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LONDON. Journal of Three Voyages along the coast of China, in 1831, 1832, and 1833, with Notices of Siam, Corea, and the Loo-choo Islands. By Charles Gutzlaff. To which is prefixed an Introductory Essay on the Policy, Religion, &c. of China, by the Rev. W. Ellis. post 8vo. 12s.

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Result OF GENERAL EXAMINATION, Friday, 30th May, 1834. Prizes and other Honourable Distinctions sics, and with great credit in other departof Students leaving College.

ments. Third Term.

Alfred Turnbull, prize in mathematics. John Lawrell, prize in classics, prize Harrison, were highly distinguished.

Messrs. Head, Knox, Littledale, and in political economy, prize in law, prize

Messrs. Forbes, Greathed, W. J. Morin Sanscrit, prize in Bengali, and prize in Hindustani.

gan, and Gubbins, passed with great cre

dit. Second Term.

David Cunliffe, prize for Bengali Robert Blair Monro Binning, prize in writing. Persian, prize in Hindustani, and highly distinguished in other departments.

The following students deserve com.

mendation for English composition : Robert Balfour Wardlaw Ramsay, Messrs. Forbes, W. J. Morgan, Turnbull, highly distinguished, and prize in Arabic.

Knox, Cunninghame, Bayley, Head, Douglas Hadow Crawford, highly dis

Ward, and Littledale. tinguished.

Rank of Students leaving College. Prizes and other honourable distinctions

BENGAL. of students remaining in college.

1st Class, 1st in rank, John Lawrell. Second Term.

do. 2d do. R. B.W.Ramsay. Robert Tudor Tucker, prize in classics, 2d Class, 3d do. D. H. Crawford. prize in mathematics, prize in history, 3d Class, 4th do. M, A. G. Shawe. prize in law, prize essay, and with great

MADRAS. credit in other departments. Leopold James Henry Grey, prize in

1st Class, 1st in rank, R.B.M.Binning. mathematics, and with great credit in other

No 2d Class. departments.

3d Class, 2d do.

John F. Bury. First Term. William C. S. Cunninghame, prize in

Wednesday, the 16th, and Wednesday, law, prize in Bengali, prize in Persian,

the 23d of July, are the days appointed prize in Hindustani, and prize in Arabic. for receiving petitions, at the College Eduard Eyre Ward, prize in Sanscrit,

Office, East-Iudia House, from the canand highly distinguished in other depart- didates for admission into the college, next

term, which will commence on Monday ments, Duncan Davidson, highly distinguished

the 28th of July. and theme prize.

W, T. HOOPER, Henry Vincent Bayley, prize in clas- Clerk of the College Department.

MILITARY SEMINARY, ADDISCOMBE. The half-yearly examination of the in those branches of study, viz. Sirs Alexcadets belonging to the above institution ander Dickson and Charles Wilkins, at took place on Friday, the 13th últ., in the the conclusion of which, the report of the presence of the chairman (Henry St. public examiner was read, which stated George Tucker, Esq.), the deputy chair- that due attention to study having preman (W. S. Clarke, Esq.), a majority of vailed during the past term, he was enathe Court of Directors, and the following bled to recommend three cadets for engivisitors, viz. Major General Millar, Colo- neer service, viz. nels Sir Augustus Fraser, Sir James

Messrs. C. Johnston, Sutherland, C. B., Blackburne, Pasley,

John Hill, C. B., Williamson, Drummond; Lieut.

Henry Wood; Colonels Hopkinson, C.B., Hay; Cap- three for that of artillery, viz. tains Smith and Lindsay, R.N. ; Dr. Gre

Messrs. C. Hutchinson, gory; Messrs E. Ravenshaw, W. Craw

W. S. Terry, ford, M.P., Plunkett, and Simpson, &c.

N Staples; The examinations in mathematics, Hin- and the remainder of the class, consisting dustani, and fortification, were conducted, of twenty-five cadets, for infantry service. in the prescribed form, by the examiners The Lieut. Governor (Colonel Stan

nus, C. B.), in his division of the report, ledge of the native languages, in which he felt gratified in bearing creditable testi- was convinced they had been well groundmony to the orderly and gentlemanly be- ed by their eminent professor, under the haviour of the whole body of the cadets; direction of the Veteran of Oriental literaand could only attribute the almost total ture. He alluded to the loss they had absence of all irregularity to the zealous sustained by the resignation of their late attention of the corporals to the discipline respected Lieut. Governor (Col. Housof their respective classes, and to their ton, C. B.); a Joss, however, which was firm yet conciliatory tone: praise was compensated by the gallant officer (Col. particularly due to Corporal Cadets Wood, Stannus, C.B.) who had succeeded to Wilson, and Reid.

