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Dimensions, in inches.
51 (measuring horizontally over Indi.
6% viduality, Destructiveness, and
61 From Occipital Spine to Individua
Destructiveness to Destruclity, over top of the Head ......... 15 tiveness ...
67 Ear to Ear vertically over top
Secretiveness to Secretiveness 61 of the Head (measuring from up
Cautiousness to Cautiousness 53 per margin of the meatus)
143 Ideality to Ideality Philoprogenitiveness to Indivi
Constructiveness to Construcduality, in a straight line ............ 8
53 Concentrativeness to Compa
Mastoid process to Mastoid rison
5) Ear to Philoprogenitiveness .. 41 Note.--In stating the dimensions of the head, allowance has been made for the hair-the greatest actual circumference of the cast being 24 inches ; the distance from the Occipital Spine to Individuality over the top of the head, 15} ; Philoprogenitiveness, to Individuality, 83; Concentrativeness to Comparison, 8; Ear to Philoproge, nitiveness, 5; Ear to Firmness, 63; Destructiveness to Destructiveness, 65; Secretiveness to Secretiveness, 68; and Cautiousness to Cautiousness, 53.
Development. 1. Amativeness, very large
19. Ideality, rather full............ 12 2. Philoprogenitiveness rather large 16 20. Wit, or Mirthfulneşs, rather full 13 3. Concentrativeness, full 15 21. Imitation, rather large
16 4 Adhesiveness, large 18 22. Individuality, rather large
17 3. Combativeness, large 18 23. Form, full
15 6. Destructiveness, large 18 24. Size, rather large
16 7. Secretiveness, large 18 25. Weight, rather large
16 8. Acquisitiveness, full 14 26. Colouring, full ......
14 9. Constructiveness, rather full 12 27. Locality, rather large
16 10. Self-esteem, very large 20 28. Number, moderate
10 11. Love of Approbation, very large 20 29. Order, rather full
12 12. Cautiousness, large 19 30. Eventuality, full..'..
.. 15. 13. Benevolence, large ....... 18 31. Time, full
15 14. Veneration, full
14. 32. Tune, moderate 15. Firmness, very large 20: 33. Language, rather large
17 16. Conscientiousness, very large. 20 34. Comparison, rather large ..... 17 17. Hope, full .....
14 35. Causality, rather large ............ 17 18. Wonder, rather full
12 After a succinct and well-digested account of the rajah's history, compiled from various sources (our journal included), the writer illustrates, with considerable felicity and effect, the mutual correspondence of his cerebral development and his actual character. In the rajah's intercourse with the English, in early life, his Benevolence and Love of Approbation were strongly marked; "and, indeed, it appears that, to the too great ascendancy of the latter, the loss of his health is in some measure to be attributed." The department of the brain most largely developed is the posterior superior-region, occupied by Firmness, Conscientiousness, Self-esteem, and Love of Approstates that “ the phrenologists may feel satisfied that they have in this cast a most accurate representation of the rajah's head." The cut in the Journal exhibits a singular depression on the crown of the head (over the organs of Veneration and Hope), which, it appears, was quite natural. “A friend told mé,” says Mr. Estlin, “the rajah had once placed his hand there, to feel the peculiar formation.”
