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that, among all his contemporaries, he knew no one who had advanced so far in the knowledge of the Oriental languages and literature.*
He had nearly resolved to visit the East himself; for, in 1641, William Boswell, being nominated envoy from the United Netherlands to Constantinople, endeavoured to persuade Hottinger to accompany him, as chaplain of the mission. ' Golius exerted himself strenuously to recommend the proposal, as, From Hottinger's residence in Constantinople, he promised much advantage to himself, principally with regard to the obtainment of MSS. Urged by all his friends not to throw away such an opportunity of perfecting himself in his favourite studies, he became desirous of the journey; but his native country had heard of his vast progress, and recalled him to be the ornament of his home, not of a foreign land. Still he was inclined to travel through England and France. By the recommendations with which the Dutch scholars furnished him, he had the opportunity of becoming acquainted with the great men of his age, who received him with respect and affection. In England, he visited Jacob Usher, who, at the sight of the multitude of Arabic MSS. which he had transcribed, burst out into rapture, and clapping him on the shoulders said, Tantum, amice, industria potest !” He also visited John Selden and Edward Pococke at Oxford, and Whelock at Cambridge. In France, he saw and conversed with the celebrated Hugo Grotius, the Syrian, Gabriel Sioniba, Capellus, Dallæus, and many other scholars of the time; and at last returned to his native city about the end of the year 1641. In the following year, which was the twenty-second of his age, he filled the professorship of ecclesiastical history in the Collegium Carolinum, and in the year 1643, obtained that of catechetics in the Collegium Humanitatis, which was the preparatory school to the former, together with that of Hebrew, which, on account of his attainments, was changed into a professorship of the Oriental tongues. After his death it was again limited to Hebrew; and since him there has been no Oriental professor in Zürich.
Heidegger relates an interesting anecdote of his knowledge of Hebrew. “When I was at Heidelberg with Hottinger, we once met a rabbi and his son, whom the father had long laboured to teach Hebrew. When the rabbi heard the facility with which Hottinger conversed with him in Hebrew, he broke out into a boisterous passion with his son, fell upon him furiously, and beat him most soundly before our eyes, exclaiming, “ Thou idle one, long as I have taught thee Hebrew, now thou allowest thyself to be excelled in it by a Christian.”
In the year 1644, he first appeared as a writer, with his Exercitationes Anti-Moriniana, which were received with the greatest applause, and from this period.scarcely a year elapsed without some new work from his pen. Hence he became well-known all over Europe, and towards the end of his life reckoned as many as 117 correspondents: in Switzerland he corresponded with Buxtorf, Wetstein, Grynæus, &c. ; in Germany with Fred. Spanheim, Sebast. Schmid, Ludolph, Hermann Conring, Duke Augustus of Brunswick, the Landgravine Hedwig Sophia of Hesse-Kassel, &c.; in Holland with Henry and Jacob Alting, Golius, Matth. Pasor, John Cocceius, Leusden, Ant. Peri. zonius, Hoornbeck, Peter Montanus, Henry von Diest, &c.; in Sweden with Elias Terser, and Ericus Odelius; in England with Edw. Pococke and John Duræus; in France with Capellus, Clericus, and Frank Turretin; and in
In an early epistle of Golius to Professor Wolf at Zürich, dated 25th Sept. 1640, he writes : “ Hota tingerum primum ante sesquiannum hac transeuntem vidi : coeleste aliquid in illo elucere mihi videbatur.". Asial.Journ. N.S.Vol.14.No.53.
Silesia and Italy with some of less celebrated names. His house was also frequented by the most illustrious scholars of the age from all countries.
