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in a strange land, where bad govern- other valuables they had, beyond what ment and war of all kinds had spread was required for travelling expenses, distraction, poverty, and ruin wide. that it might be in safe custody till
1: Mr. Digues La Touche was barely their return. Thus a considerable of age when this crisis oceurred. But amount of property came into his he proved it “good” to have “ borne hands. As trade revived in Dublin, the yoke in his youth.” The changes capital in cash was called for, and and struggles through which he had there being no banks to afford accompassed, had 'trained him for wisely modation, Mr. Digues La Touche was and bravely meeting his present exi- induced to make advances on good gencies. He had the fear of God, security, at a reasonable interest, out some knowledge of the world, and a of the funds entrusted to his charge. hearty valorous will prompt to do the By this means the money brought a right steadily and well, whatever it profit to his friends, and the commight be. Though born to ránk and munity at large was benefited. He wealth, he had sacrificed both for also opened a correspondence for Christ, and was prepared now to monetary transactions in Londoni secure an honourable subsistence by and elsewhere. By his great ability, honest industry. Having a little his transparent probity and unselfish money, he and another Huguenot generosity; his discernment, discreestablished a silk, poplin, and cam- tion, punctuality, and courtesy, he bric manufactory, articles which were gradually won to himself general soon produced in high perfection and respect and good-will. At the end of acquired celebrity. For the sale of
the century it was believed that he them a shop was opened in High had realized ten thousand pounds Street.
à sum equal in those days to six or Many of his countrymen had to visit eight times that nominal amount in the provinces with the view of ascer- the present day.” So began the first taining eligible places of settlement. permanent banking establishment in They left with him what money and Dublin.
PROFESSOR LIGHTFOOT ON “BISHOP” AND “PRESBYTER.” The Church of England has produced give us similar commentaries on all no Commentaries more satisfactory the writings of the Apostle of the than those published recently by the Gentiles. Of the candour of ProfesHulsean Professor of Divinity in the sor Lightfoot our readers will find University of Cambridge. For high evidence in his notes on Bishop" scholarship, for thorough mastery of and “ Presbyter,” and in his essay on the questions arising out of the Paul- the “ Christian Ministry." ine epistles, and for a devout sympathy Bishop” and “ Presbyter” are with the mind of Paul, Professor synonymes, according to our author. Lightfoot's volumes on The Gala- It is a fact, he says, now generally tians " and " The Philippians," are en- recognised by theologians of all shades titled to a foremost place in our theo- of opinion, that in the language of the logical literature. Most devoutly do we New Testament, the same officer in pray that life and strength may be given the Church is called indifferently to him to complete his design, and Bishop and Elder or Presbyter. The
former of these terms he traces to a and presbycer' in the language of Greek origin, and the latter to a Jew- the apostolic age, the following eviish. Episcopus, “bishop," or
dence seems conclusive:seer," was an official title among the “(1) In the opening of this epistle Greeks. In Athenian language it was St. Paul salutes the bishops' and used especially to designate commis- · deacons.' Now it is incredible that sioners appointed to regulate a new he should recognise only the first and colony or acquisition. In the Septua- third order and pass over the second, gint the word is common.
though the second was absolutely esplaces it signifies “inspectors, super- sential to the existence of a Church, intendents, task-masters," as in 2 Kings and formed the staple of its ministry. xi. 19; 2 Chron. xxxiv. 12, 17; Isaiah It seems therefore to follow of neces1x. 17. In others it is a higher title, sity that the 'bishops' are identical
captains” or “presidents,” Neh. xi. with the presbyters.' Whether or 9, 14, 22. The name and office of the not the Philippian Church at this elder or presbyter are essentially Jew- tire possessed also a “bishop' in the ish. Illustrations indeed might be later sense of the term, is a question found in almost all nations, ancient which must be reserved for the present. and modern (for instance in the (2) In the Acts (xx, 17) St. Paul “Senatus" of Rome, or in the “Alder- is represented as summoning to Milemen” of our own country), where the tus the elders' or ' presbyters' of the deliberative body originally took its Church of Ephesus. Yet in addressname from the advanced age of its ing them immediately after, he appeals members. “But among the chosen to them as bishops' or people we meet at every turn with of the church (xx. 28). presbyters or elders in Church and " (3) Similarly St. Peter, appealing State from the earliest to the latest to the ‘presbyters' of the Churches times. In the lifetime of the lawgiver addressed by him, in the same breath ‘in the days of the judges, throughout urges them to “fulfil the office of the monarchy, during the captivity, bishops' with disinterested zeal (1 after the return, and under the Roman
Pet. v. 1, 2). domination, the elders' appear as an “ (4) Again in the First Epistle to integral part of the governing body of Timothy, St. Paul, after describing the the country. But it is rather in a qualifications for the office of a “bishop'. special religious development of the (iii. 1—7), goes on at once to say what office, than in these national and civil is required of deacons' (iii. 8—13). presbyteries, that we are to look for He makes no mention of presbyters. the prototype of the Christian minis- The term 'presbyter,' however is not ter. Over every Jewish synagogue, unknown to him ; for having occasion whether at home or abroad, a council in a later passage to speak of Christian of elders' presided.
