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of both sexes ;--all the inquisitions To the Editor of the Christian Obserder. in the kingdom send their prisoners

to Madrid. By one of the articles in the treaty Twenty men and women out of lately concluded with the court of these prisoners, with one renegado Brazils, it is stipulated both that the Mahometan, were ordered to be Portugueze slave trade shall be con- burned : fifty Jews and Jewesses, fined within narrow limits, and that having never before been imprisonthe Inquisition shall be abolished ed, and repenting of their crimes, at Goa, and shall not be established were sentenced to a long confinein the Brazils. The benefits arising ment, and to wear a yellow cap; to the cause of humanity from any and ten others, indicted for bigamy, limitarion of the slave trade are witchcraft, and other crimes, were now, perhaps, well understood and sentenced to be whipped and to be properly appreciated in this country. sent to the galleys. These last wore I question, however, whether the large pasteboard caps, with inscripBritish public are sufficiently aware tions on them, having a halter about of the triumph which the same their necks, and torches in their cause has obtained by the annihila- hands. tion of the power of the Inquisi- “ On this solemn occasion, the tion in both the Indies. I have whole court of Spain was present. been induced, sir, by a desire of The grand inquisitor's chair was impressing this point more strongly placed in a sort of tribunal far above on the minds of your readers, to ihat of the king. The nobles here transmit to you for insertion an au- acted the part of the sheriff's offithentic account of an Auto-da-Fè, cers in England, leading such crimilaken from Fox's Book of Martyrs, nals as were to be burned, and holdand to which I understand there ing them when fast bound with have been several shocking paral- thick cords; the rest of the crimilels at Goa, even since that place has nals were conducted by the famibeen under our protection, and gar- liars of the inquisition." risoned by our troops.

The account of the Mass follows,

with the reading of the sentence of “ The officers of the Inquisition, · condemnation. preceded by trumpets, kettle-drums, “ Next followed the burning of and their banner, marched on the the twenty-one men and women, 30th of May, in cavalcade, to the whose intrepidity in suffering that palace of the Great Square, where horrid death was truly astonishing. ihey declared by proclamation, that Some thrust their hands and feet on the 30th of June the sentence of into the flames with the most daunt. the prisoners would be put in exe- less fortitude ; and all of them cution.

yielded to their fate, with such re"Now there bad not been a spec- solution, that many of the amazed tacle of this kind at Madrid for se- spectators lamented that such heroic veral years before, for which reason souls had not been more enlightit was expected by the inhabitants ened.” with as much impatience as a day of the greatest festivity and triumph. It was by proceedings similar to

“When the day appointed ar- that which has now been detailed, rived, a prodigious number of peo- that the Inquisition al Goa forced a ple appeared dressed as splendidly large proportion of the Syrian Chrisas their respective circumstances tians, on ihe Malabar coast, to conwould admit.' In the Great Square forn to the church of Rome, and was raised a high scaffold; and thi. the remainder to seek a refuge for ther, from seven in the morning till their faith is the fastnesses of the the evening, were brought criminals mountains and in the comparatively CHRIST. Observ. No. 111.


tender mercies of Hindoo princes. The man, the wisest of our kind,
Let us thank God that its baleful Who length of days had seen;
fires are at length extinguished.

To birth, and death, a time assigu’d,
C. C. Bot none to life between.

Yet, lo! what consequences close

This transient state below;

Eternal joys, or, missing those, To the Editor of the Christian Observer.

Interna inable woe. The two following hymns, the production of Mr. Clark, late pastor of

PSALM CXXXVII. PARAPHRASED. a dissenting congregation at Trow- By Babel's streznis we sat and wept, bridge, are extracted from his life

For Zion's woes our hearts did rend: by Mr. Jay, and appear to me to be Onr harps, in tune no longer tept, well worthy of a place even in your Upon the willows we suspend. poetical department.

For there our foes insult us still,
I am, &c.

And, taunting, aggravate our wrongs :
C. M.

“Captives, display your boasted skill;

Come, sing us one of Ziou's songs."