that station. The chairman spoke of the The prizes were then awarded to the Indian army in terms which clearly showcadets of the 1st class in the following ed his thorough intimacy with its history order of merit, viz.

and character, and by whose prowess Charles Johnston, 1st fortification; and achievements, he observed, kingdom 2d military drawing and surveying ; 2d after kingdom had been added to the Bricivil drawing ; 2d general good conduct. tish empire.

He exhorted the cadets, John Hill, 2d fortification; Ist


who were about to become members of ral good conduct.

that army, to respect the habits and feel. Henry Wood, 2d mathematical. ings of the soldiery who composed it;

W. S. Terry, lst military drawing and and they would be requited by fidelity and surveying; Ist civil drawing ; extra prize attachment in the hour of trial or sickness; for Persian and Nagari writing.

to observe scrupulously those regulations C. Hutchinson, Ist mathematical, which were framed for the benefit and

W. Wilson, 1st Latin ; Persian and protection of our Indian subjects, the Nagari writing prize ; 2d Hindustani. infraction of which would call down the A. G. Reid, Ist Hindustani.

heavy displeasure of the Court; in short, J. Kitson, 2d Latin.

to love India, and to attach its natives to C. Carter, 2d French.

them, that they might return to their own W. Johnston, 1st French.

country-the country of Nelson and of Prizes were also adjudged, at the re- Wellington-to enjoy the dearest of all commendation of the Lieut. Governor, to rewards, professional fame. The forethose cadets of the 2d and 3d classes who going were among the topics chiefly dwelt had made the most creditable progress in upon by the honourable chairman, who, their several branches of study.

it was obse: ved, produced an impression The chairman then proceeded to ad- on those to whom his sentiments were dress the cadets in an eloquent and ani- especially directed rarely equalled. The mated strain. To attempt more than a excellence of the speech may be inferred brief outline of the speech would be vain. from the unequivocal testimony of admiMr Tucker commenced by expressing the ration which an attentive auditory evinced gratification which he and his colleagues at the conclusion of it. had derived from the report which had The cadets assembled on the paradebeen previously read, and at the scienti. ground, where, with their officers and fic and literary attainments which had non-commissioned officers, they şaluted that day been witnessed, and for which the chairman in open order, formed close much praise was due, not only to the order, wheeled back into companies, exertions of the cadets, but to the zeal marched past in slow time, each company and attention of the professors, under the saluting the chairman as it passed. On inspection of their highly distinguished reaching their original grounds, the rear public examiner. He regretted the ab- ranks took close order, and marched sence of the president of the India Board, round the parade-ground in quick time. of the Duke of Wellington, and of the The cadets then performed the manual commander of the forces, all of whom and platoon exercise, and the artillery would have been present but for impor- practice. The broad-sword exercise, under tant engagements elsewhere, and who, he Mr. Angelo, closed the military duties of assured the cadets, felt a warm interest the day, which were executed with a in the success of their admirable establish- steadiness and precision calculated to upment. He pointed out to them the de- hold the professional character of the insirableness of acquiring a thorough know- stitution.

LORD TEIGNMOUTH. THERE are few lives, passed in the laborious and honourable duties of the East-India Company's service in India, more deserving of commemoration than that of Lord Teignmouth. The executive administrators of India, amidst the records of the Bengal government, for a long and eventful series of years, have before them ample testimonies of his public services; the few surviving friends, who lived in familiar intercourse with him, will attest his private and social virtues.

Mr. Shore was of a Derbyshire family originally, but his father resided many years at Melton in Suffolk, and died in 1759, ten years before his son obtained his appointment in the civil service of Bengal. · On his arrival at Calcutta, in 1769, the young civilian was stationed at Moorshedabad, as an assistant under the council of revenue ; and, in 1772, served as an assistant to the resident of Rajeshaye. He devoted himself with considerable assiduity to the Persian language, and obtained, by means of his proficiency in it, the office of Persian translator and secretary to the provincial council of Moorshedabad. In 1774, be sate as a member of the Calcutta Revenue Board, till its dissolution in 1781, when he was appointed second of the general committee of revenue. In 1785, he was recommended by Mr. Hastings, whom he accompanied to England, to a seat in the supreme council, as a public servant of distinguished talents and integrity.

