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סן

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TURKISH EXPEDITION TO AFRICA.

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PORTUGUESE DISCOVERIES.

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countries, whose king was a greatly honored Arab*, a confederate of all the uncircumcised at that time. And the pasha sent unto him, saying, “ Come down to me, tarry not for the king, because the Great Turk has sent me to thee to deliver thee this day from the hands of these uncircumcised.” Then the king answered, “Who is he that maketh bold to say to me, · Come down ? Let him come up to my house, for I am a king; yea, and the son of a king!” And the wrath of the pasha was kindled against him ; and he sent to the king with subtlety, and slew him, and plundered the country. But the Venetian rebuked him, and said, “Why hast thou done thus, to make me stink before the inhabitants of the country ?t for they will not again assist us, neither will they give us any provision, and we shall die of hunger.” And as the Venetian spake, so it was : for the kings of those cities said, “Is it not better to serve the uncircumcised, than to die by the hand of this cruel man?” So they hated him, and turned their backs to him, and not their faces, though at first they favored him. And the Turks were forced to retreat without

And it came to pass, when they were in Egypt, that the Venetian told one of his friends what had befallen him; and that man told his

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to Calicut*, which was under the government of
· great Turk; and they bound their princes
th chains, and their nobles with fetters of iront:
the country became theirs : and they made a
renant with the inhabitants, who have been
ves to the king of Portugal until this day.
ence they brought also spices, and silver, and
d, in abundance, and thus filled their dwellings
ch spoil. All that was done at Calicut was re-
ited to the Great Turk, and he became zealous
his people and his gods. At his command,
y brought workmen, who builded cruizing ships
war, and bore them away on camels to the sea;
from this sea the Turks

go

into the great Sea
Suff, which is that sea which compasses the
rld. And they put into their ships valiant men,
drawing the sword; and one of their princes
s over them as captain. With them was a
netian, a wise and mighty man of valor. And
· king commanded the pasha, the general of the
ny, saying, Fall not out by the ways; and do
that the Venetian adviseth you; and according
his word, so shalt thou do.Then the pasha
blied, O lord, my king, I will do according to
y words.” As they journeyed thence they came

great city, the glory of all the surrounding
* .

Ps. cxlix. 8.
# 910 O'. The sea of weeds, usually the Red Sea.
$ Gen. xlv. 24.

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success.

.ערבי *

† Gen. xxxiv. 30. B 2

.קאליקוט

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And they

were

words to the pasha, and he hated the Venetian in his heart. And the Venetian desired to return to his master; but the pasha intreated him, and said, “No; thou shalt come with us." went their way. And it came to pass, when they

near Constantinople, that the janissaries strave among themselves and slew the Venetian ; so that he died before he returned to his master. It was not known who had slain him; and it grieved the Turk exceedingly.

590. There was a man in Castile, which is in Spain, Americo by name, who had a great ship, and he stored it plentifully with provisions, according to his heart's desire; and his heart impelled him also* to go forth in person to take spoil wherever he could find it, and even to extend his voyage

far from the borders of landt. And there gathered themselves unto him vain fellows, who embarked with him and went their way. And they continued their voyage many days, in a tract by which no man had passed, from the day that the Almighty created earth and heaven. And they went on even until they could no longer see the star

Exod. xxv.

2. + Rabbi Joseph apparently confounds Amerigo Vespucci with Columbus, and means to say that Americo ventured to cross the high seas, instead of coasting within sight of landmarks, which was formerly the usual mode of navigation.

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DISCOVERY OF AMERICA.

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words to the pasha, and he hated the Venetian in his heart. And the Venetian desired to return to his master; but the pasha intreated him, and said, “No; thou shalt come with us.” And they went their way. And it came to pass, when they were near Constantinople, that the janissaries strave among themselves and slew the Venetian ; so that he died before he returned to his master. It was not known who had slain him; and it grieved the Turk exceedingly.

