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Introduction-By FITZEDWARD HALL, Esq., D.C.L.
Early history of Benares.—-Sanctity of the city.—Mythic cha-
racter of Indian history.—Ancient Buddhist records respecting
Benares.—Sakya Muni, or Buddha, preached the doctrine of
Buddhism first in Benares.-— Antiquity of Benares.—-Hiouen
Thsang’s account of his visit to the city in the seventh century
of the Christian era.—Macaulay’s description of Benares.—Con-
nexion of Benares with the religious history of half the human
race. —- Its connexion with Buddhism. —Life and labours of
Buddha.-—Benares subsequent to the fall of Buddhism in India.
—The Brahman.»—Sons of the Ganges.—Devotees and pilgrims.
—Benares, the religious centre of India.
No Architectural remains dating prior to the third century
before Christ yet found in India.—Ancient Hindu Edifices of
the primitive period, not of a rude character.—-Did the Hindus
borrow from the Assyrian and Persian Sculptors ?—Ancient
remains found chiefly in the northern quarter of the city.-
Mohammedan lust for Hindu edifices.—Shifting tendency of the
modern city-Origin of the appellation “ Benares.”
Puranio form of Modern Hinduism.-—Increase of Temples in
Northern India.—Number of Temples in Benares.—Temple of
Bishes’war, the idol-king of Benares.—Ancient Temple of
Temple of Bhaironath, the god-magistrate of Benares.—
Dandpan, or the Deified Stafi'.--Temple of the Planet.—Kal-
hip, or Well of Fate.—Image of Mahzikal, or Great Fate.-—The
Manikarnikzi Well and Ghat.—Legends respecting the Well.—
Temple of Tarakes’war.-Sindhia Ghat, and the Raja of Nag-
pore’s Ghat-Temple of Briddhkal.—Shrines of Markandes’war
and Dakshes'war. — Legend of Raja Daksh. — Temples of
Alpmrites'war and Ratnes'war . . .
Benares, Kas'i, and Kedar, the three Grand Divisions of the
city.—No old Hindu Temples in Benares.—Puranic character
of the Kas’i Division of the City.-No trustworthy information
concerning Ancient Buildings to be obtained either from Hindus
or from their sacred writings.—-Preference of the Old Fanes by
Pilgrims.—Trilochan Temple.—Legends respecting Trilochan.
—-The Idolater’s idea of the benefit resulting from Worshipping
in this Temple.—Kot Linges'war.—Nanak Shah, the Sikh Guru.
—-Painting in the Trilochan Temple, depicting the Punishments
of Hell.—Trilochan Ghat-Gae Ghat.—Temples of Nirbud-
dhes'war and A’d Mahadeva.—Gor J i, the Gujarati Brahman.
Panchganga Ghat.—Legends respecting it.—Lakshmanbalzi
Temple.-The Minarets.-—Temple of Kames’wan-The Machau-
darl Tirth or Place of Pilgrimage .
Temple of Jages’war, a Resort of the Native Aristocracy of
Benares.—Kas'i-Devi, Goddess of the City of Benares.—Karn-
ghanta Talao or Tank-Temple of the Demon Bhut-Bhairo.—-
Temple of Bara Ganes'.—Jagannath.—Satis . . . . . . . 116
The Man-Mandil Chat-Temple of Dalbhyes’war.-Temp1e
of the Moon or Somes’war.-The Man-Mandil Observatory,
erected by Raja Jay Sinh.—Description of its Instruments.—
TheNepaleseTemple . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129
The Bengali population of Benares.-—The popular Temple of
Kedz'rres’wan-Legend of Kedar.-—Mansarwar Tank and sur-
rounding Temples. — Bal-Krishna and Chaturbhuj Idols. —
Manes'war Temple.—The great Image of Tilubhandes'war.—
Ancient mutilated Statue.—TempIe of Du1a'.res’war.—Peep
tree at Chauki Ghat.—-Swinging gods . . . . . . . . 146
Temple of the Maharaja of Benares at Ramnagar.-Raja
side of Beuares.—Temple of Vedavyas.—Panch-kosi Road, or
Sacred Boundary of Benares.—Pilgrimage of the Panch-kosi.
