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mites in his single person the vene- of God, and their punishment imrable characters of father, husband, mediately commenced. They no prince, and friend ; and who invests longer bore the image of God; they ibese characters with unimaginable no longer beheld that tree of life, interest and awe, by the addition of which was either the pledge or the the adorable names of Creator, Pre- source of immortality. A dark and FETTET, and Redeemer. Who can cheerless cloud overshadowed the measure the obligations by which future; and the sad prophecy,“ Dust we are bound to such a Being ? and thou art, and 10 dust shalt thou rewho then can measure the crime turn,” was but too rapidly verified in which a violation of these obliga- the murder of one son by the hands tions implies? Ifeven in the joyous of another. Thus Adam's sin sarice of such a Being, the angels brought death into the world, and Feil their faces, abashed by his pu

all our woe." Let us go forward in rily and inajesty, O who shall tell the page of Scripture, and we perthe nature of the deed, when a de- ceive that ere long the earth became pendent mortal lifts up his feeble populous; and in proportion to its and uphallowed arm in defiance of numbers was its wickedness. For a ,,che will, and in subversion of the au. hundred and twenty years, the Dithority, of his God!

vine forbearance was evinced. The 2. The evil of sin may, in the warnings of Noah were uttered in best place, be illustrated by tracing vain. At length, God made bare his te sctual effects it has produced in holy arm: the windows of heaven the world. We are accustomed to were opened, and the fountains of Deasure any evil by the quantity of the deep were broken up. With saisery it produces. The same the exception of one family, a whole standard I wish to use here—that is, world was blotted from existence, to shew the malignity of sin by re

and its awful fate is lifted up, permarking the dreadful calamities, haps to the universe, as an eternal public and private, which it has monument of the evil of sin, and of the prodaced in the world. In respect indignation of the Almighty against to public or national calamities, I it. In the rain of Sodom and Gomoran well aware that we are far too rah, mark a similar lesson: fire and ready to impute them to the influ. brimstone are commissioned from ence of second causes, and to look heaven to overwhelm these impefor their source in political errors, nitent cities, these daring rebels and an insufficient government; against the authority of God. Trace and, therefore, instead of noticing on the subject through the whole iteose public miseries and sorrows history of the children of Israel; which have come within our own

and in the destruction of Corah, in experience, I would rather refer to the pangs of the people stung by those similar, but yet more dreadful, ' fiery serpents, in the cruel captivity national evils which are recorded in and prostration of the whole naScripture, with this special comment, tion at the feet of the king of Bawritten by the finger of God, that bylon, behold the proofs of the Dithey were his judgments on the vine vengeance. against iniquity. wickedness of the people. Unfold Oh, how iostructive and how touchthen the book of God, and when ing is the lesson their melancholy scarcely we are advanced in the confessions impart ! “ We all do history of creation, to rejoice, with fade as a leaf, and our iniquities like the first happy representatives of the the wind have taken us away; for human race, on the glorious exist thou hast hid thy face from us, and ence to which they had been ele- consumed us for our iniquities. Thy vated, we are compelled to mourn holy cities are a wilderness ; Zion with them on its abasement and is a wilderness ; Jerusalem a desoin. They transgressed the law lation ; our holy and our beautiful


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house, where our fathers praised truth, that, striking and terrific as are thee, is burned


with fire ; and all the traces of divine wrath in this our pleasant things are laid waste.” world, they are insignificant when

These facts are recorded for our compared with those which will be example; and, guided by them, we manifested in the next. The delay ** are led to attribute the woe, the of vengeance ought not, therefore, slaughter, the oppression, the sla- to give courage to transgressors, who, '* very, the wretchedness that fills the could they see earth, lo sin, astheir dreadful source,

“The dawn of Christ's last advent, long design Every national calanuity is ihe loud,

sir'd, though, alas! oft unbeard, voice of God proclaiming that iniquity is the And tiee for salety to the falling rocks.


Would creep into the bowels of the hills, ruin of man. b. But if from public we turn to the The images under which the fuel scriptural details of private and in- ture punishment of iniquity is de dividual misfortune, the same truth scribed are the strongest which could will meet our eye.

Is Herød struck be suggested as intelligible to ho by the hand of God even upon the man capacity. They are taken from summit of his throne? is Nebu- the most dreadful sources and instruire chadnezzar levelled with the brutes, ments of pain and horror with which ingin

though exalted as the eagle, and we are acquainted. The tormente though his nest was among the which finally await the wretched stars?" Does Gebazi, go out from offenders who shall reject every ef the presense of Elisha a leper as fort of forbearance, every offer of wbite as snow? Do Ananias and mercy, are compared to the gnawing Sapphira unite in the same declara- “worm that dieth not," and " tion, and meet in the same grave? the fire which is not quenched. It is because God's judgments are “ The wicked shall go away, poured out. It is because, “though “cursed” of God, “ into everlasting hand join in hand, iniquity shall not fire, prepared for the devil and bis go unpunished,"

