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army have well deserved the gratitude of your country, and it will be the boast of your children that their fathers were of the hercic army which reopened the Mississippi river.”

The grade of major general in the regular army was immediately conferred upon him. Called assemblies, patriotic clubs, and deliberative bodies sent him votes of thanks, costly gifts, and other honors. Amid all he maintained a quiet, unostentatious dignity, declining ovations and refusing to rob his companions in arms of their share of the credit due for the late campaigns and victories. And yet, could one have seen beneath that calm exterior, there must have been witnessed a secret glow of satisfaction over vindication of his private character from the aspersions of imaginative and malignant army correspondents, and of his military ability and genius from disparaging slur and jealous criticism indulged by those who looked solely to political influence for favor and promotion.

Once he yielded to an invitation to attend an ovation designed to reflect the loyal sentiment of Memphis. It was in August after his army had enjoyed a rest and all the fruit of Vicksburg had been carefully gathered. His reply to the invitation shows his public spirit and clear perception of personal and political duty. It runs:

"In accepting this testimonial, which I do at great sacrifice of personal feelings, I simply desire to pay a tribute to the first public exhibition in Memphis of loyalty to the Government which I represent in the Department of the Tennessee. I should dislike to refuse, for considerations of personal convenience, to acknowledge anywhere or in any form, the existence of sentiments which I have so long and so ardently desired to see manifested in this department. The stability of this government, and the unity of this nation, depend solely on the cordial support and the earnest loyalty of the people."



HOUGH Grant's forces had a much needed rest for

some time after the fall of Vicksburg, his fertile mind was busy devising new schemes of conquest. As early as July 18th, he wrote to Halleck: "It seems to me now that Mobile should be captured, the expedition to start from Lake Pontchartrain.” But Halleck had other plans, and a grand opportunity was lost. Still Grant continued to urge the importance of a move on this only remaining stronghold of the Confederates on the Gulf, and offered to assist with one of his army corps. It was vain. He was forced to see his army scattered, the Thirteenth Corps, Ord's, to Banks, a division to Schofield, to operate against Price in Arkansas, a corps, the Ninth, to Burnside in East Kentucky, portions to garrison unimportant places on the Mississippi and other rivers. At length orders came that he should co-operate with Banks in securing a permanent foothold in Texas.

On August 30th he started to New Orleans to see Banks. While there he was thrown from his horse and disabled. This postponed his return to Vicksburg till September 16th, where he was compelled to keep his bed till the 25th. On the 13th Halleck telegraphed him that he should send all his available forces to Rosecrans, who was then



operating with an army of sixty thousand men in Tennessee and northern Georgia, where he had just obtained possession of Chattanooga, one of the most important strategic positions between Richmond and the Mississippi.

It may be well to know that at this juncture the military operations of the Mississippi Valley were conducted by three different armies, the army of the Tennessee, under Grant, the army of the Cumberland, under Rosecrans, the army of the Ohio, under Burnside. Halleck's dispatch of the 13th not having been received, he again sent word on the 15th, to the effect that part of Lee's army had been sent from Richmond to reinforce Bragg, who was rapidly concentrating for an attack on Rosecrans.

This dispatch reached Grant on the 22d. Though in bed, he instantly ordered Sherman to send a division of his corps to Rosecrans, and a similar order was sent to McPherson. On the 27th, Sherman himself was sent to Rosecrans' aid with two more divisions of his corps. The route was by boats to Memphis and thence overland by way of Corinth, Tuscambia and Decatur. That Sherman's progress might be

uninterrupted Grant ordered an
expedition to Canton and Jackson
to distract the enemy.

But long before these reinforce-
ments could reach their destina-
tion, the blow which Rosecrans
had foolishly invited and Halleck
had foreseen fell on the Federal
army at Chickamauga. Rose-
crans suffered disastrous defeat on
the 19th and 20th of September,

and was driven back to ChattaGEN. ROSECRANS.

nooga with heavy loss of men and artillery and the sacrifice of immense strategic advantages.

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On September 29th, Halleck wrote that the enemy was still concentrating on Rosecrans, that all the forces he (Grant) could spare should be sent under able generals, such as Sherman or McPherson, and that as soon as his health permitted he should go to Nashville in person to take direction of the movement. Grant replied that he was again ready for duty, and had ordered everything to suit Halleck's wishes. On October 3d the Secretary of War telegraphed him to come to Cairo and report. On October 16th he telegraphed his arrival at that point. To which Halleck replied requesting him to proceed to the Galt House, Louisville, Ky., to meet an officer of the War Department. At Indianapolis he met Hon. Edwin M. Stanton, Secretary of War, who brought with him an order creating for Grant a new command—the Military Division of the Mississippi, to include all the territory between the Alleghenies and Mississippi, except such as Banks held below Port Hudson. Thus the three Departments of the Tennessee, Cumberland and Ohio were consolidated under him. This was in accordance with his advice to Halleck a year before, at which time he declined the command of such united department as he then proposed, in order to show that his personal ambitions had nothing to do with his convictions.

The imperative necessity for co-operation between all the commands embraced in the new Department had become painfully manifest to the government. The disaster to Rosecrans at Chickamauga had hastened its decision. It was a great responsibility for Grant to assume, but no other general had accomplished so much. Past successes gave a guarantee for future ones, the danger at Chattanooga was imminent, and increasing daily. It was necessary to act promptly, boldly, unitedly.

At the same time General Grant was shown two other orders by Stanton, either of which he could accept. One left Rosecrans in command of the Army and Department of the

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