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until the rising of the sun, and every one returned in peace to his own house.

598. And it came to pass, some days after, that the king of England sent messengers to the emperor Charles, and they made a covenant together.

599. In those days, as the emperor abode in Wormatia, he lifted up the head of Prospero Colonna, and made him general of his host. And he came to Bologna. And the viceroy also who was at Naples, brought with him seven hundred horsemen, and six thousand French footmen, and they united themselves to the army of the pope;

and they were as one in his hand. Then sent the emperor to Francesco Sforza, the son of the Moor, saying, “ Stand up and prepare thyself, and be ready, I will bring thee back to thy office at Milan;" and he rejoiced greatly in his heart. So he also gathered together the Germans, men of valor. And he abode at Trent, for there was his house until the last time.

600. And Lotric*, the viceroy, wrote to King Francis, his master, saying, Beware of England, and of Burgundy, and Spain, and I will stand here on my ward; [] for so long as the Venetian nobles are with us, we will not fear the two

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WAR IN ITALY, A. D. 1521.

tails of these smoking fire-brands*. And the king sent to Venice and renewed his covenant with them. And they sent Andrea Griti to his aid with a strong hand. Then Lotric, the king's viceroy, sent his brother Iskurt, and Frederico Gonzaga di Puzzuoli, to Parma, and they fortified it and abode therein.

601. And it came to pass, on the twenty-fourth day of the month July, one thousand five hundred and twenty-one, that Prosperof, general of the host, removed from Bologna, and marched slowly until he came to Frederico, marquess of Mantua, general of the host of Leo. And they went and pitched their camp against Parma, and cast up trenches against it. And Frederico Puzzuoli fortified himself within the city, and spake kindly to the men of the army day by day. And they approached the wall and warred against it, and many fell slain to the ground. And it came to pass, as they were fighting, the Spaniards entered the city, and gave Little Parma to be plundered. And the soldiers who were therein passed over the river, which crosses the midst thereof, and fortified themselves in Great Parma, and abode therein. And when Lotric heard thereof, he

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gathered men of valor and went to their aid with a strong hand.

602. And at that time only the Venetian nobles were with Francis. But, notwithstanding he was alone, he turned not back his right hand. And with great zeal he brought back the king of Navarre into his kingdom. He subdued also Fontarabia* with a mighty hand. In those days rebelled Roberto della Marciat against the emperor Charles, his master, and followed Francis. And they abominably destroyed the armies of the king throughout all the districts of Flanders, in those days. And Charles gathered together valiant men who took all the cities of Roberto, and bound him with chains. And also to the city wherein was Roberto, went the host of the emperor, and subdued it. And Roberto they took alive; and they sent him with his son to the emperor, who cast them into prison for their trespass, wherewith they had trespassed against him.

603. While they besieged Parma, came Guicciardino, the overseer of the pope, and told Prospero, saying, “ The Duke of Ferrara is gone out to war against Modena and Reggio with a mighty hand; turn yourselves, therefore, and go thither.”

thither.” More

.פונטוראביאה *

,רובירטו דילה מארצאה +


. I Reduced them to slavery, because Roberto was not taken till afterwards.



over, he heard the report of Lotric, the viceroy, who remained behind them; and he departed from the city, and turned back, and went to Brasilo*. And he passed the river Po, as far as Castel Maggiore. There they found the Swiss and the Germans who had brought Leo, the pope, to Italy. Then the Cardinal Giulio di Medicit (who is that Giulio whom they made pope after Adrian, and called his name Clement the Seventh), went to review his troops.

Then were the generals of the army astonished at his acuteness, judgment, good counsel, and valor; so that they went at his bidding, and turned not to the right hand nor to the left. And the French also passed over the river Po, and went on to meet them, to fight against them; howbeit, the Swiss who were with Lotric, would not war against their brethren, and every one returned to his own house. Prospero, general of the armies of the emperor, went as far as Corte di Fera, and he met the horsemen of the French and their light-horse; and they were discomfited before him and Aed.

604. And when the French saw this mighty host, and heard the divers tongues among them, they were afraid, and passed over the river Adda, to watch till the enemy should pass over; but their hope was vain, for they are a nation void of

.בריסילו *

+ Julius de Medicis, the Chasmonite, '39799 98095yy younn.

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counsel. And Prospero stationed eight hundred Swiss in Caravaggio*, and went before them to Rivolta. And he gave command with subtlety to make a bridge across the Adda, that the people might pass over from afar off. Of all this the French knew nothing. Wherefore they turned back and went to Milan with the Venetians, and fortified it. Also, the French who were in the fortress, strengthened themselves much. And Prospero went on his way, and halted at Marignano, until the artillery came. And it came to pass, on the nineteenth day of the month of November, that they drew nigh unto the city, and went to the forts and set the battle in array against them; and much people died. And Lautric placed Teodoro Trivulzio at the gate, which is called Roman, to watch it; for he feared the men of the city; for he spilled the blood of their princes like water. But Teodoro was smitten before them, and they took him alive on that day. And the men of the city made a conspiracy against the French; for their soul was embittered against them. And during the night, they brought the army of the emperor and the pope into the city. And Prospero walked in its streets all the night, and spake kindly to the inhabitants of Milan, saying unto them. “Fear not.”. And the French

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