In 1653, besides the professorship of logic and rhetoric, a canonry, united with the professorship of the Old Testament and controversy, was bestowed upon him; but the indefatigable scholar, of his own accord, retained also his former post, excepting that he exchanged catechetics for ecclesiastical history. It is scarcely conceivable that a man, who was employed in so many departments, should have executed them all with such credit to himself: for he was also engaged in political missions, and in 1659 was appointed envoy from the government of Zürich to the Duke of Würtemberg, and in 1663 to Swabia. Zürich was proud of her ornament, and foreign universities envied her also on his account; among these, principally, Heidelberg, the oldest of the German universities ; to which, in May 1655, he was invited by Count Palatine Carb Ludwig, who had long been devising means to restore the university to its former ftourishing state. Although his friends urged him not to refuse the distinguished post which was offered to him, the members of his own body were disinclined that he should leave thein. However, in Jure of the same year, he was formally called to the professorship of the Old Testament and the Oriental languages, and the government of Zürich, to meet the views of the Count Palatine, came to the resolution that Hottinger should remain three years at Heidelberg, without vacating his posts in their university. He therefore was obliged to take the degree of doctor of theology, as the statutes at Heidelberg required it. On the 8th of July 1655, he therefore went to Basle, where he was created doctor, under the rectorship of Peter Falkeisen and the deanery of Buxtorf, on the 26th of July, and on the 16th of August he held, at Heidelberg, his inaugural dissertation. To this place many of his pupils from Zürich followed him. Soon after, the management of the restored Collegium Sapientiæ was assigned to him, where he chiefly exercised his pupils in disputations, which he was particularly delegated to revive. In 1656 he was rector of the university, and in the following year dean in the theological faculty, after the elector had first nominated him one of the ecclesiastical council. As, in the year 1658, the time allowed by the government of Zürich for his residence at Heidelberg had expired, the eleetor applied for a prolongation of it, and himself wrote to the council at Zürich, who returned this answer, that Hottinger might stay a little longer, but that he must allow them to remunerate his substitute at Zürich froin his canonry. In 1659 the elector renewed his request, in consequence of which he was allowed to stay there till Michaelmas 1661. When this time had elapsed, as Hottinger was preparing for his return, the elector of Hesse offered him a professorship in the University of Marburg, and at the same time public chairs were tendered to him from Amsterdam and Bremen. But he was not ungrateful to his native country, and notwithstanding the brilliant prospects before him, to the regret of the elector, whose companion and counsellor he had been, and to that of the whole body, commenced his journey from Heidelberg on the 28th of October 1661, and arrived at Zürich on the 8th of November. The day of his return was one of universal joy; and for six years more he continued at Zürich in public office, as constant rector of the Gymnasium, which must be noticed as a distinguished honour, since the rectorship is commonly allowed to be holden only two years.
In 1664 he travelled through Germany and Holland. He was very desirous of revisiting Heidelberg, and of once more seeing Leyden, and his most prized friend Golius, by whose means he became acquainted with Hoornbeck, Cocceius, and Gronovius. At Hoornbeck's death, in 1666, it was determined to invite Hottinger to become his successor at Leyden ; but the first proposals, which were made to him in private letters, he declined. Golius, however, in particular (who had before guaranteed to him a salary of 2,200 florios), and Cocceius, were so incessant in their solicitations, and the States General applied so urgently to Hottinger himself, as well as to the Council of Zürich, that at last he left the decision entirely to his own government. They wished him to continue at Zürich, with which wish he willingly complied, But Leyden renewed the request in such strong terms, and adopted so many means to attain its purpose, that the heads of the church and University of Zürich could no longer withstand the petition, and Hottinger resolved to accept the offer. His domestic affairs were now his only care, which was soon fated to end altogether; for on the 5th June 1667, resolving to accompany one of his friends to his country-house in the neighbourhood of Zürich (which this friend wished to rent during Hottinger's absence), he embarked with him and another friend, his wife,* and three children, in a vessel below the city. The river was then very much swollen, so that the high water covered a riverdam. On this the vessel violently struck, and was upset, with all on board, and many found an instant grave. Hottinger, with one of his friends, had, by swimming, reached the opposite shore; but not being able to bear the distressing sight of his family struggling for life, he plunged again into the waves, and, after a long conflict, was engulphed by the stream.
Thus perished this distinguished orientalist, in the vigour of manhood, and, thus Leyden lost the object of her cherished hopes. As a scholar, he was not surpassed; as a man, he was upright and courteous to every one in word and deed, conscientious in the discharge of his duties and application of his time, and indefatigable and reverent in his religious concerns. The works which he has leftt are numerous, and written with uncommon facility; and besides those
* In 1641 he married Anna Ulrich, daughter of a preacher at Zurich. Two of his children died at Heidelberg, three with their father, and six he left behind him, one of whom is the author of " The Helvetic Ecclesiastical History," published in four volumes, at Zürich, in 1698—1729. According to Heidegger, Hottinger, eight days before his death, found in his school, on the board which was suspended over his professor's chair, the following verse :
“ Carmina jam moriens canit exequialia cygnus." Every endeavour to discover the meaning and author of it was fruitless; but it is said to have made a deep impression upon Hottinger.
| 1644, Exercitationes Anti-Morinianæ de Pentateucho Samaritano ; Tiguri, 4to.
1647, Erotematum Linguæ Sanctæ libri duo cum appendice aphorismorum ad lectionem Bibliorum Heb. isagogicorum ; Tiguri, 8vo.
1649, Thesaurus Philologicus ; Tiguri, 4to.; reprinted 1659 and 1696. 1651, Historia Orientalis ; Tiguri, 4to.
1652, Grammaticæ Chaldæo-Syriacæ libri duo, cum triplici Appendice, Chaldæå, Syrå, et Rabbinicd.; Tiguri, 8vo.
1655, Juris Hebræorum Leges 261 juxta youodecias Mosaicæ ordinem depromptæ et ad Judæorum mentem; Tiguri, 4to. Here he followed Rabbi Levi, of Barcelona, in his 713'NIN 700.