bation: the size of these four organs is very extraordinary. Firmness and fortitude were prominently displayed throughout his whole life. His very large Conscientiousness led to the "simplicity, candour, explicitness, and openness of mind,” admired by his intimate friends and the readers of his works. His large Self-esteem fitted him to embark in the work of reform, and accounts for that“ powerful sentiment of individual dignity,” evinced in his conversation, actions, and deportment, and so inconsistent with the "feebleness of mind,” characteristic of the “small-headed generality of Hindus.” The rajal's large head is much insisted upon; it was of extraordinary size; very few, even in Europe, being found of superior volume. “ Had the brain of Rammohun Roy been of diminutive size," observes the writer, “the circumstance would have done more to extinguish Phrenology than the whole amount of misrepresentation and abuse it has been doomed to endure." The rajah's complaisance and want of courage to say “no,” indicated the strength of Love of Approbation in combination with Cautiousness. The writer accounts satisfactorily for the change in the rajah's mental character, towards the close of his life (referred to in our biographical sketch), by the diseased state of his brain. The organs of the propensities are generally large. “ Without a tolerable endowment of Combativeness, as well as of Self-esteem and Firmness, he could not have acted with the boldness and decision for which he was so remarkable.” His propensities, however, were duly controlled by other organs ; " by means of his large Secretiveness and Firmness, he was able to suppress improper manifestations.” His large Amativeness receives no illustration from recorded traits in his character, except his politeness and deferential respect towards the sex. His Philoprogenitiveness is equally without recorded illustration. His large Adhesiveness accords with his affectionate disposition. His Secretiveness seems to have been one of the sources (with Love of Approbation and Cautiousness) of the “air of uncertainty, if not ambiguity,” by which his conduct was occasionally characterized. The meagreness of the sketch he gave of his life is regarded as another illustration of this feeling. Acquisitiveness is much inferior to Benevolence and Conscientiousness; the rajah was liberal, disinterested, and careless of pecuniary sacrifices. The development of the rajah's Veneration and Wonder affords the key to his religious character. “ His head and history concur in shewing, that intellect, justice, and independence had with him complete control over the sentiment of Veneration. He seems never to have venerated except in accordance with Intellect and Conscientiousness. The whole tendency of his mind was opposite to superstition. Wonder had but sway. The mysterious and unintelligible had no charms for him; he submitted every thing to the test of consistency and reason. Of the intele lectual organs, the largest are Individuality, Language, Comparison, and Causality. These are all well illustrated by his recorded character. His love of knowledge and his literary acquirements show the strength of Individuality and Language. The relevancy and acuteness of his reasonings resulted froin Causality and Comparison, combined with Language and Individuality. Form, Size, and Locality, the organs which give geometrical talent, are well developed. As Number and Tune are moderate, the writer assumes that he had little arithmetical ability or musical talent.
Upon the whole, we think the science of Phrenology acquires no slight accession of strength from the illustrations deduced, in the article referred to, from the cerebral traits of this remarkable Asiatic,
MORAL SYSTEM OF THE CHINESE.
(Concluded from p. 118.) Chap. XIX.-"How universal was the filial piety of Woo-wang and Chowkung ! These pious princes seized the intentions of their ancestors and accomplished what they had undertaken. In spring and autumn, they prepared the hills of their ancestors, arranged the venerable vases destined to the ceremonies, disposed their vestments and robes, and offered them the meats of the season. And as these rites were those of the hall of ancestors, the distinction of those who should be placed on the right hand or the left was carefully observed; in disposing ranks, regard was had to persons in high station and obscure men; in disposing of offices, regard was had to people of merit. In drinking together, the inferiors served their superiors; the ceremony thus extended to obscure men. In distributing, during the repast, places according to colour of hair, regard was had to age. Succeeding to the dignity of their ancestors, practising their rites, executing their music, respecting what they had honoured, cherishing what they had loved, Woo-wang and Chow-kung obeyed them when dead as if they had been still living; obeyed them when they were no more, as if they possessed them still. O sublime degree of filial piety!
The rites of the keaou (grand sacrifice to heaven), and the she (grand sacrifice to earth), are those by which they rendered homage to the Supreme Lord (Shang-te).* The rites of the hall of ancestors are those according to which they sacrificed to their predecessors. The man who comprehends clearly the sense of the keaou and the she, and that of the te and the shang, will govern empires as easily as he would look on the palm of his hand.”
