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remarkable truth and spirit; upon another are tracings of unfinished figures, the outline visible in red or black colors, with the latest corrections from the hand of the artist; and in a third portion may be seen the network of squares which was his scale of measurement.

Nor are there wanting instances, in the fourth place, of the treatment of individual subjects by Egyptian artists in a creative, ideal style worthy of later Grecian art. Such is the sitting statue of Amenophis IV., of Egyptian alabaster, now in the Louvre, and the statue, also sitting, of king Safra, in the Museum at Cairo, pictured by Count Rougé in his Recherches sur les Monuments historiques. These occasional works show a capacity for a higher range of art than the average of conventional monuments would indicate. And as many a prophecy of Raphael's Madonnas beams from the faces of the figures draped in the old Byzantine forms, so may one detect in stiff, old Egyptian sculptures hints of the unfettered life and beauty which Greece was yet to bring to perfection in the kingdom of the ideal.

Not only in the proto-Doric pillars of Benihassan, and the round brick arches of temples and tombs, was Egypt the pioneer of Greece and Rome in architectural forms, but in the sense of adaptation, in the use of color and material, in the canon of proportion, and in hints and essays toward the ideal in painting and sculpture, was Egypt the pioneer in art as in science for nations whose later splendors eclipsed her dawn.




THE IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL.'- The title of this work, translated into English, is: “The Idea of Immortality in the Faith and the Philosophy of the Nations." Its author is a learned Roman Catholic. Its compass is nine hundred and eighty-nine pages, and though it possesses a pretty complete table of contents, it lacks, as is only too usual in German publications, a good index.

The discussion is divided into three main parts. In the first part the author expounds his own views regarding the origin and nature of man ; body and spirit; the essence of the soul; human personality; consciousness and self-consciousness; mental disorders; sleep and dreams; images of death and immortality; death and its phenomena; death from an ethical point of view; rise of the idea of immortality; the idea of God and that

1 Die Unsterblichkeitsidee im Glauben und in der Philosophie der Völker. Von Dr. Leonhard Schneider. Regensburg. 1870. Price, 2 Th. 24 sgr.

of immortality; the ethical element therein; proofs of immortality, and a critique of the same; and other related topics. In the second part we have a review of the idea of immortality among non-Christian peoples. Special attention is here given to Greece and Rome, though other nations are included in the survey so far as information regarding their conceptions is attainable. This section concludes with a particular glance at the Mohammedan notions of immortality and eschatology in general. In the third part Christendom is passed in review. The first chapter of this part touches on such subjects as myths, faith, reason, theology, and philosophy; Christian eschatology—death, judgment, heaven, hell, purgatory, intermediate state, resurrection. The second exhibits the views of the Apologists, the Fathers, the Gnostics, the Scholastics, the Mystics, and the Middle-Age Jews. The third reviews the philosophers and literary men of modern times, and concludes with notices of recent works on the immortality of the soul.

This brief and bare account of the contents of the work will be sufficient to show its interest and value. It is a perfect storehouse of information on the great and important question with which it deals. Perhaps the best sections are two on the proofs of immortality and on recent works devoted to the subject. Dr. Schneider classifies the proofs as follows: the theological, the logical, the metaphysico-psychological, the teleological, the moral, the cosmological, and the historical, from the consensus gentium. In criticising these proofs he arrives at the conclusion that the most powerful is the one from the existence of the belief in immortality. This fact, especially when taken in conjunction with the reaching forwards, the sense of the incompleteness of the work begun, the feeling that as it were merely a beginning, a preparation had been made, which we find in the greatest minds as they approach death even in old age, is perhaps the strongest argument that can be adduced.

We need scarcely say that in view of the conflict now raging between the assailants and adherents of the old-fashioned idea of immortality, it is very necessary for Christian teachers to make up their minds on the subject. For ourselves we cannot help thinking that the advocates of the "Life in Christ" theory, much as we admire their sincerity and earnestness, are theologically, philosophically, and ethically on the wrong track. But a wide survey of the questions in dispute will alone conduce to the certitude which teachers need; and as an aid to such a survey we cordially recommend the work to which this notice is devoted.