The songs of Zion are the Lord's,
Swift as an arrow cuts its way

And his are all the notes we raise ;
Through the soft-yielding air;

We will not touch the tuneful chords
Or as the sun's more subtle ray,

Till we can sound them in bis praise.
Or lightning's sudden glare;
Or as an engle to the prey,

While Zion lies in ruin still,
Or shuttle through the loom ;

Dare we her dear remembrance leave?
So baste our fleeting lives away,

No, first these hands shall lose their skill,
So rush we to the tonub.

These tongues shall to our palates cleave. Like airy bubbles, lo! we rise,

Remember, Lord, how Edom's sons

Proudly contemi'd us in our wocs,
And dance upon life's stream;
Till soon the air that caus’d, destroys

Triumphd o'er Zion's scalter'd stones,
Th' attenuated frame.

And urg'd to rage ber cruel foes.
Down the swift stream we glide apace,

But God will Babylon destroy,
And carry deatlı within;

Her righteous doom shall nune retard :
Then break, and scarcely leave a trace

And happy he who sees the day,
To shew that we liave been.

When she shall meet her dae reward.


Ireland's Paganism and Chris:ia- care, though his bodily protection nity compared.

might be beneath their dignity, or

beyond their capacity. (Concluded from p. 117.)

The fears of St. Augustin, when Having, in a former article, disposed taking an early view of this subject, of the first subject of inquiry in these in his celebrated work “de Civitate Lectures, we proceed to examine Dei," seem to have led him to ap. that which occupies the second part prehend, that the refutation of these of them, and which discusses the fatter and more aspiring claims of still more important question; whe- human wisdom would prove the ther the deities, who were unable to most difficolt part of his task. We bestow temporal prosperity on their shall be convinced, however, says votaries, were the dispensers of hap. Dr. Ireland, by an easier inquiry piness in a future states whether the than was suggested by the appre. soul of man was the object of their hensions of the pious and learned

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father, that these claims of Paganism Jupiter ; Dr. Ireland proceeds are as fallacious as they are arro- to prove that this same supreme gant, and that Christian “godliness God, thus sagaciously discoveralone “hail the promise of the life ed, and loftily proclaimed, was, in which is to come."

fact, no other than the soul of the St. Augustin begias bis reply to world. the higher preteosions of heathen

Deum namque ire per omnes pbilosophy, by an exposure of the Terrasque tractusque inaris, cælumque procommon opinion concerniog lhe va

fundum. rious employments of the gods. The Bụt though maintained with much, divisions of their power were sup- apparent authority, this philosophy posed to be as numerous as the ap

was attended with still greater abpearances of nature, or the events of surdity than the superstition or the human life. From his earliest mo- levity which it affected to correct. ments, man was destined to pass

For if the minor deities were inde. through the successive protection of pendent of each other, and often at a multitude of deities, each of them variance (a case commonly sup. exercising an exclusive and jealous posed), and if they were no more authority, in his limited department. than parts of the same Jupiter; JuNor was it the misfortune of the piter, in his nature and properties, smaller deities alone to be thus cir- must be at variance with himself. cumscribed in office and authority. Nor was this system less impious The great and select Gads, the "Dii than it was absurd. For if Jupiter majorum gentium,” were themselves is the soul of the world, the subjected to similar disgrace. The world itself is pronounced by the heaven, the earth, and the sea, were same authority to be his visible parcelled out into separate govern. body. And ibough, to avoid the ments, and sometimes all the parts mortifying consequence of Jupiter even of the same element were not being ihus subject to the controul subject to the same deity.

of man, beasts and the inanimate " Hence,” observes our author, parts of nature were excluded from " arose the first question urged by any participation in this inundane the Christian advocates against the divinity; still, if Jupiter be mankind, lofty pretensions of their antago- he is exposed to many sorts of innists. From gods like these, what jury and indignity. He suffers transcendant blessings can be rea- whatever man suffers; he is affected sonably expected by their votaries? by pain, disgrace, and labour; he How shall beings, whose almost ef dies in men; and, as Augustin condefort it is to direct some unimportant scends to remark, and Dr. Ireland, business upon earth, be themselves with a sly view probably to the possessed of immortality ? How shall experience of his juvenile auditors, bey, whose widest goveroment is seems pieased to quote, " is whipped but a limited department of the in boys !" world, be able to bestow the immea- “ Such, then," says our acate and learned erable rewards, the infinite happi- author, “is the dilemma with which the paBess, of the life to come ? » trons of idolatry were harassed by the Chris

