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without receiving a penny for their labour. In building the Mission-house this greatly interfered with our progress, for the people could not be got to work, except when he was employed as an agent to engage them. He was very anxious to get the thing into his own hands, promising to build the house, if the contract were given to him, much cheaper than we could do. Had we accepted the offer, he would undoubtedly have resorted to his old plan of forced labour, and thus not only have done injustice to the people, but have made the Mission-house a monument of that wrong. In this he was frustrated. Instead of accepting his offer, we told him that unless men could be got to work there, we would send for them from Benares, whatever the expense might be. This had the desired effect of procuring for the villagers more liberty to work, and ere long they began to understand their rights, and would not submit to the oppression as before. His complaint then was that they were becoming impudent, and would not obey his orders ; that if we proceeded in that way he would be obliged to leave, &c. To this we had nothing to say but that the sooner he left, the better for the people. He then took leave of absence for three months, and before his return the people had so far learned their rights that he was never after able to reestablish his old plan. In the course of six months the Mission-house was finished, and the Mission established. Circumstances compelled us to expend a larger amount of money than we anticipated; but by boldly facing the difficulty we succeeded in breaking a heavy yoke of oppression, and in proving ourselves to be the friends of the helpless. This gave us a footing among the people which years
of mere preaching could not have done. The fierce famine which afflicted the province about that time gave us another opportunity of showing the benevolent spirit of our religion; for through the liberality of Christian friends in Calcutta, Mirzapore, and Benares, we were able much to mitigate the horrors of that visitation, and to save many from starvation. These things made an impression on the minds of the villagers which will not be forgotten in the present generation, and which we hope may lead to higher results.
Space will not permit a detailed account of the religion of these tribes : a few words must suffice. There are neither idols nor temples among them ; the only visible indication of religion is a small altar in every village, consisting of an oblong platform of earth, raised about a foot high, and covered over with a thatch roof, resting on four wooden posts. On this, sacrifices of fowls and goats are annually offered to the spirits of their deceased ancestors. These spirits are supposed to reside in the neighbourhood where the people lived. On the tops of the hills, under the shade of special trees, by the wells, along the banks of the rivers, the dwelling-places of these spirits are pointed out. They are supposed to rule over all manner of diseases, such as small-pox, cholera, fevers, and the like. They also reign over the ravenous beasts of the forests--tigers, bears, leopards, snakes, scorpions; and all reptiles which can injure man are subject to these ghosts. When, therefore, any disease breaks out among the people, or any beast
commits ravages, it is at the instigation of some dissatisfied ghosts ; worship must then be performed, and sacrifices offered to appease the supposed spirit. Incantations are also resorted to to prevent the evil result of a snake bite, and to cure all manner of diseases. This, in outline, is the religious belief and practice of these degraded tribes. Much might have been said regarding the difficulty of carrying on our Christian work among them; but that must be left. We have now commenced, and hope, in God's strength, to overcome all the difficulties, so that the Mission in Singrowli may become the centre from which the true light may radiate, to enlighten the tribes occupying the Native States around.
MISSION ARGUMENTS FROM MISSION HISTORIES.
By the Reb. W. M. Statham. Let us take a walk through the London Mission fields, and that will do more, perhaps, than all our argumentation to settle the question whether Missions have been a success. Success, too, of a real and testable character, not mere religious excitement, but the permanent work of God.
And to begin, let us hand the doubter a letter from our pocket book, lately received from the Rev. C. Williams, of Kruis Fontein, in the Cape Colony, in Africa, who writes thus, under date October 12, 1868 :“I have already found out that the greatest enemies to the missionary are the white-faced Christians (?) of the colony. They take every opportunity of abusing our people and defrauding them.” And we ask him to remember that hearsay tales from captains, officers, and civilians, are not always reliable truth. Having thus referred to a South African missionary, we will take our first walk in Africa, and give a glance at the three districts of Bechuanaland, Kafirland, and Cape Colony. There, in the very heart of South Africa, from the west eastwards, flows the beautiful Orange River, about which many of the London Mission Stations lie. There, in Bechuanaland, is the town of Taung to the north, and Likatlong, about seventy miles from it, and Kuruman Station, about one hundred miles distant. Here a Mission has lately been commenced by the Rev. J. Brown, whose sphere of operation includes numerous villages and settlements in the neighbouring country. There are many members of Christ's Church gathered at Taung, and several reside nearly two days' waggon journey from it, there are deacons too-earnest men, two of whom conduct regular services at a Station. There are two very isolated out-posts where Christians are scattered, but there are few of such places where they do not assemble for worship.