Chap. XX.- Ay-kungt consulted Kung-tsze on the subject of government. Kung-tsze said: “ The government of Wan-wang and of Woo-wang is recorded on tables of bamboo (fang-tsze, books or tablets of bamboo). If these princes still lived, their administration would soon revive; but they are no more, and their administration has expired with them. Good government is like the fertility of the earth, which gives strength to vegetables, reeds, and rushes. Government, in fact, depends upon the men employed; a prince should choose his ministers after himself, regulate himself according to reason (taou), and found his reason upon the love of humanity (jin, universal charity or benevolence). The love of humanity is man in the aggregate; the love of parents is the chief part of it. Justice is equity to all; the honour rendered to the wise is the chief part of it. The distinction we owe to our relations, that we owe to the wise, is what ceremonies (or rites) produce. If subordinates have not the confidence of their superiors, the people cannot be well governed. Thus, the prince should not fail to regulate himself. With this view, he should not fail to render to his relatives what is their due; and for that purpose, it is indispensable that he should know mankind; and to know mankind it is absolutely necessary he should know heaven (teen). Universal reason comprehends five things, and three are required to practise them. The five things, which constitute universal reason, are the duties of the prince and minister, of the father and the son, of the husband and the wife, of the elders and the juniors, and the reciprocal duties of friends. The three things, which constitute universal virtue, are wisdom, benevolence, and strength : to practisé
* Much difference of opinion exists (as is noticed in another place) respecting the true sense to be attached to the ceremonies keaou and she, and to the epithet shang-te. † King of Loo, from 494 to 511 B.C. Asiat. Journ.N.S.VOL.14.No.55.
them there is but one method. Whether a man is born wise, or becomes so by study, let him have experienced toil in becoming so; when he is so, it is the same thing. Though we should practise the virtues naturally, for the sake of the advantages* we derive therefrom, or by force of effort; provided we practise them, it is the same thing. He who loves study has made a great step towards wisdom.f He who uses all his efforts to practise virtue, has made a great advance towards benevolence. He who can blush, has made a great progress towards force of mind. He who knows these three things, knows the art of regulating himself; knowing how to regulate himself, he knows the art of governing men; knowing how to govern men, he knows how to rule empires and kingdoms. All who govern empires and kingdoms have nine eternal and invariable-rules to follow : to regulate themselves, to honour the sages, to cherish relations, to respect the great dignitaries, to treat subordinate men in office with indulgence, to love the people like a son, to invite artisans near them, to receive foreigners (or persons from a distance), and to treat the great vassals well. If the prince regulates himself, the laws will be in vigour; if he honours the wise, his eyes will never be fascinated; if he cherishes his relatives, there will be no hatred between his uncles and his brothers; if he respects the grand dignitaries, nothing obscure will embarrass him ; if he treats subordinates in office with indulgence, the gratitude of the magistrates will be manifested in their zeal to perform the ceremonies; if he loves the people as a son, the people will thereby be animated with zeal; if he invite artisans near his person, their wealth will be at his disposal ; if he receive strangers well, the inhabitants of the four parts (sze-fung, 'four sides,' į. e. the world) will submit themselves to him; if he treats the great vassals well, he will be respected throughout the whole empire. To purify oneself and exbibit a decent appearance,to wear clean apparel, to restrain oneself from every motion contrary to usage,—this is the method of regulating oneself. To repel flatterers, to shun pleasure (lit. colour; met. sensuality), to despise riches, to esteem virtue,- this is to incite the wise. To honour the dignity of our own family, to augment their incomes, to love and to hate the same things as they, this is how we animate one's relations to mutual affection. To create a great number of inferior officers who can be made to execute orders, this is the way to animate the great dignitaries. To augment the revenues of those who are upright and faithful,—this is the way to animate placemen. To exact no service from the people but at a convenient time, to moderate taxes,—that is the way to exhilarate the people. To examine daily and inquire monthly if their pay and subsistence keep pace with their labour,that is the way to excite the artisans. To reconduct strangers when they return, and to advance to meet them when