After noticing the subterfuge of can writers. if the gods are supposed to the graver and more philosophical exist, the meanness of their nature

, the inpagans, that the different employ- siguificance of their employments, and the ments assigned to the deities ad al

mutual checks resulting from an authority ways been understood by the wise how incapable they are of bestowing the

thus various and divided, sufficiently shew in another and an higher sense; and great rewards of the life to come. On the that the numerous deities, fancied by other land, if all the gods are resolved into the people, were but portions of the Jupiter, and if Jupiter hinself is resolved erigioal, capacious, and universal into the soul of the world," (as Varro, the

most learned of the Romans, and the pro- Having fully investigated the opifessed advocate of the supreme divinity of nion already ascribed to Varro, that Jupiter, openly declared was his opinion), God was the soul of the world, and " the Deity becomes a mere physical prin that the world itself was ciple. There is no longer a Providence ;

a god, and consequently the expectation of a fu compounded of a soul and a body, ture retributiou is at an end." p. 182.

Dr.Ireland shews, that at length, for

the sake of a favourite principle, the Having mentioned Varro, Dr. soul of man is identified with JupiIreland goes on to present a more ter bimself, the soul of the world; particular view of the system of that both are, therefore, to be wor. that celebrated man, in order to as- shipped, or neither; that man is certain the real nature of the Roman God, or Jupiter is man. The infetheology.

rences which are drawn at the close " Besicies " (addressing bimself to his of this chapter, from the review of young audience) “ the classical amuseinent the absurdity and impiety of the which it may produce, and its illustration of Roman theology, are so just and inthe principles of those books with which you structive, that we shall present

them are daily conversant, it will convince us all, entire to our readers. that the efforts of natural wisdom were totally incompetent to the discovery of reli

1. In its religious institutions, paganism

looked to no object beyond political conregious truth; that the pagan worship was a mixture of ignorance, superstition, and du: ported the civil theology of lis conntry;

nience. On this ground alone, Varro supplicity; that it was unworthy of the Deity, and, in the division of his work, professedly and therefore falsely aspired to the privi- treated of Rome before its gods, the latter lege which was claimed for it, of bestowing Having derived all their worship from the eternal happiness."

will of the former. Revelation is indepen. The " Antiquities” of Varro are

dent of the establislunents of men. Through unfortunately lost : but from the the divine biessing indeed, it is eminently minute statement of its plan by St. applicable to the civil condition of the world

and those nations are the happiest, which Augustin alone, we are enabled to

adnit most of its influence into the direction collect both its object and its cha- of their policy. Our own country exhibits Tacter; and of this statement Dr.

a glurious example of true religion allied with Ireland has given a niost perspic the state, and of the benefits resulting to cuous and interesting analysis. The both; ihe state hallowed by religion, relitheology thus taught by Varro is die gior: diefended by the statc. But, whatever vided into three branches : first, the be the views of human governments, whether mythic, or fabulous, wbich he con- they admit or refuse a civil connection with fines to the poets, and allows that, it, the Gospel maintains iis own character. for its licentiousness, it is in many by any anthoring of man; and Jesus

The everlasting word of God is not altered parts deserving of the severest re

Christ is the same yesterday,, and prehension ; secondly, the civil, to

for ever which he gives bis osteosible sup

"2. The only theology to which Varro gave port, but of which it was the oppro- a genuine approbationi, he confined to 'the brium, that, whatever distinctions philosophical part of his countrymen. Hence were attempted in its favour, it it is evident, that lie had discovered in it constanıly relapsed into the fabu. nothing which tended to the common benefit Jous; and thirdly, the natural, which of the world, nothing which ultimately afVarro believed to be the only true fected the soul of man. It might anjuse cu. and dignified part of religion, the riosity, but did not lead to happiness