FETICISM.1 Feticism is one of the strangest phenomena of human history. It exhibits in juxtaposition perhaps more marvelously than any other phenomenon, the grandeur and degradation of man. So far as we

1 Der Fetischismus. Ein Beitrag zur Anthropologie und Religions-geschichte. Von Dr. Fritz Schultze. Leipzig. 1871. Price, 1 Th. 10 sgr.

can see, the essence of Feticism lies in this: that individual men endow objects with, or deprive them of, divine functions at pleasure. It is known that negroes make fetiches of objects for the most capricious reasons; and if the expectations with which the fetiches are constituted are not realized, they unceremoniously depose their fetiches from the position into which they had been placed. A fetich is a something which is believed to wield divine powers, though in itself it is in no respect fitted to make a divine impression. To ascribe divine powers to an object that is in itself grand or beautiful or mysterious is a stage higher than feticism. Now the procedure referred to has two aspects: first, it is man constituting deity! What a sublimely presumptuous assumption of power! What a grand exercise of his liberty, even though unconsciously put forth! But, secondly, it is man bowing down to, putting his trust in, fearing, that which owes to his caprice what constitutes it worthy of reverence, trust, fear! What an absurdity! What unfathomable degradation!

The author of this treatise does not take exactly the view of Feticism that we have just hinted at; but, at the same time, in the main, confirms it. He discusses the subject under the following heads: 1. the various views of Feticism; 2. the state of mind of savages in a logical and ethical respect; 3. the behavior of the savage mind to the objects of consciousness; 4. Feticism as religion; 5. the various objects reverenced as fetiches; 6. the highest stage of Feticism; 7. the final goal of Feticism. A monograph of this kind, even though it fall short of a high standard, is of very great use.

HANDBOOK OF PHILOSOPHY.'- The work whose title is given below is not a History of Philosophy, but a complete System of Philosophy in outline. It embraces the following subjects: Introduction to the Study of Philosophy; Empirical Psychology; Logic and the Theory of Knowledge; Metaphysics; Ethics; the Philosophy of Society and Law; Aesthetics. The last-mentioned subject is treated in the form of an Appendix to the rest, and fills a third small volume. The first two volumes contain 1075 pages, besides the ample tables of contents and indexes. Dr. Stöckl is Professor of Philosophy at the Roman Catholic college at Münster, which is a recommendation for an orthodox Christian, inasmuch as it is a certain guarantee that he will not endeavor to philosophize all the significance and substance out of the facts of Christianity.

Under the head of Empirical Psychology, Dr. Stöckl deals, first, with what he terms the vegetative and animal organs; then with the faculties of knowledge and desire and activity or will; thirdly, with the inter-relations between the psychical and corporeal in man. The first part he introduces as preparatory to the rest of the section. We should prefer the heading

1 Lehrbuch der Philosophie. Von Dr. Albert Stöckl. 2d ed. 3 vols. Mainz. 1869. Price, 4 Thaler.

Anthropology, and the division into Somatic, and other functions of the force commonly called the psyche, or soul, or ego.

Logic is divided into Formal and Material Logic. The former deals with the laws of Judgment, i.e. Conception, Judgment, Reasoning; the latter with the Fontes Veri and the Criterium of Truth and the Principle of Certitude.

Metaphysics is divided into General and Special. The former treats of Ontology, in three sections: 1. The Beënt in itself; 2. The Categories of the Beënt; 3. The Causes of the Beënt. The latter treats of, 1. Metaphysical Cosmology; 2. Metaphysical Psychology; 3. Natural Theology. Under the first two of these subdivisions such questions are discussed as Creation, Miracles, the Soul in the Image of God, and the Immortality of the Soul. This seems to us the right course to take. We confess that we think writers on systematic theology ought not to discuss the arguments for the existence of God and the like; but ought to relegate such arguments to a system of philosophy or to religious philosophy; and to restrict themselves to the teachings of the Bible regarding the God whose existence and chief attributes are established on independent grounds.