It was not ministers, he calls these officers no unnatural therefore that, when the longer bishops,' but presbyters' (v. Christian synagogue took its place by 17–19). the side of the Jewish, a similar or- • (5) The same identification
apganisation should be adopted with pears still more plainly from the such modifications as circumstances Apostle's directions to Titus (i. 5—7): required; and thus the name familiar • That thou shouldest set in order the under the old dispensation was retained things that are wanting and ordain under the new.
elders in every city, as I appointed “Of the identity of the bishop' thee; if any.one be blameless, the
husband of one wife, having believing founding and confirming new brotherchildren, who are not charged with hoods. The only ground on which riotousness or unruly; for a bishop Theodoret builds his theory is a false must be blameless, etc.'
interpretation of a passage in St. Paul. (6) Nor is it only in the apostolic At the opening of the Epistle to Phiwritings that this identity is found. lippi the presbyters (here called bishSt. Clement of Rome wrote probably ops) and deacons are saluted, while in the last decade of the first century; in' the body of the letter one Epaphand in his language the terms are still roditus is mentioned as an “apostle' convertible. Speaking of the Apos- of the Philippians. If 'apostle' here tles, he says that preaching in every had the meaning which is thus ascountry and city they appointed their signed to it, all the three orders of first-fruits, having tested them by the the ministry would be found at Spirit, to be bishops and deacons of Philippi. But this interpretation will them that should believe.' A little not stand. The true apostle like later, referring to the disorganised St. Peter or St. John, bears this title state of the Corinthian Church, he as the messenger, the delegate, of adds, Our Apostles knew through Christ himself: while Epaphroditus our Lord Jesus Christ that there is only so styled as the messenger of would be strife concerning the author- the Philippian brotherhood; and in ity of the bishopric'...' We shall incur the very next clause the expression is no slight guilt if we eject those who explained by the statement that he have presented the offerings of the carried their alms to St. Paul. The bishopric ‘unblameably and holily. use of the word here has a parallel in Blessed are the presbyters who have
another passage, where messengers gone before, whose departure was (or apostles) of the churches are mencrowned with fruit and perfection.' tioned. It is not therefore to the
With the opening of the second apostle that we must look for the procentury, Professor Lightfoot says, a totype of the bishop. How far indeed new phraseology begins, and towards and in what sense the bishop may be the close of the second century the called a successor of the apostles, will original application of the word “bish- be a proper subject for consideration; op" seems to have passed not only but the succession at least does not out of use, but almost out of memory. consist in an identity of office. How came this to pass ?
The history of the name itself opinion hazarded by Theodoret, and suggests a different account of the adopted by many later writers, that origin of the episcopate. If bishop the same officers in the Church who was at first used as a synonyme for were first called apostles came after- presbyter, and afterwards came to wards to be designated bishops, is designate the higher officer under baseless. If the two offices had been whom the presbyters served, the episidentical, the substitution of the one copate properly so called would seemi name for the other would have re- to have been developed from the subquired some explanation. But in fact ordinate office. In other words, the the functions of the apostle and the episcopate was formed not out of the bishop differed widely. The apostle, apostolic order by localisation, but out like the prophet or the evangelist, of the presbyteral by elevation; and held no local office. He was essen
the title, which originally was common tially, as his name denotes, a mission- to all, came at length to be appropriary moving about from place to place, ated to the chief among them."
VOL. V.- NEW SERIES,
HOME MISSIONARY SOCIETY:
THE YEAR OF JUBILEE.