angels." Their immortal souls will And is not the misery which still be eternally banished from God's sinks the spirit of a man to the earth, presence; will be shut out from which attacks him under the various every joy allotted to the righteous; shapes of disease, and poverty, and will pariake the full curse of sini, scorn, and tears, and death, imputa- unmitigated by any of its former ble to the same cause? Are not all pleasures; will experience that tethese ibę dire effects, the tremen

and anguish, and enmity dous marks of God's displeasure against God, which result from conagainst the ungodliness of men? scious guilt and annihilated hope; And even upon the penitent, though that unutterable desolation of soul, changed by a father's kindness to which the progress of eternal ages the gentlesť chastisements of love, do' will not exhaust or diminish. Let not Wiese calamities still fall with then the pains of hell evince the masufficient weight to bow them to the lignity of sin. dust, when they turn in bitter recol- 4. The last consideration which I lection to the true source from shall offer in confirmation of this whence amictions spring?

subject, is the infinite price' at which 3. The nature of sin will be de-a provision for the pardon of offences picted in yet more glowing colours, has been procured. if we advert to the puisery zwhich it Far be it from me to say that will produce hereafter.

the Almighty might bave ettected ti the Gospel has brought life in man's behalf; whether in any aud immortality, it has likewise other way than in' that which he brought death and in mortality lo has seen åt to reveal, lie could have light. I has disclosed the awful pardoned sin "in consistency with


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the perfection of his holiness, and minds of some, impressions directly the severity of his justice. It is opposite to those which the Gospel suficient for us to adore that actual conveys respecting the plan of our dispensation of grace he has dis- saivation. There is, 1 grant, much closed to admire that mercy which truth in his observations, as it rethe death of his Son bas permitted gards the workings of the heart him to extend to mankind. This when brought into a state of alarm;

awful fact seems, however, to teach and there is also unquestionably Slu, that the pardon of sin could be great propriety in elevating the

obtained at no inferior cost; that standard of religious obedience, and man must suffer through eternal pointing men to that as absolutely years, or the son of God must bleed necessary to be attained; for with upon the cross. Would we then out holiness no man shall see the mark the entire malignity, the en- Lord. To rouse, to animate, to intire heinousness of sin, let us turn cite, is the duty of the Christian mito Calvary, and collect the punish- nister; and there is an indispensable ment it merited from the sufferings necessity of pressing upon bis hear of the Son of God; let us mark His ers self-denial and prayer; but adiction " who was bruised for our when Sopater goes so far as to talk transgressions, and wounded for our of well-timing the assertions, that

iniquity:" let us mark his body, salvation is all of grace, &c. I cope E fainting, scourged, sweating drops fess it is a doctrine which I have

of blood, pierced with nails, expiring never yet discovered in the Bible. on the cross; and his soul "exceed. It is possible indeed, and I fear is

ing sorrowfól,” “ smitten,” “afflict- sometimes the case, that practical ed, yea, “ forsaken of God!” exhortations may be omitted when

Oh what shall we now think of they ought to he enforced; but it the guilt of transgression, when this seems io me impossible to exalt spectacle passes before our eyes! too high the dignity of the Saviour, What shall be our estimate of the 'and the sovereignty of bis love. If evil of sin, when, to the innumerable any motive can weigh with a poor obligations it violates, to the judg. sinner, brought into a state of alarm, ments it has brought into the world, to abandon bis sins; if any inducein the torments it has yet in store ment can be offered to persuade him brike wicked, this is added, that to turn to God; I know of no motive, e could meet no pardon but through of no inducement, so powerful as that the sacrifice and passion of the which is deduced from the cross of Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Christ. And if this fail, in vain

N.G. shall we try the force of all other

exhortations whatever. But what

was the practice of the apostles?
To the Editor of the Christian Observer. Did they ever talk of well-timing

their déclarations of the Gospel plan,
I TRUST I shall not trespass too much from a fear that they would " cer-
© your time and on the pages of tainly, sooner or later, weaken, if not
pour most valuable work, if I beg destroy, the force of practical ex-
leave to offer a few observations on hortation's?” Consult the language
the last two communications of So. of the Epistles. We there discover,
PITER; one of which appeared in jo every line, a remarkable promi-
year number for October, and the nence given to the free grace of
arbet in that of January. With all God; and whenever St. Paul ad-
respect for the piety of Sopater, I vančes towards this amazing subject,
Cantot but say that the language hé his soul becomes impassioned with
bas used appears to me iöconsistent the theme, and he is lost in rapture.
with the tenor of Scripture, and per- This is the grand machine which
bapis calculated to produce on the once converted the world: and
Christ. Ogsexy. No. 111.