Let us look at the missionary: his work is no sinecure ; he visits some places in the waggons when he has to spend a night on the way. There is heathendom all around him. Heathen feasts, too, are celebrated, and huts built outside the town for those engaged in the rites. One Church member fled with his cattle to Likatlong to avoid giving the usual slaughter ox for his boy, and was threatened with the seizure of his goods; another feared robbery, and fled for a similar reason. One
fellow comes to the missionary and tells him that, while lying enfeebled and helpless, his parents had taken away his two boys for heathen rites. And amid all there is the Church of Christ with its holy ordinances of service and worship, and hearts saved and sanctified by the Cross. Here next in this Bechuana district is Likatlong, where, during the past three years, there has been great drought, the people being compelled to live at the outposts as they have no corn, and they come in on the Saturday for the Sabbath. There are
seven Out-stations round about, containing 252 Church members, besides the 264 in Likatlong itself; whilst at Taung there are 71-here ?—yes, here in these wild desolate parts of Africa !
Look at your map and see where the outposts of civilisation are. Northwest of Likatlong is the Kuruman Station, where Robert Moffatt has been now for half-a-century, and where he has translated the Word of God into the native tongue. Kuruman with ten Out-stations. Some English people trouble to come and trade with them even here!
Here are 85 Church members ; and at the Out-stations, 157; and boys and girls at school, 150; and native adherents some 660-yes! out here in the wilds. And what does Mr. Moffatt say this year ?-why, that additions still continue to be made to the Church. Then look at those wild so bronzed and beautiful with the darkly flashing native eyes, and the quick piercing intelligent gaze, and hear what Mr. Moffatt says of them :
“ The schools on the Station continue to occupy the whole of the time and energy of my daughter, while progress the most satisfactory is made in the simple but important branches of education-reading, writing, arithmetic, sewing, and above all, religious instruction. Sewing occupies the latter part of the day. There is something in the attendance and progress of the school which is most encouraging. When these people are taught to read, the greatest point as to their destiny has been gained.
“ It continues to be most gratifying to see the numbers (adults) who desire to learn to read. The applications for spelling books from strangers, I mean raw, uncultivated, and trouserless animals from distant hamlets and outports, increase. Many are the applications to know when the reprint of the New Testament is to come. I am sure you would smile to see, as I have seen so often, a man or men, once the very portraitures of heathenism, walking about with club and spear, humbly begging a spelling book.
“ Notwithstanding the lingering relics of heathenism in the country, a very great change has been effected through the power of the Spirit of God. I admit, and I mourn over it, when the time, money, and labour spent are thought of, we ought to see much more. We are not only astonished, but excited to the liveliest gratitude, on reading of the power of the Gospel in other lands. As stated in a former report, the means of manifesting liberality in this country are few ; but for all that, the members of our Churches come far short of what they might;do. I do what I can in exhibiting to them the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, and the many animating examples of others in different heathen lands, but it requires a power far beyond my persuasion, and I may add, remonstrance to convince, that sacrifices must be made for the spread of the Gospel.”
And what about Mr. Price ? Between the Kuruman Station and the Zambesi River is civilisation at work? Listen ye secular enthusiasts! He has sold 270 spelling books. Whilst we, spiritual enthusiasts, may rejoice that he has sold 42 copies of the New Testament, and 155 copies of hymn books. Young men have come in again and again from their cattle posts; and if they have not the means of buying a spelling book, will ask leave of their masters or fathers to stay a day and work for the teacher in order to get it. They have then gone back to their post, and got some comrade who could read to teach them; and in the course of a few months have come in again to work for the Testament. The congregations quite fill the new church.
