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proofs of the present supposition being so far well founded ; nor is it a very incongruous conjecture, that, from this dormánt material infinitive istun, istadun, may proceed, having, like many others, survived the aorist infinitives whence they sprung. It is plain that the former verb, when conjugated as illustrated above, will regularly assume ud in the third person singular ; thus stud, istud. To this, by affixing the infinitive sign un, we procure istudun, which, by a trifling deviation, becomes istadun. We'moreover máy learn from the foregoing premises, that in the perfect, the d, t, as pronominal signs, are dropt to avoid the harshness of two such letters coming finally in contact with each other, because we cannot well trace ust to any thing else than a euphonous contraction of stud, istut, or istud. When to abstract and corporeal existence, life is superadded by prefixing the breathing or letter hu to the former infinitive, this naturally enough indicates the idea of animation, and it is not impossible but h-ustun, h-ustum, h-ustee, &c. were formed in that way. In several languages the hu is the chief component part in the name of God, the fountain of life, as also for life itself; for instance, Hoo, Ullah, Hur, Hu-ee, Hee, &c. It, as well as the essential simple and compound vowels; le, y, o, yoo, is moreover to be met with as the constituent part of the pronouns in various tongues ; and ho-na, hu-na, to be, exist, live, may be traced to the same inspired source. To prove and confirm much of the foregoing remarks, suppose we were to affix to ud or ut formerly described, the particle un, for the formation of the secondary or perfect infinitive, we would [should] by a regular progression, procureudun, utun, whence, by a slight deviation, eedun and adun, and by ellipsis; dun, tun.
By affixing eedun, &c. to the imperative, the Persian infinitives are formed like ruseedun and others. It is true, a number of infinitives with their derivatives deviate a little from this rule ;' but by the blessing of Providence we shall soon endeavour to account satisfactorily for them also, through the means of customary changes in the letters, provided the scholastic prejudices of former authors be removed, as this is one of the greatest obstacles to the literary improvement of every reader. It cannot be concealed that the short ă, or as I mark it u, has been considered the essence, origin, or source and perfection of existence and motion, both mental and corporeal ; it will not therefore be deemed unreasonable to supppose, that by subjoining it to the perfect tense, a past participle is formed. When u acquires the stability of a letter, it insensibly connects itself to n, whence perhaps the infinite un, now under discussion. Among the Hindoos, this very letter is treated as the basis of the whole creation, and in conjunction with the nasal m, instead of the n here, forms the famous mystic syllable om, one of the most sacred and important words in their mythology. To me, indeed, this nasal sound seems the connecting subtle link which unites the whole chain of vowels and consonants to gether. When a vowel is prolonged by repeated enunciation, it generally produces insensibly, without any motion of the tongue, the nasal' ng as an, an, an, which, treated differently, becomes an, un, or na, nu. The word formed by the Hindooś during their devotions, appears to have some metaphysical allusion to this indivisible concatenation of sounds, Whoever accurately adverts to the nature of the nasal or semivowel å, will find, that this alone requires little or no aid from any other, except the very short u, which of itself as naturally falls into the nasal un, un, un, as the nasal requires it.” pp. 1-5.
Next follows a diagram, composed of three concentric circles, in the common centre of which is placed what Mr. G. calls the primordial infinitive, or root of all the rest, viz. (2-) and which stands in reference to the different persons singular and plural of his two classes of verbs; but for this also we must refer to the work itself, as without the diagram any explanation would be unintelligible.
Notwithstanding what Mr. G. has advanced before on the primordial infinitive or root, he is inclined to believe that the imperative is the radix of verbs in all languages; and the rcason for this he conceives to be the following ;
“Before visible matter existed, had not the Universal Spirit willed imperatively, neither body nor individual mind, nor the discrimination of times, had been known. The man who shall profoundly ponder on the words koon and u, which, according to the Arabic and Hinduwee systems, proceeded from the primum mobile, or cause of causes, at the creation of the world, will clearly perceive the force and tendency of the reasoning adopted here. As ' is the root of both (watel to come, Pers.) amüdun, and (w) ana, the same in Hindootanee) it is possible enough that u is the imperative and origin of un.-Among the very confined colloquial efforts of animals, the imperative must be a mode of the highest im. portance, and as such is perfectly well understood by creatures who probably are incapable of discriminating other verbal tenses or forms. The necessity for, and preeminence of the imperative, at the very dawn of reason and speech among created beings, is to my mind as evident as the sun, and may be every day put to the test of experience, by observing the various actions of chickens in obedience to their mother's com. mands. For my own part, I have no doubt in believing, that the hen can call, in her way, hide, come, eat, silence, with as much effect as we do, because the brood vary their motions accordingly. I suspect, however, that she could herdly communicate to another fowl, that her chickens lay, or would lie, concealed beneath a bush at the kite's approach, whatever they might be successfully ordered to do on the spur of the oc. casion.!?
12. 13. The merit of ingenuity cannot be denied to this reasoning; byt wę, dare not attempt to predict that it will have that weight with our readers to which the author thinks it entitled, Indeed Mr. G. is so well assured of the truth of his own prin. ciples, and the certainty of his discoveries, that he treats all who differ from him, as wiseacres, coxcombs, &c.; but if
men eminent in other sciences should affect to laugh at and despise observations of this nature and tendency,” he considers it a proof of that “partial ignorance which frequently begets general folly," and thinks * it would be unreasonable to deny the privilege of playing the fool to the wise occasionally.” p. 13.
