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old school here contend with Hindus of the new school, -men of the past, determined to uphold the old systems to the last, with men of the present, determined at least to modify them, and to bring them to the test of rigid scrutiny; all which is beneficial to the mind, although, it may be, not always satisfactory in its immediate issue. The Institute has five constituent sections, each of which has a European president and one or more native secretaries. The sections are devoted to the following subjects: Education ; Sociology or Social Progress;· Philosophy and Literature; Science and Art, with which is associated Medical and Sanitary Improvement (in Benares); and Jurisprudence. The Institute published a volume of Transactions in the year 1865.

The foreign residents of Benares live chiefly at Secrole, an extensive suburb on the north-west side of the city. This Station is divided by the Barná river, to the south of which the greater portion of the military cantonments and buildings connected therewith are situated, and, likewise, the English Church, the Government College, the Medical Hall, the old Mint, the town residence of the Maharaja of Benares, the three Missions of the Church of England, and of the London and Baptist Societies, and the Courts of Law of the Civil and Sessions Judge, the Deputy Judge, and the Judge of Small Causes. To the north of this river are the houses of the civil officers of Government, the Courts of the Commissioner of the Division, and of the Collector and other Magistrates of the district; several bungalows, inhabited by deposed Rajas and other natives; the Wards’ Institution, for the residence of sons of native noblemen, under special charge of the Government, and while pursuing their studies at Queen's College; the beautiful Public Gardens, supported by subscription ; the Swimming Bath; the Jail, in which, occasionally, seventeen hundred prisoners are confined ; the Lunatic Asylum, established in 1812, sheltering one hundred and ten patients; the Blind and Leper Asylum, with one hundred and thirty inmates, founded, in 1825, by Raja Kálí Sankar Ghosál; and the Cemetery. A Hospital and four Dispensaries are situated in various parts of the city, and afford gratuitous relief to numerous patients daily.

In the cemetery is a lofty monument, erected to the memory of Mr. Cherry—formerly Political Resident at Benares—and a number of European gentlemen, who were all killed together on the 14th of January, 1799. Being seated at breakfast with Wazír Ali, the deposed Nawab of Oudh, on a signal being given, the Nawab and his servants rushed upon them, and the former stabbed Mr. Cherry with his own hand, while the rest were slain by his native attendants. The Nawab believed Mr. Cherry to be opposed to his interests, and, therefore, took this atrocious means of showing his resentment.

Benares is, and has long been, a favourite place of residence and resort for native princes. At the head of the Hindu community of the city, is the Maharaja of Benares,—descendant of the famous Raja Cheit Singh, - a person of much amiability and geniality of disposition, who, by reason of these excellent qualities, and also of the high station he occupies, commands the respect of all classes. The Maharaja of Vizianagram, K.C.S.I., late Member of the Legislative Council of India, lived there for several years. His knowledge of English, his liberal views, and his abundant generosity secured for him a position of considerable influence. Another former member of the Indian Council, Raja Deo Narain Singh, K.C.S.I., President of the Benares Institute, has won golden opinions, both from the English and native community, for the zeal he has displayed in promoting many useful projects of social and national interest. Nor must I omit to mention the popular and kind-hearted Babu Futteh Narain Singh, Vice-President of the Institute, at whose house the meetings of this society are held ; and his accomplished son, Babu Ais

.; warya Náráyan Sinh, the Secretary of the Institute. One of the most enterprising men of the city is Babu Siva Prasád, of whom mention has already been made in this work,—who, by his personal labours as Joint Inspector of Schools, and by the many valuable books he has written, has done more, perhaps, for the education of the people than any other native in the NorthWestern Provinces of India. As a littérateur, the disguished Mohammedan, Saiyid Ahmad ķhán, is the most prominent of his coreligionists. He is the author of a Commentary, in Urdu and English, on the Sacred Scriptures, part of which has already been printed, -a work that has excited no little curiosity amongst various classes of persons.

Connected with the Government College are several natives of great learning, the names of some of whom are known beyond their own country; such as Pandit Bápú Deva Sástrí, Honorary Member of the Royal Asiatic Society, and Professor of Mathematics and Astronomy in the Sanskrit College; and Babu Mathuráprasád, author of the valuable Trilingual Dictionary, in English, Urdú, and Hindi, lately published.



SENTIMENTS engendered by the contemplation of the city of Benares

Its history, the history of India.—Principles of progress at work in the city.—Changes visible in native society.—The Brahmo Samáj.– Diminished study of Sanskrit. — Diminished faith in idolatry, in Benares and Northern India generally.—Influence of education on Hindu youths.-A Martin Luther for India.—Influence and spread of Christianity.--Priests of Pisách-Mochan Tank.—Literary and Religious Societies amongst the natives. The Benares Institute Nature of its discussions. — Lecture of Pandit Lakshmají — His account of the consequences of Hinduism.--Effect of Missions and Education on Benares, and on India.—Religious agitation in India. — What is the destiny of Idolatry, and of Christianity in India ?—The Future in respect of Benares.—Remarks of the Rev. Dr. Thomson, Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal Church of the United States, on the religious and social condition and future prospects of India.

The ancient and modern buildings of Benares and its neighbourhood, about which I have been discoursing, were constructed by a living, earnest people, who have, for the most part, passed away, but have left these remains behind them, illustrative of their power and skill, of their greatness and glory. By examining these buildings, we gain some knowledge of the people who erected them; and this is the main object we should have in view. Undoubtedly, there is a subtle mysterious pleasure awakened in the breast by the contemplation of an old ruin; but it owes all its force to the fact that the old ruin is associated with human existence in a by-gone age, with the forefathers of the

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