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obviate the necessity of their travelling to Benares, and then returning to Gayá, another Piśách-Mochan has been erected in the latter place, as representative of that in Benares, where they may perform pújá or religious rites, and thus, after the payment of the prescribed fees to the priests (a sine qua non), acquire the full stock of merit which would have accrued to them had they really visited the Piśách in Benares.

In addition to several small melás or festivals, a very large one is held every year at Piśách-Mochan. This melá is called Loța-Bhanțá, from the singular custom which prevails, on that occasion, of grinding the vegetable called bhanțá, or egg-plant, and mixing it with flour, forming it into cakes, which are eaten at the melá. The tank is a square, with gháts or stairs on the four sides. A portion of the ghát, to the east, was erected, about eighty years ago, by Gopál Dás Sáhu; and the remaining portion, and also a temple on the bank, by a Hindu lady, named Mirch Bai, about the same time. The ghát and wall, to the west, date from the same period; the former, together with the tower rising above it, having been erected by a Hindu, Balwant Rao Bákirá, and the latter, by a Mohammedan, Mirza Khurram Shah, of Delhi. The ghát to the north was built more than a hundred years ago, by Raja Muralidhar; and that to the south, which bears upon it the marks of age, partly by Raja Siva Sambar, some three hundred years ago, and partly by Binaik Rao, a few years since. .

On the eastern bank of the tank, occupying a prominent position, are two temples, one of which is a

modern structure, and was built by Nakku Misr, a servant of the Government; and the other is that erected by Mirch Bai, already spoken of. The latter only presents features of interest. The foundations of this temple are raised some distance above the level of the neighbouring street. Its roof is flat; and, in the centre of it, a peepul and a banyan tree have fixed their roots, while their trunks rise up high into the air. On all the four sides of the temple are small shrines or niches, containing a great collection of idols. Here is Siva; next to him, the hideous head of the demon Piśách-Mochan; and, beyond it, the four-handed god Vishņu, holding in one hand a conch, in another a lotos, in a third a club, and in a fourth a discus, while a garland of lotoses hangs from his neck. Next to him is his wife Lakshmi, who has an image of the Sun on her left; beyond which is the figure of a Brahman, in stone. Then comes a shrine in which is a large red idol representing the Monkeygod Hanumán. All these are on one side of the temple; and immediately round the corner to the east is a curious figure of the god Gaņeś, who, instead of one elephant's trunk, which he commonly possesses,

has, in this case, five. All the remaining sides are its similarly decorated with deities, with the exception

of the west side facing the tank, which has fewer in number than the rest. Away from the temple itself, but resting upon the raised pedestal on which the temple stands, is one of those curious stones representing a multitude of tiny shrines, found in various places in Benares.

Súraj-kund is a large tank situated on the south-west side of the city, and originally consisted of twelve wells dedicated to the Sun. Two of the wells are still traceable beneath the surface of the water. A temple is above the tank; and on the same side are stairs leading down to the water. A few paces distant is a temple to the Sun, called, by the natives, Súraj-Náráyan, which was erected by the Raja of Kotah-bundi, who is the owner of the land in this neighbourhood. On the floor of the temple is a large round flat stone, of ancient appearance, which is worshipped as the solar deity. The day for the special worship of the Sun is Itwár or Sunday. A small building stands detached from the temple, and, in a hole in its floor, the ceremony of the hom is performed, which consists in certain offerings consumed by fire.. Wood is first placed over the hole, upon which the offerings are scattered, and are then burnt to ashes. While the sacrifice is going on, it is customary for a Pandit to read portions of the Súrya-puráņa, or the Puráņa inscribed to the Sun. This shrine is also called Sámbádit, from Aditya, the Sun, and Sámba, son of Jámbavati, a wife of Kțishņa. Tradition states, that one day this youth committed a very serious offence, for which his father pronounced a curse upon him, so that he became a leper. Whereupon his mother pleaded with Krishņa for him; and, at length, the god said, that, if he proceeded to Benares and practised asceticism, if he built a tank and bathed in its waters, and if he made an image of the Sun and worshipped it, he should be healed of his disease. All this he is reported to have done; and, the

tradition adds, he was healed. Hence, it is affirmed, the round stone above referred to is called Sámbádit.

A mutilated figure of the god Ashțáng-Bhairo stands near Súraj-kund, in a small temple open in front. There are eight idols bearing the name of Bhairo in Benares, to each and all of which pilgrims resort. This image was mutilated by that fierce iconoclast, the Emperor Aurungzeb.

The temple of Dhruveswar, or the Pole Star, is also in this quarter of the city. It is said that Dhruv, a Rishi or Saint, afterwards the Pole Star, once visited Benares, and that Siva, honouring his sanctity and devotion, united his name with his own, so that they might be worshipped in the same temple, as a united and individual deity. But this legend is an outgrowth from popular etymology; for the word íśwar, in Dhruveswara, 'Lord Dhruva,' has been ignorantly confounded with a familiar synonym of Siva, i.e., Íswar, or ‘Lord' by eminence. The old temple of Dhru. veswar fell down some time since; and, in its place, a new one has been erected, which stands on an elevation at the corner of an extensive enclosure, in the midst of which is a large temple dedicated to Siva, built by some Gosains or devotees, upwards of seventy years ago.



THE Mán-Mandil Ghát. — Temple of Dálbhyes'war.— Temple of the Moon

or Someswar.—The Man-Mandil Observatory erected by Raja Jay Sinh-Description of its Instruments.—The Nepalese Temple.

THE Mán-Mandil Ghát is principally remarkable for the old Observatory, situated upon the banks of the Ganges at this spot, and which will, presently, be more particularly referred to. This lofty building gives a noble appearance to the ghát, and commands a fine view of the river. Near the entrance to it is a collection of ancient idols which have been worn away by time and perpetual sacrificial ablutions. Several of these are figures of monkeys, representing the god Hanumán. A flag waves from the top of a high staff at this spot, in honour of the Raja of Jaypore, — the proprietor of this entire Mahalla or ward of the city,—whose ancestor Raja Jay Sinh erected the Observatory. In a lane leading to the ghát is the temple of Dálbhyeśwar, which deity is supposed to exercise great power over the clouds, in procuring rain. The image is in a cistern, low down in the centre of the temple. If the idol is properly worshipped and kept drenched with water, pious Hin

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