. Howy object of which was to inquire con

different the religion of Christ! Gu ye into

all the world, and preach the Gospel to cerning the gods, who they were,

The common interest is where they resided, their descent proved by the necessity of a common knowand quality, when they began to jedge. Every soul is the object of God's exist, whether they were created gracious call; and it is the characteristic of or eternal, and other such questions. Christianity, not that it addresses only the wise man after the flesh;' not that it is con- portant questions, some flattered fined to the nighty' or the • noble;' but themselves, that no other instruction that the poos have the Gospel preached to than that of Plato was essential to them.'

every creature.'

tbeir duty and welfare. Oihers, for "3. From the manner in which Varro

the sake of winning the pagans, treats his subject, it is evident that he regarded the gods with no vulgar ege. He

were tempted to accommodate the did not worship them as othwis did, for the Scriptures to the doctrines of this sike of the temporal benefits which ihey were heathen philosopher. While a third pupularly supposed to confer. Yet it is obser- class, taking advantage of these convable

, that neither does he look forward to cessions, exalled the religion of nafuture blessings from their hands. In his ture at the expense of revelation. whole discussion, mention is no where made It was of particular importance, of eternal life. What may we infer from therefore, for the zealous bisbop of this? that those Romans who professed the Hippo tó prove, that, though supehope of future happiness from their gods, rior to the system of Varro, that of spoke from no settled conviction, but from Plato was yet far removed from the the obvious disappointment of present expectations. Varro, the great master of Roman sublimity of the Gospel; that in no theology, had held out no promise to the mode of classical theology, however soul

, had made no discovery of eternity; celebrated, was contained the true nor can be be supposed to lave entertained happiness of man; and that revelaa hope of which he gives no sign.' Here tion alone could teach the proper then is the great triuruph of the Gospel. knowledge of God, and effectually Its characteristic is the promise of the lite promise the rewards of “ the life to "which is to come,' of eternal happiness come. through faith in Christ, and obedience to his

Before he proceeds to an examicommander. • I go to prepare a place nation of the Platonic doctrines, Dr. for you; that where I am, ye may be also.” And He who gave this promise to the world,

Ireland gives a sketch of some of shall appear once agaiu for the consumma

the previous systemıs of philosophy; tion of it, •The Son of man shall come in particularly those of Thaies and Pva bis glory, and all the holy angels with him. thagoras, the founders of the lonic He shall sit upon the throne of his glory, and and the Italian schoois; poiuting before him shall be gathered all nations, and out, as he reviews them, the absurhe shall separate the one from the other. dity, inconsistency, or insufficiency The wicked shall go away imo everlasting by which they were severally markpunishment, but the righteous into life eter- ed; and closing these preliminaries nial.'” pp. 206–209.

with a view of the doubt and perThe sixth chapter of this very plexity in which Socrates was inlearned and interesting work, con- volved by the contending and unsatains an elaborate view of the doc- tisfactory opinions of former philotrine of Plato concerning the Deity; sophers, and his own consequent dewhich, though one of the most able, termination. lo confine the profeswas probably not the most intelligi- sion of human wisdom as much as ble or useful to the young persons possible to the purposes of prudence for whose benefit it was originally and morality. designed. In the age of St.Angus- The genius of Plato was of a tin, it was found necessary to make most comprehensive and excursive considerable efforts against the ex- nature. Though the scholar of Sutraordinary influence which the opi- crates, he was not contented with nions of the Grecian sage bad ob- the doctrines of one school, but tained throughout the Christian sought wisdom wherever it might world. Plato was supposed to have be found. Megaro, therefore, Cyarrived at the knowledge of the su- rene, Italy, and Egypt, were made preme Being, and to have made the lo contribute their stores of dialecgreat discoveries of creation and the tic, mathematical, intellectual, and unity; and on account of the credit mystical learning; and formed this which he had acquired on these im- eminent philosopher to the copious

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