exclaims, the title of " sound churchmen.” “ It is a disgrace to the country that

The 8th, probably refers to the many of its inhabitants should bave no dissenters generally.

means of public worship, or be driven to The 9th, belongs exclusively to such, rather than lose all public exercise of the Antinomians. We are much religion, as neither they themselves, nor the deceived if all the sects enumerated state for them, approve of. The more so, in the 5th article, with this single nacles of those who dissent from us spring

since we see the meeting-houses and taber. exception, do not abhor these execrable principles as much as his up on every side, as soon as their congregaLordship

tions are gathered. The demand therefore

is great, that ample means be provided, so The 10th, is obviously enough that there be room for the several distincintended for some London lecturers, tions of rank, and that the poorest man at and among others, we presume, for the same time may have his place allotted the Rev. Dr. Povah. They are de- to him, which I esteem to be his birth-right signated as preachers « of this as much as the enjoyment of his personal stamp." Of what stamp, we would liberty and the fruits of his labour; and ask? We have nine stamps before

that all may meet together and humiliate

themselves in the house of God before the us: they surely do not belong to them all! We can only say,

common Father and Redeemer of all." p. 25.

We most entirely concur with the * Quo teneam Vultus mutantem Protea Bishop in his sentiments on this monodo?"

mentous sabject; and we sincerely What instruction are we to derive wish that our rulers, both in church from assertions which are either so and state, were properly awake to general as to embrace all parties, or this enormous evil. We should, in so marvellously narrow and confined that case, have legislative remedies as to include none?

speedily provided for the almost inThe only professed object which superable difficulties which stand in we can discover in these pages, is to the way of the erection of churches sbew the clergy by what rule they and chapels within the pale of the must walk, if they would “allay establishment. The parish of Maryheats and compose differences. bone has a single church for a poThis is doubtless the true way “to pulation of 80,000 souls! And yet remove or to diminish the causes of we vehemently censure, as Calvinoffence;” and the Bishop therefore, ists, and Methodists, and deceivers, in a subsequent part of his Charge, and false flatterers, the thousands jatroduces, as an appropriate corol. and tens of thousands of our breJary, the following sentence : “ The thren, who seek to obtain in other humility and meekness which Chris- places that heavenly wisdom, wbich tianity inculcates is the most likely ihe crowds in their own churches remedy for the distractions and will not allow them to receive from contentions of the country” (p. 18); the regular clergy. -a truth in which we heartily con- After a few words about the cur.

propriety of renewing terriers, bis We are afterwards presented with Lordship adverts to another grievan account of the measures lately ance. “ There is another which I. adopted by parliament for the im- consider as a grievance, and you provement of small livings. The must allow me to remonstrate with account is confusedly given ; but you on the subject. I mean the bave the pages which contain it are the ing recourse to register offices, as most gratifying in the book. The they are called, for the occasional Bishop then adverts to some obsere supply of duty.“ (p. 28.) This disCARIST. Opsery. No. Ill.

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