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we would be the happy instruments a matter of comparatively small inof the same blessed work, now in portance: nor am I to be under. these latter days, let us not pro- stood to mean that the doctrines of ceed upon any other foundation. the Gospel, and nothing more, are When the poor jailor at Philippi to be preached, from a conviction came trembling, and fell down at the that they will produce all the effects feet of the apostles, demanding what necessary. All that I wish to obhe must do io be saved, they did not serve is, that the grand engine of well-time their answer, by telling conversion is the cross of Christ the man he must labour, he must run, and, as it regards the motive to inand strive, though undoubtedly none duce a sinner to leave his sins, no knew better than they the propri- thing but a full, and open, and clear, ety of such an exhortation; but they enunciation of the free, demerited said unto him, Believe on the grace of God in Christ, will avail Lord Jesus Christ, and thou shalt be And, when once the mind begins to saved and thy house." Let me ask, feel the force of this love, it will ne would it not, while the man was in longer be divided by two “ contra that state of mind, have been rather dictory propositions;" bat, one ad ill-timed, and as if one should call itted, the other will be assented to upon a poor cripple to run, when with joy. we knew him utterly incapable of It seems to me, that that preach standing? We seem to forget the ing which leaves the mind to adop efficacy of the cross of Christ, and, a confused idea about what Sopate in attempting too eagerly to raise is pleased to call “ unconnecte the superstructure, we neglect to premises,” must emit an uncertai lay a proper foundation; and the sound: and if so, then indeed th consequence is, that the building conclusions arising from then falls to the ground. I cannot, sir, “must necessarily be weak and in but think that this subject is by efficacious.” I have, sir, for a con some too much neglected. It seems siderable time past read your work to be imagined, that if men are and, as I think, these observation continually told their duty, this are in consonance with it: and I is all which is to be done; while am happy to take this, the first op Christ (if I may be allowed the ex- portunity, of saying that I trust il pression) is kept too much in the has often contributed to rectify my back-ground, and those views which judgment, and lead me to much use. ought to be in distant perspective ful reflection. are brought into the front of the

With sincere respect, piece. Far be it from me to insi.

I am yours, &c. nuate that practical exhortation is



held up to derision in your Namber To the Editor of the Christian Observer. for December, p. 753. I am no lexicographer, or dictionary There are, perhaps, few descripmaker; nor even concordist: yet I tions of men, to whom the church could not but feel rather displeased and the world, the learned and the at seeing my old acquaintance and unlearned, they who know it and benefactors incautiously placed they who know it not, are more among that motley group, which is deeply indebted, than the body of

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1811.) Defence of Concordists and Lexicographers:

155 men in question: and merely to ac- opened' a way for the more rapid knowledge that their labours are propagation of the Gospel. useful, while they themselves are In like manner, a man has made spoken of with contempt, is not the considerable proficiency in the learnmost proper return for the benefits ed languages, perhaps without the which we bave received; vor the advantages of a liberal education: way to encourage others to tread in he ascribes his progress to the astheir steps: and as Europe espe- sistance of this or the other friend; cially is under immense obligations but perhaps, above all, to his own to the lexicographers of the fifteenth indefatigable perseverance — But, and sixteenth centuries, for the ex. what dictionary did you use? If celent translatioas of the sacred you had not had that dictionary, Scriptures which she now pos- what would you have done? The sesses; so the exertions of “ the answer to such questions will reLible Society," and of other soci- mind him, that if others before eties for circulating the Scriptures, him had not bestowed still more inwill need a great number of labo- defatigable diligence in the business, rious dictionary-makers, in various his own labours must have been to koguages, to give their pious and little or no purpose. A great part of benevolent designs full effect; and his learning therefore, yea, and of every attempt of this kind, in a lan- the good which it enables him to do, guage little known, is an import- is owing to the lexicographers. The aut opening to the translation of the case is the same with all learned Scriptures into that language. men, whether they recollect it or

You have performed a long jour- no; and with the unlearned, who Ley. It is inquired of you, at what in any way profit by their larate you travelled: you answer, five, bours. I, seven, or eight miles, in an This, however, your correspondbaar. I go no further, because, ent considers as springing from their except on great emergencies, no “ love of fame." Perhaps it may man ought, and one would hope be more justly imputed to a high, bo merciful man can desire, to travel probably excessive, valuation of that pare rapidly. Various other ques. kind of learning in which they are tiesus are proposed about the jour- proficients, and an ardour of mind pey: and you give due commen- in exciting others to the same studation to the horses, drivers, or dies, united with a desire of acgrooms, &c. But at length this quiring a hard-earned maintenance uncommon inquiry is started—Who by their labours. But, when we made the road and built the bridges? consider what kind of men laboured Yes if the road had not been pre. in making lexicons and dictionaries, viously prepared, you could not in the dawning of the reformation; it bare travelled, either with such would be unjust not to ascribe the speed, safety, or comfort. The assiduity and perseyerance of many, drudges who do the common labour, to strong religious principles, and and the surveyors of the high-ways, an ardent hope of thus rendering a right perhaps here occur to your most important service to the souls zind

, without exciting either much of men. respect or sense of obligation. But, Suppose, again, a man to have sarobably the whole was planned by made a great proficiency as a textuTen of far more enlarged minds': ary in the Holy Scriptures: will this

we know that the enlightened person refuse the tribute of respect Lowrans made roads in all the coun- due to Cruden the concordist? I tries which they possessed; know- mention him, as his was long by ing that this would facilitate social far the best concordance, and as it indercoarse, and promote civiliza- has furnished materials to all subsetwa; and tnus, unconsciously, iney quent ones. Shall i impute Cru

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