HISTORY OF EDITIONS OF THE GREEK TESTAMENT.1. - Dr. Reuss, the celebrated Strasburg theologian, took occasion, at the opening of the new Strasburg University, to publish the work whose full title is given below, and dedicated it Almae Argentinae e cineribus renascenti. He has been engaged on it, of course, for years, and must have devoted prodigious care and industry to its production. The work, while bibliographical, is mainly concerned with the history of the text. To this end its author has compared the various editions and arranged them in groups or families. Hence he has not observed a purely chronological order. The plan adopted is this: One thousand passages remarkable for different readings were selected, and relatively to these a comparison was instituted between the various editions. The headings of the chapters, which will give exegetes an idea of the compass of the work, are as follows: Praemonenda; Edd. Complutensis, Erasmicae, Compluto-Erasmica, Colinaei, Stephanicae, Erasmo-Stephanicae, Compluto-Stephanicae, Bezanae, Stephano-Bezanae, Stephano-Plantinianae, Elzevirianae, Stephano-Elzevirianae, ElzeviroPlantinianae, criticae ante-Griesbachianae, Griesbachianae, Matthaeianae, Griesbachio-Elzevirianae, Knappianae, criticae minores post-Griesbachianae, Scholzianae, Lachmannianae, Griesbachio-Lachmannianae, Tischendorfianae, mixtae recentiores, nondem collatae, dubiae, spuriae. Index chronol. editionum, nominum, siglorum, locorum N. T.

The following notices of various collections of editions are curious:

1 Bibliotheca Novi Testamenti Graeci, cujus editiones ab initio typographiae ad nostram aetatem impressas, quotquot reperiri potuerunt, collegit, digessit, illustravit E. R. Brunswick Schwetschke. 1872. Price, 2 Thaler.

VOL. XXIX. No. 116.


Münter, in Copenhagen, possessed 56 editions; Griesbach, 69; Mörl, 77; Lork, a Copenhagen pastor, 346, including doublettes, editions of single books, etc. Professor Reuss has 484 distinct editions, besides 98 titleeditions, in his own library. Besides these he compared 48 distinct and 18 title editions belonging to other collectors, and got friends to compare further 5 distinct and 4 title editions. So that the chronological list with which the work closes comprises 584 distinct and 151 title editions. Professor Reuss has the largest collection in the world; for the Berlin library has only 114, that at Wernigerode upwards of 140, and the Hamburg library 180.

CONVERTS TO THE ROMISH CHURCH SINCE THE REFORMATION.1— This is the tenth and closing volume of the great work of Bishop Räss, of Strasburg, on Converts, or, as we Protestants say, Perverts to Rome. Rass concludes with the year 1798, at which point another Roman Catholic writer took up the task a writer by the name of Rosenthal. The work consists of memoirs and accounts of the conversion and controversial writings of some twenty-six perverts, among whom are such names as, Frederik Prince of Hesse Cassel, Winckelmann, Gordon of Huntley, Elizabeth Pitt, and others.

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It is somewhat remarkable that so many excellent and distinguished Protestants should have become Romanists, and comparatively so few really good Romanists have become Protestants. Romish converts to Protestantism are not often in good repute; the Protestant converts to Rome are among the most zealous and best members of the church they have joined. A Protestant would account for it by saying that Protestantism breeds a higher style of man, and this the perverts carry with them. Romanists would probably give another explanation.


THE INDO-GERMANIC AND THE SEMITIC RACES. - The author of this work, a Saxon pastor, deals with his important theme from the theological point of view, and not from what is too often arrogantly called the purely scientific point of view. Justly enough too; for no writers are more theological in their discussion of subjects of this kind than those who repudiate and denounce the theological bias. They are theological in the anti-Christian sense. It is really, too, one of the gratifying features of the time that men are compelled to theologize in the one direction or the other; it is a sign that Christianity occupies so large a space in the world that thinkers must either accept or stumble against it. Pastor Röntsch, unlike Professor Grau (whose Semiten und Indo-Germanen was noticed in the Bibliotheca Sacra) and some others, denies the fundamental position of Renan

Von Bischof Räss.

1 Die Convertiten seit der Reformation. 2 Ueber Indo-Germanen-und Semitenthum. die. Von Pastor Rontsch. Leipzig. 1872.

Eine Völker-psychologische StuPrice, 1 Thaler.

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