—San.itary condition of Renaws-Improvements suggested .
Barna Sangam, or Confluence of the Barna and Ganges.—-
A’d-kesav Temple.-Barria Ghat.—Raj Ghat Fort; its use in
1857.—Remains of Buddhist Monastery.—Tank of Bhairo.—
Lat or Pillar of Siva.-Ancient Pillar.—Account of Dis-
turbance in Benares when the Pillar was thrown down.-Tl1e
Ghazeepore Road-Ancient Bridge over the Barna
S’ivala Ghat.--The Old F0rt.—Raja Cheit Singh; History
of his Insurrection and of the proceedings of Warren Hastings
in connexion therewith
Hindu and Mohammedan Melz'is or Religious Festivals, held
periodically, in Benares . . .
The Buddhist Ruins at Samath—Their Antiquity.—-Sum-
mary of the Narratives of Fa Hian and Hiouen Thsang,
respecting the buildings formerly existing at Sarneith and in
its neighbourhood.—Points of agreement in the Narratives-
Modern Explorers of the Ruins.—Extent and Nature of the
Remains.—-The Great Tower: Description of it by Major-
General Cunningham, and account of his Excavations.—Age
of Buddhist Topes or Towers.—Remains of a Buddhist Mon-
astery—Mr. ,Thomas’s Account of them.-Discovery of large
numbers of Statues and Bass-reliefs.—Excavated Chamber.-—-
Foundation of an Ancient Tower—Ma_jor-General Cunning-
ham’s Description of it.—-The Chaukandi Tower.—The I’éipat-
tana Hall, or abode of Buddhist Devotees.-—Remains of Vihara
or Temple-monastery.-Small Building, containing Sixty Sculp-
tures-The Seal Chaityas.—-The Buddhist Formula.—S'akya
Muni, the historical Buddha—His visit to Benares.—-Spread of
Buddhism from Benares.-Decline of Buddhism in India.-
Destruction of Buddhist Structures at Sarnath, by fire.—Fall of
Ancient Buddhist Ruins at Bakariya Kund.—Remains of old
Wall.—Carved Stones and Ancient Pillars.—Remains of small
Buddhist Temp1e.—-Remains of larger Temple.—Traces of
Buddhist Monastery . . . . . . . . 271
Further Account of Ancient Remains recently discovered in
Benares and its vicinity.—-Meaning of the epithets ‘ancient’ and
‘old ’ in relation to Benares.—Ancient Remains, N0. I., in Raj
Ghat Fort-Ancient Remains, N0. II., near Raj Ghat Fort.-
Ancient Remains, No. III., Small Mosque in the Budaoii
Mahalla.—Ancient Mound or Ridge.—Ancient Remains, No.
IV., Tiliya Nzila and Maqdam Sahib.—Ancient Remains, N0.
V., Lat Bhair0.—-Ancient Remains, No. VI, Battis Khambhai-
Ancient Remains, No. V11, Arhai Kangura Mosque; Hindu
Temple of Kirtti Bishesiwar.—Ancient Remains, N0. VHL,
Chaukhambha Mosque.—Ancient Remains, N0. IX., Aurung-
zeb’s Mosque, near Bishes'war Temple.—-Ancient Remains, No.
X., Ad-Bishes'war Temple and neighbouring Mosque.-Ancient
Remains, No. XL, Stone Pillar standing in Sone ké. Talao.-—
Source of the great wealth of Benares-Its chief Articles of
Commerce-Its Native Bankers-Its P0or—Increased desire for
Education-The Government or Queen’s College.-Monolith in
the College Grounds.—The Normal School.—The Church of
England Mission.—-The London Society’s Missi0n.-—The Baptist
Society’s Mission.—Native Schools of various c1asses.—The
Benares Institute-Public Buildings in the suburbs.-——Monu-
ment to Mr. Cherry.—Influential Native Gentlemen of Benares. 328