1657, Smegma Orientale; Heidelberg, 4to. 1658, Promptuarium, sive Bibliotheca Orientalis ; Heidelberg, 4to. 1658, Grammatica Quatuor Linguarum, Heb., Chald., Syr., atque Arabicæ harmonia ; Heidelb., 4to. 1659, Cippi Hebraici; Heidelberg, 8vo.; ed. 2d, 1662 (with four copper plates'. 1659, Primitiæ Heidelbergenses ; Heidelberg, 4to. ; in six Dissertations. 1659,
Krious ižuhusgos ; Heidelberg, 4to. 1660. Dissertationum Theologico-philologicarum fasciculus; Heidelberg, 4to.
1661, Etymologicon Orientale ; Francof., 4to. It had a second title, Lexicon Harmonicum Heptaglotton, cum præfatione de gradibus studii philologici et apologetico brevi contra Abrahamum Echellensem.
1651, Compendium universæ Theologiæ Judaicæ ; Heidelberg, 8vo.
1663, Bibliothecarius quadripartitus ; Tiguri, 4to. This contains the lives of come illustrious Arabs, &c.
1667, Grammaticæ Lingue Sanctæ libri duo ; Tiguri, 8vo.; an improved edition of his Erotemata.
enumerated in the note, there were several on ecclesiastical history, the most celebrated of which is the Historia Ecclesiastica Novi Testamenti, which appeared in nine vols. 8vo. at Zürich, from 1651-1667.
As a writer, we must not judge of him by the present age, but by that in which he lived, when little was known of Oriental literature; and measuring him by that standard, we can scarcely fail to admit that he was the most indefatigable and acute scholar of his day. In his opinion, as Dr. Hirzel says, knowledge surpassed every thing, as in that of the old man in Hariri, who says,*
شقلي الدرس والتبحر في العلم طلابي وحبذا الطلب *
and this he amply verified by his unwearied labours. Compared with the recent discoveries made by travellers, and with our more perfect acquaintance with the East, his works can now maintain but a secondary rank; yet, it is not to be forgotten, that on his labours Golius, Edward Pococke, Sir Wm. Jones, and his successors, laid the foundation of their advances in Arabic literature. He left unfinished an edition of the Korán ; and finished, but lived not to publish, the Confessio Helve. tica translated into Arabic. Its title is
, w I
He also left in MS. notes on Joshua, Samuel, Judges, Kings, and
شريعة الايمان و تائويلها اي شرح الأصول
: وقواعد الدين المساكي
ESTATE OF ALEXANDER AND CO.
TO THE EDITOR.
Sir:—Had your March correspondent, who signs himself " A Creditor, been as anxious to have ascertained the truth respecting the estate of Messrs. Alexander and Co., as he is ready to retail idle rumours and to make uujust insinuations, he would have put aside his mask and have applied to me openly for any information in my power to give on the points to which he alludes, As he has not done so, I am not called upon, as far as he and I are concerned, to pay the slightest attention to his letter; but I am bound, in justice towards the gentlemen who came forward so readily to sign my certificate, to rescue them from the imputation, that they were influenced, in this act, honourable to both parties, by no higher consideration than the amount of a dividend, which, be it more or be it less, was and is entirely beyond my control.
The imputation appears to be founded on two assertions :
1st. That “ the Creditors, at the meeting on the 18th of July last, were not apprised that the property exhibited in the balance-sheet, and valued at £618,000, was mortgaged ;" and,
2dly. That “I had stated, the creditors would receive a dividend of ten shillings in the pound," as if from my own knowledge.
In regard to the first charge, your correspondent has only to refer to the balance-sheet itself, filed in the Bankruptcy Court. That balance-sheet was copied, as far as the difference of forms would admit, from the statements published officially in Caleutta, at the time of the failure (I left India myself so far back as August 1830); and to it, to prevent all doubts in regard to the sources of my information, I added this memorandum :
“ The above balance-sheet corresponds, as nearly as possible, with the statements laid before a meeting of the creditors of Messrs. Alexander and Co. on the 2d of January, and with the schedule delivered to and filed in the Insolvent Court of Calcutta, by Messrs. Hurry and Burkinyoung, the assignees, on the 15th of January 1833."
The schedule, after setting forth the description and estimated value of the assets, upon which was founded the calculation of a dividend of eight annas in the rupee, contains the following item :
Deduct difference between dividend and full payment of
“ That, for the most part, the tangible assets belonging to the firm, existing on the books of the concern, such as houses, indigo-factories, government and other promissory notes, have been pledged and anticipated, the firm having, in its difficulties, borrowed money on the security of the same to carry on its business; and that, from the inquiries made and information received by them from the partners of the late firm, of the unincumbered assets of the firm, the proportion, of which the immediate realization could