In the town of Bakatla, the people have, of their own accord, built a house for Divine service! Then pass on farther into the wilds to Shoshong and Inyati Stations, established in 1865 and 1860, where there are already 200 native adherents. “ Ah !” says some critic, “it's all very fine--paid so much a day, I suppose, to come to worship.” Silence, my friend! these natives of Bechuanaland, when converted to Christ, have contributed out of their poor slender means £191 as their local contributions for the cause of Christ. Stay your cynical sneers and meditate on that.
Look now to the east--to Kafirland-here, from the Keiskama River, onward through Natal, far beyond Delagoa Bay, all the land is peopled by Kafir tribes; they are very strong, very warlike, and very independent, and have often come into contact with European settlers and governments, and they have had many disastrous wars. There are several missionary societies labouring there; the London Missionary Society has five missionaries. Charles Brownlee, Esq., the British Commissioner to the Gaika tribes, was the son of a missionary, and he completely mastered the Kafir language, and knew well the chiefs and people. He had the warmest sympathy with Mission work; and when he was promoted to another and higher post, a meeting was held, at which were present all the celebrities of Kafirland :-Sandilli, Anta, Fynn, Oba, Kona, Fandalla, Stock, and many others. “It was a fine sight. One could not but admire the impassioned gestures and graceful attitudes of the speakers. No speeches were delivered by the Europeans present, but they were deeply interested. The occasion was a great one, and it shows what a noble service may be rendered to the world in his day and generation by a missionary's son. The London Missionary Society's four agents, with one native ordained pastor, labour in King William's Town, Knapp's Hope, with four Out-stations; Tidmanton, with six Out-stations; and Peelton, with four Out-stations.
And now let us take a glance at CAPE COLONY. What is the position of the London Missions there? "Within the Cape Colony, things are in a very different condition from that which prevailed when Dr. Vanderkemp founded our Missions, and when Dr. Philip fought the great battle of native freedom. Serfdom and slavery have long been abolished; the natives, once proscribed, are now electors of a free legislature and are eligible as members. Cultivation, sheep-farming, trade, and commerce have greatly increased; wages have risen, and there is a large demand for labour : on the whole, labourers on the farms, as well as in the towns, are fairly treated ; a more kindly feeling prevails among them : communications have been multiplied on every side. The wide-spread colony contains a scanty population. It has TWO PERSONS to the square mile ! Embracing an area of 250,000 square miles, its forty-six divisions contain 496,381 people. And the fourteen divisions in which the Society has stations contain 227,000 people, of whom 142,000 are natives: and of these 40,000 are in the district of Queenstown. In recent years the white races have increased, English and Dutch, French and German, and now number 131,592 persons. The Hottentot, Kafir, and other native races, number only 314,000 people. That is just three-fourths of the native population of Jamaica. But while on the one hand the native races have decreased, the means of religious instruction have greatly increased ; though it is still by our own Society and the Moravians that the natives are to the largest degree cared for. Of the thirty-five missionaries of the society now labouring in South Africa, nineteen reside within the colony, from Cape Town to Port Elizabeth : while Adam Kok and his three thousand Griquas plead earnestly for themselves and for the twenty thousand heathen Kafirs around them."
Take the map, dear reader, and run your eye along the coast line: see Paarl, Pacaltsdorf, Oudtshoorn, Dyalsdorp, Hope Dale, Uitenhage, Bethelsdorp, Hankey, with two Out-stations ; Kruis Fontein, with two Out-stations; Port Elizabeth, with three Out-stations; Philipton, with nine Out-stations ; Oxkraal, with five Out-stations; Grahamstown, Somerset, Crudock, with three Out-stations; Graaf-Reinet, and Queenstown; and remember that, in many of these places, missionaries have been the doctors, architects, magistrates, lawyers, as well as religious teachers of the people. The native adherents are 11,370; the Church members, 3,830 ; the scholars, 1,142; and the local contributions for one year, amid distress and drought, no less a sum than £2,538 12s. 6d. One of these Cape missionaries writes thus to me, under date October 12, 1868:
“ Mr. Philip was here the other day, and he is astonished at the work done at the Station in the last two years. I received two into Church fellowship at the last meeting, and proposed three others; and I have sixteen or eighteen enquirers of a hopeful nature. We are getting fine