590. There was a man in Castile, which is in Spain, Americo by name, who had a great ship, and he stored it plentifully with provisions, according to his heart's desire; and his heart impelled him also* to go forth in person to take spoil wherever he could find it, and even to extend his voyage far from the borders of landt. And there gathered themselves unto him vain fellows, who embarked with him and went their way. And they continued their voyage many days, in a tract by which no man had passed, from the day that the Almighty created earth and heaven. And they went on even until they could no longer see the star

Tramontana, by which the mariners and seafaring men are guided and direct their way; and they reeled to and fro, and staggered like a drunken man*; and they went on from deep to deep, and were confounded by the springs of the seat during many days. And the food which they had with them failed, and the men prayed that their souls might die, and every one cried unto his Godt at that time. And they made up their minds to return, and they knew not that the ship-master was in perplexitys not discerning between right and left; and they said, “ While their soul fainted within them, let us cast lots|l, and upon whomsoever the lot shall fall, we will eat his flesh that we may live and not die.” While they were yet speaking, the watchman lifted

up
his

eyes, a place afar off, and cried, “Ah, my brethren! Land! Land!” And the men rejoiced much, and rowed towards the dry land, and went on shore. And they came into a small city, whose inhabitants were few and naked; yet they were not ashamedT. And the Spaniards spake unto them, but they understood nothing except a little of the language of Ishmael. And the Spaniards asked for bread.

and saw

*

Ps. cvii. 27.

Jonah i. 5. || Jonah i. 7.

.במתעתע 8

† Job. xxxviii. 16. $ .

Gen. ii. 25.

* Exod. xxv. 2.

† Rabbi Joseph apparently confounds Amerigo Vespucci with Columbus, and means to say that Americo ventured to cross the high seas, instead of coasting within sight of landmarks, which was formerly the usual mode of navigation.

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YAMS, OR SWEET POTATOES.

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sour.

And they brought unto them of the bread which they made; and behold it was dry and mouldy*. And they made of the roots of herbs which grew in their countryt, unleavened cakest which were not

And the appearance of this bread was like the biscottog now made in the town of Pisa, which is in Tuscany. And the men were much astonished when they saw the Spanish weapons of war, especially when they heard the voice of their guns, and saw the burning flame of fire; and they said, “

Surely they are sons of the gods : for like unto them they give out their voice, and who will say unto them, “What do ye ?|?” And they feared them much, and brought them into their houses, and gave them their silver and their gold, and took for themselves of the knives and of the instruments of iron which the men of Spain had with them; for there had been seen neither iron nor copper at all in that country, from the day that they began to dwell in it. And the Spaniards took thence provision of all that they found, and departed thence, and returned to the land of Spain in joy, filled with every good thing; and they gave thanks to God, and announced to their brethren all

* Josh. ix. 5. + Rabbi Joseph probably means to describe potatoes. I Lev. viji. 26.

$ i. e. Biscuit. Il Job. ix, 12.

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CRUELTY OF THE SPANIARDS.

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that they had done, and all the travail with which they had met on the way. And many envied them. From that day forward, many of the lowest people of the country became likewise disposed to go thither to the place of gold. But some of them found nothing, save a place of briers and thorns, and died on the way of hunger and thirst, and for want of every thing. And many reached their desired haven*, and returned home with joy, and wealth, and riches, and plenty of every thing. And it came to pass, as often as the Spaniards went thither, that they took captive the inhabitants of that country to be unto them servants, and handmaidens, and tributaries, unto this day. The Spaniards took also of their daughters some to be confectioners, and cooks, and bakers; and there was none to deliver out of their hands. And the cry of the inhabitants of that country went up unto heaven.

591. And the land was widely spread before them, and blessed by the Lord. And their men were as horses and mules, they knew nothing; neither did they understand, they walked in darkness : and the Spaniards were instead of eyes unto them. [no] And it came to pass, when the Spaniards began to multiply upon the face of the earth, that the

* Ps. cvii. 30.

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