What provocations the author may have received from the Indian Literati we know not; except the single instance which he mentions in his Introduction, p. 1. of“ a gentleman of considerable abilities, who possesses much knowledge of the Persian tongue, to whom he submitted his plan,” printed at first on one large sheet; who gave as his opinion, 1st. That it was almost unintelligible. Ždly. That he supposed some ignorant Moonshee must have stolen the little that was right from the Ferhungi Jehangeeree, and had palmed it on him without examination, as a new theory of his own." We heartily wish there were no ground for the first part of this severe criticism ; but we must confess, that still this Theory and Prospectus appear to us to be encumbered with disad vantages, in consequence of wanting a due specification of plan and parts, and that lucidus ordo, which is of prime importance in all good writing ; particularly when the subject itself is novel, and confessedly abstruse.
The Canons which Mr. G. gives for his two classes of Persian Verbs, are sufficieņtly perspicuous, and deserye attention. 1. Canon for Class first.) By simply rejecting the finite
. , u ! adun, waleedun, dün stun, and who mdun, the imperative is generally found; but when the last letter of the part left by this process is 9 00, į kh, f, these are, in the order inserted, converted into a, ja, (after vowels) « b, after con.
, o, ! , ; uyaf, yab; ruf, ruo; goof, go, &c. After dropping ani tun, if cü sh çlose the remainder, it is converted to yr; but should als eedun be the portion dropped, the w sh, undergoes no change whatever, thus säils dash-tun, dar;
بدن ,tun تن ,dun چن .portion of the various Persian verbs
خوش ,khumosh eedun خهوشیدن ;kash
tun , kar کاشتن
نن zu dun زدن ;duh چه d
aduny دادن: ; رو ;roostun وستن -ee بدن khiwal . By affxing خواه ,khwa .stun خواستن zun
khumosh; whils khurash-eedun, välys khurash, &c. There is occasionally a very small change in the long and short vowels of the imperative, or a slight addition takes place, whenee gäst pookh-tun, jx puz; wideo inoor-dun, so meer; , , 10-, ;
, . dun to every imperative now in use, the old or regular infinitive as well as the present cansals may almost always be found," p. 20.
This canon is exemplified by a long list of Persian and Hinduwee infinitives, with their explanation in English.
II. Canon for second Class.) “ The whole of the verbs which do not come under class first, belong of course to the second here as Irregulars in their imperative, and its derivatives. Some verbs drop du from the infinitive to form the imperative, and in one instance, the initial sd of the infinitive, perhaps to prevent all confusion with dun, is changed to b in the imperative. In this last ww s, is occasionally permuted to un, or wind; ¿ kh to cu s, or uw sh, and , r to w n, with a slight vocal change in ways kur-dun, od koon, as will appear by the sequel.”
Then follows a list of verbs alphabetically arranged, for the illustration of this canon, as well afreedun wil afreen,
افرین افریدن -baf بافتن .afrash , to raise افراش uflashtun افراشتن to create
lun wil baf, to weave, &c.
The work is concluded with a Table of the COGNATE or CORRESPONDING TENSES of Persian Verbs, in their auxiliary, active, passive, and casual STATES, with their DERIVATIVES. Like the rest of the volume, this is in Persian and English, and exhibits, at one view, the dependande of one part of the verb upon another.
Nokwithstanding the author has too frequently manifested a querulous disposition when speaking of the works and conduct of others, who probably have not treated his extensive and well-meant philological researches with that degree of candour and respect to which they are certainly entitled, we think that the Persian'student cannot consult this piece without profit; for, the mere Theory aside, the work contaius
several judicious observations which prove that the author has studied bis subject with no common assiduity and attention. Our respect for his character as a man of much learning and industry, induces us to overlook some gross literary faults, which many would severely satirize.
Art. VII. Lectures on Natural Philosophy : the Result of many years
practical Experience of the Facts elucidated. With an Appendix ; containing a great Number and Variety of Astronomical and Geographical Problems ; also some useful Tables, and a comprehensive Vocabulary. By Margaret Bryan. Dedicated by permission, to H. R. H. the Princess Charlotte of Wales. Quarto, pp. 422. Price 26. 12$. 6d. Kearsley. 1806 To expose this handsome volume to the unabated rigour of
scientific criticism, would be neither polite nor just. It is the work of a very respectable lady, avowedly designed for young people of her own sex, and presented to the public with modest and humble claims. Were it published under other circumstances, or did it advance pretensions to distinction as a work of accurate physics, our feelings would be different, and our censures might be severe. That its statements are, in some instances, superficial or erroneous, that its theories are frequently unphilosophical, that its reasonings are often inconclusive, and that its style, when it intends to be elegant, too readily slides into the glaring and turgid, would, in another case, be subjects of necessary reprehension. We should be less disposed to a lenient construction of these failings, even in Mrs. Bryan, were there not, in her performance, a preponderance of commendable execution and useful tendency. Her manner in composition, except in the occasional instances before alluded to, is neat and perspicuous. If her experiments indicate no character of invention or originality, they possess the merit of being perspicuously and fully described. But the most honourable distinction of this fair philosopher, lies in her constant reference of natural truths to the purposes of moral and religious improvement. Mrs. B.'s Lectures present a laudable contrast to that studied impiety of neglect or of latent atheism, which is the execrable opprobrium of too many scientific treatises, in modern times. She never shrinks from the acknowledgement of a Deity, his nniversal agency, and his particular Providence. Nor does she omit to profess some regard to Him who is the way, the truth, and the life, or to state as the object of devout desire, the sacred influences of the Almighty Spirit. Most sincerely we wish that these professions may be more than nomine tenus The occurrence of such recognitions would have been more gratifying, and their