they arrive, to praise their good qualities and to compassionate their defects,—these are the means to conciliate strangers. To prolong the line (thread) of races which are near extinction, to raise up fallen dynasties, to calm seditions, to aid them in danger, to receive their ambassadors at fixed times, to treat those magnificently who go away, to moderate the tribute of those who come,—these are the means of well-treating the great vassals. All those who govern empires and kingdoms have nine invariable rules to observe; and there is but one mode of observing them. Every thing, on which we have thought beforehand, may have stability; if we do not think beforehand, we are soon thrown back. If we, at the outset, determine upon our words, we pronounce them without stammering. If we arrange beforehand what we ought to do, we experience no difficulty in it. If we have resolved upon our conduct, we shall not leave any spots in it. If we prescribe to ourselves an invariable law, it will never fail us. If he who holds a subordinate post acquires not the confidence of his superiors, the people cannot be well-governed : there is a rule for this confidence. He who is not faithful to his friends, will not obtain the confidence of his superiors : there is a rule for this fidelity. He who has not a regard for his relations, is not faithful to his friends: there is a rule for this regard. He who labours not honestly to correct himself, has no regard for his parents : for this honest correction there is a rule. He who does not investigate clearly the nature of the true good, cannot correct himself with sincerity, or attain true perfection, The truth is the law of heaven; that which is true is emphatically the human law. He who is veritably perfect gains his aim without effort, reaches it with. out reflection, attains the law with tranquillity, and is truly a saint. He who lays claim to it should choose the virtues, and attach himself strenuously thereto. He ought to learn much, to interrogate carefully, to meditate with respect, to distinguish with clearness, to act with solidity. There are men who do not study, or who make no progress in study: let them not despair. There are some who do not put questions, or, when they do, catch not cor, rectly the meaning of the replies : let them not despair. There are some who do not meditate, or, in meditating, attain no end: let them not despair. There are some who do not distinguish, or distinguish without clearness: let them not despair. There are some who practise not, or who practise without solidity: let them not despair. What another might do by one effort, they do in a hundred; what another might do in ten times, they do in a thousand. Certainly, he who shall follow this rule, however small be his knowledge, will acquire understanding; however weak he be, he will acquire strength."
* Commentators differ as to the sense of the term here used, whether it means the pure pleasure derived from the practice of virtue or the lucre of gain. * Εαν ης φιλομαθης εση πολυμαθης. $ That is, in religious observances : it refers to Chap. XVI.
Chap. XXI.—The intelligence which springs from moral perfection is called natural light; the perfection which results from acquired knowledge is termed instruction, or acquired light. He who has the perfection of virtue, is, by that alone, enlightened; he who is truly enlightened ought to arrive at perfection.
Chap. XXII - Throughout the universe, he alone, who has attained the height of perfection, can know profoundly his own nature; he who knows profoundly his own nature, can know likewise that of other men: he can fathom the nature of things; he can, with heaven and earth, contribute to mutation and production. He might form a third term worthy of heaven and earth,
Chap. XXIII.-After these men, of the first order, come those who direct their efforts towards a single virtue, and who can carry it to perfection. This perfection will manifest itself, be continuous, will illuminate, will move, will change hearts, will work conversions ; but there is in the universe but one man truly perfect, who can thus work conversion.
Chap. XXIV.-The virtue of a man who has attained the height of perfection, extends to a prescience of futurity.* The elevation of dynasties and families is indicated by favourable presages (in herbs or plants and animals); their fall is announced by fatal signs in the herb she (anciently used in divination), as well as in the tortoise (used in the divination called poo), and by motions
* The doctrine here inculcated is like that of the Yoga-sastra, or Sanchya school of Hindu philoso. phy, as to the supernatural effects attainable by learning or improvement of the mind. It is doubtful whether Confucius participated in the belief here implied; Chang-she, a commentator on the Lun-yu, states that the philosopher spoke with great caution of the causes of events and of futurity, deeming it proper that men should confine their inquiries to themselves.