But the most prominent feature of Mr. Shore's early life, in India, was his participation in the financial and judicial reforms of Lord Cornwallis. In 1787, that nobleman, on his departure for the government of India, received from the Court of Directors a code of instructions relative to the improvements they sought to introduce into the financial administration of the country. In fact, these instructions authorized, or rather enjoined, a new arrangement. The failure of the revenue, and of every successive attempt to enhance it; the frequent changes, and the substitution of farmers for the permanent zemindars, and the exclusion of the collectors from all interference with the assessments of their several districts ;--above all, the heavy arrears outstanding for the four preceding years, and the consequent impoverishment of the provinces, were the evils to be redressed. For this purpose, an equitable settlement was directed to be made with the zemindars; and the experiment, in the first instance, was to be made for ten years, and to become permanent should it be successful. The collectors were also to be invested with judicial powers. Mr. Mill, perhaps in too severe a tone of reprehension, remarks that, at this time, the grossest ignorance prevailed upon every subject relative to revenue among the civil servants of Bengal. They understood neither the nature of the land-tenure, nor the respective rights of the different classes of cultivators and those who enjoyed the produce; the whole of their knowledge being the actual amount annually collected : of the resources of the country they knew nothing. Lord Cornwallis, therefore, determined to suspend the arrangements prescribed Asiat. Jour. N.S.Vol.14. No. 36.

2 F

by the Court of Directors till he had collected information from

every accessible source, promulgating only certain regulations, which vested the collectors withi the two-fold functions of revenue-agents and magistrates. . It was to Mr. Shore that Lord Cornwallis chiefly looked for the information he required; and the result of his observations appears in the important document he furnished on that occasion. In this paper, Mr. Shore pointed out the errors of the financial system, emphatically dwelling on its entire, incapability of modification or improvement in its existing shape. “ The form of the British Government in India,” he remarks, “is ill-: calculated for amendment. Its members are in a constant state of fluctuation, and the period of their residence often expires before any experience can be acquired. Official forms necessarily occupy a large portion of time, and the pressure of business leaves little leisure for study and reflection, without which, no knowledge of the principles and detail of the revenues can be attained."* It is worth remarking, that the Committee of the House of Commons, in 1810, not only inserted the whole of this interesting minute, but laid so much stress upon this particular passage as to incorporate it with the report itself. · In 1789, the Governor-general had matured his plan of revenue, and prepared to carry it into instant execution. It is now generally acknowledged that Lord Cornwallis was influenced by a generous (which is always an enlightened) policy, in conferring a permaneņt property in the soil upon a certain class ; but the fault was, that of establishing a species of aristocracy upon the feudal principle of Europe. The zemindars became thus bereditary proprietors of the soil, upon payment of a land-tax, not to be increased, of the sum actually assessed. Another error, which infected and vitiated the whole system, was the utter oblivion of the ryots,-a class in: whom all the wealth of the country was in reality vested. The zemindars were empowered to make any terms they pleased with their ryots, with the exception of a pottah, which the zemindar was bound to give him ;-in other words, a fixed interest in his estate, such as it was. It was proposed in council, to give notice, that it was intended to make the decennial settlement permanent and unalterable, so soon as it received the approbation of the authorities at home. Mr. Shore, though a zealous advocate for the zemindary system, opposed the proposal, insisting strongly on leaving a door open for the introduction of such improvements as the experience of the probationary ten years might suggest. Lord Cornwallis, on the other. hand, was so enamoured of the permanence of the settlement, that he persisted in his purpose, declaring that he would use all his influence with the Court of Directors to carry it into effect. It was not, however, till 1793, that the settlement was established in every district; and it was in the early part of that year that authority arrived in India to proclaim its permanence throughout the country. Besides his share in the completion of this momentous system, almost amounting to a revolution in the affairs of British India, Mr. Shore was mainly instrumental in the framing of the code of laws pub

* Fifth Report of Committee, 1810. P. 169.

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