Some time since, Lord Napier of principle in the heart, by the varied Magdala, in speaking about the deli- agencies of the mission. verance of the captives in Abyssinia, But our work is not done. There said, “ Many years ago I read in the are millions of captives yet to be re
Life of Hugh Miller' that on one leased, and we must seek to deliver stormy night, when his father was at them. Let our Churches then give sea as captain of a little ship, his us new proof of their devotion to this mother went to the house of the great work. We seek to raise the parish minister and said, “Rise, sir, permanent annual income of the and pray, there is life in danger this Society to £10,000. Let us make this nicht.' The good man
our jubilee offering. With one heart prayed, and it was afterwards found and mind let the Churches set to work, that her husband, who had been in and God will give His blessing. We great danger, got into a place of safe- want to increase the number of our ty, and turning to his men, said, central stations, and to place one hun
Some gude (good) souls have been dred evangelists in the field. Thanks praying for us this night.' Now when to our heavenly Father, we have at I stood before the fortress of Magdala, present sixty-seven evangelists, but and saw the captives whom we had we must have the hundred before the gone to deliver cross the plain in free- year is up. To the Churches, then, dom, this story came up in my mind, we appeal for help to extend our and I could not help lifting up my operations. heart to God and saying, 'Some good The following are a few extracts souls have been praying for this.'” from the reports of the agents :
And so may we say in this jubilee year of the Home Missionary Society. Fifty years have nearly passed away Three young men have professed since it was established—its great aim Christ and joined the Church. One being to deliver souls from the cap- of them was impressed by a sermon tivity of sin and the bondage of Satan. on the final judgment, and the thought Millions were in chains, but, alas! that his parents and sisters were on many of them were willing slaves of sin. the Lord's side and he was not; that Like the troops of Lord Napier, the on the last day they might hear the society has had to depend on regularand “Come ye blessed,” and he the “Deirregular forces, but animated, as the part ye cursed,” was more than he committee and the mission churches could endure. As he was ploughing have all along been, by one heart, and in his father's field, he often left the aiming at one great end, the deliver- horses and the plough and went to a ance of the captives, results have corner of the field and wrestled in attended the fifty years' labours which prayer to God for pardon and adopentitle them to take up the language tion; and while thus engaged, light of Lord Napier and say, Some good from heaven shone upon his soul and souls have been praying for this.” he received that peace which is better Year by year there have been triumphs felt than expressed. of grace—the last, not the least, when Another of the young men, an apa thousand persons professed to have prentice, aged 20 years, was distressed been delivered from sin, as a reigning about his soul, but could not take up
DECISION FOR CHRIST.
his cross to kneel in prayer in the presence of other apprentices-godless young men—who slept in the same room. One Sunday evening I preached on the character of Daniel, and made special allusion to his constancy in prayer; that when he knew that his enemies had conspired against him, “he prayed and gave thanks to God as he did aforetime.” From that night the young man was enabled to kneel and pray in the presence of his scoffing companions, and continues, by Divine grace, to keep on in the good way.
I have recently been visiting one of the senior scholars of our Sundayschool, who left her home a happy girl to go to service at a public-house in a distant town. The poverty of the parents led to her taking such a situation. After twelve months' absence she came home ill of a fever. I called repeatedly to see her, but she seems to have no desire for God. It has occasioned me much sorrow to
so young so ill, and yet so unconcerned. I am thankful to say she is recovering, and hope her attendance at the means of grace will tend to awaken concern and lead to that peace che confesses to have lost.
I first commenced my labours there, the average number of hearers did not, exceed forty, but the attendance so much increased that the room became too small to accommodate those who were anxious to hear. Many who came were obliged to remain outside or go home again. The people then were anxious to have a chapel. Accordingly, ground was purchased, and a nice little chapel, calculated to seat about 120, has been reared at the sole expense of a private gentleman. The fittings have been met by the people. The average number of attendants is now ninety. Last Sunday afternoon it was comfortably full, when a collection was made to pay for lighting. Twenty-five shillings were collected a noble sum when it is considered that all of them are poor.
LABORIOUS DUTIES AMONG THE POOR.
AN EVANGELIST'S REPORT. The following is a general account of my labours during the present year. I have made 1,234 visits, distributed about 1,000 tracts, and held 200 meetings, thirty-nine of which were in the open air. I have preached sixteen times during the summer season in the market-place, chiefly on Saturday evenings, there being at that period a great number of people in from the country. I have had from two to three hundred to hear me, chiefly of the common people, many of whom it may be said, “they heard the Word gladly.”
The Lord hath greatly blessed the Word at one of the villages. When
The scarcity of labour for the poor, owing to the over-supply of field labourers and the low wages, with the loss to the poor women of “ braiding for fishing-nets,” make our poor in a ·more needy and destitute state than usual. We have taken a longer period, consequently, to get up the usual amount sent as “ October collections." No one but those who live in such a district can tell the difficulty of keeping up even those small contributions. It is hard work to have so much privation and none in the parishes to help, or if help, it is to the church-goers.
I am labouring on from week to week, “ in season and out of season.". By the help of God, I am always at my post in these comparatively obscure villages and lanes, teaching the poor, directing and comforting the sick, and preaching the Gospel of the ever-blessed God. Our schools are very large, and our chapels well filled. It would cheer you to see our village congregations on a Sabbath-day and