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decidedly the best which have hitherto appeared in this department of the Cyclopædia, good as they all are. Universal History, from the Creation of the Worid to the Beginning of the Eighteenth
Century. By the late Hon. ALEXANDER Fraser Tytler, Lord WOODHOUSELEE. In Six Vols. Vols. I and II, being Vols. XLI. and XLII. of the Family Library. London, 1834. Murray.
This history is stated by the editor (the author's son) to comprehend the Course of Lectures, on the subject of Universal History, delivered by the Author while Professor of Civil History and Greek and Roman Antiquities in the University of Edinburgh. It was prepared for the press, and constantly revised during thirty years, by the learned judge himself,
The plan which is pursued in this work differs from any other mode bitherto adopted of treating universal history. Lord Woodhouselee has pointed out the disadvantages of previous plans, such as historical prelections, and arranging history according to epochs:-paying more attention to the connection of subject than time, he adopts the following method. He premises that, when the world is viewed at any period of ancient or modern bistory, we generally observe one nation or empire predominant, the history of the rest being in some measure capable of being referred thereto. This predominant nation he exhibits as the principal agent, whose history, being the most important, is more fully delineated, the rest being brought into view only when obviously connected with the principal: the antecedent history of the latter is afterwards traced in a short retrospect of their own annals. Whatever objections this plan may be liable to, it undoubtedly combines simplicity and perspicuity, the objects chiefly in the view of the learned lecturer.
The work is very carefully written; the style is elegant, and the matter is arranged with great skill. The materials do not appear, however, as far as the work has yet, advanced, to have received much accession from the stores of modern critical writers, especially on the continent, who have of late years diffused a strong light upon many portions of ancient history.
Finden's Illustrations of the Bible, Part III. Lo 1834. Murray. The four plates in this part are, like the preceding, of exquisite beauty. The subjects are as follows: A View in Jerusalem, near the Gate of St. Stephen, traditionally called the Pool of Bethesda, by Turner; the Fountain of Elisha at Jericho, by Calcott; Pergamos, the antient metropolis of Mysia (with a distant view of the modern town of Bergamo), by Calcott ; and Mount Lebanon and the Maronite Convent of Saint Antonio, by Turner.
LITERARY INTELLIGENCE. The press at Madras has received a sudden impulse. Besides a new morning paper, there are about to appear, or have appeared, two eekly publications, adapted to native readers, the Plain Man's Friendly Visitor and Fanam Magazine, in English, and the Mirat-ul-Akhlar, in Hindustanee and English.
Mr. Cullimore is preparing for publication, in occasional volumes (each complete in itself), a series of papers, entitled Archaeographia, on antiquarian and scientific subjects, relating to, or connected with, the history and chronology of the Jews, Egyptians, Chaldeans, Greeks, Chinese, and other ancient nations; the physical history of the universe, and the progress of religion, civilization, and knowledge.
Major E. Moor, author of the Hindoo Pantheon, has just completed a volume of Oriental Fragments, illustrated with plates.
A new work of Mr. Morier is announced, entitled Ayesha, the Maid of Kars.
Two Years at Sea, being a narrative of a recent voyage to the Swan River, by Miss. Jane Roberts, is preparing for publication.
SWARTZ, THE CHRISTIAN MISSIONARY.* How well was it said by Lord Bacon, “ that there was never any philosophy, religion, or other discipline, which did so plainly and highly exalt that good which is communicative, and depress the good which is private and particular, as the Christian faith!” The unwearied yet unrequited labours of the Christian missionaries bear ample attestation to the soundness of this remark. Quitting the lucrative occupations of the world, and casting aside every motive of ambition or vanity, and even of that self-love which supplies, in ordinary cases, the instinctive impulses of self-preservation, they are found in their pious calling amidst the rigours of the Arctic cold, and the tropical heats-treading in the footsteps of their divine Master, and bearing, with his meekness of spirit, all the ills and dangers that beset their pilgrimage. The venerable Swartz is, perhaps, the most meritorious missionary that has hitherto appeared. He was universally beloved in the great scene of his exertions by Hindoo, Mussulman, and Christian. He earned a high reputation, solid and enduring, in that remote region of the globe, and his memory is dear to all who, in the different countries of Europe, have contributed towards the laudable purpose of converting the heathen. The works of such men long survive them, and continue to operate, when nothing is left of worldly ambition but the memory of its emptiness and its guilt.
The enthusiasm of Swartz, though it burned with a steady, undecaying light, was mild and inoffensive. He was not a bawling, coarse-mannered fanatic. He did not attempt to take the understanding by storm. He made no war upon the prejudices or weaknesses of those whom he sought to convert. He seerns to have acted on Cudworth’s hint, that even geometrical theorems (that the three angles of a triangle, for instance, are equal to two right angles), if urged in a stern dictatorial tone, might be made a matter of doubt and scepticism. Nor were the exterior courtesy of his habits, the grave comeliness of his appearance, and his familiarity with general literature, of which he had laid a foundation at the University of Halle, without their efficacy in softening any personal prejudice his adversaries might feel or excite against him. He was totally divested, also, of that love of spiritual power, which was unquestionably a speck in the character of Wesley, in many instances darkening his virtues and impeding the usefulness of his talents. If he obtained an influence over the minds of others, it was by means of the gentlest arts of persuasion. Indeed, a tender, affectionate earnestness appeared in all his conversations with the natives : thus bequeathing to succeeding missionaries a model of the reasonings by which they are to be weaned from their idolatries, but which unhappily was soon lost sight of by those who affected to follow his example. The following passage from his journal demonstrates the genuine kindness of his heart, with which he laboured in his high calling at Trichinopoly:
* Memoirs of the Life and Correspondence of the Reverend Christian Frederick Swartz; to which is prefixed, a Sketch of the History of Christianity in India. By Hugh PEARSON, D.D., M.R.A.S., Dean of Salisbury. 2 vols. London, 1834. Hatchard. Asiat.Journ.N.S.Vol.14.No.55.
“ I said, as I often do, to them, “do not suppose that I reprove you out of scorn; no, you are my brethren; we are by creation the children of one common father.
It grieves us Christians, that you have forsaken that Almighty Father, and have turned to idols, who cannot profit you. You know, because you have often heard, that a day of judgment is before us, when we must render up an account. Should you persist in remaining enemies to God, and on that day receive condemnation, I fear you will accuse us Christians of not warning you with sufficient earnestness and fer
Suffer yourselves, then, to be persuaded, since you see that we want nothing of you, but that you turn with us to God, and be happy.”'
The progress of Christianity in India has never been encouraging. Swartz, however, was buoyed up by strong prophetic hope as to its future
“ The progress of conversion,” he remarks, in his journal of the year 1768, “ is not so great as we wish; still the rescuing of one single soul is sufficient to encourage us not to grow weary. Oh, that the Europeans in this country would discern the glory of God! Should he graciously work a thorough change and reformation among the principal Europeans, a blessing would spread through the whole land.” The truth is, that, in Swartz's time, the lives of the civilians, even in the highest stations, were not sufficiently circumspect to allure the natives, by the influence of a pure example, towards the faith of their masters. He thus adverts to the profligacy of the Europeans : “The great among them aim at nothing but to live in pleasure, and to become rich. If not readily successful in the latter object, they resort to unjust means, which hardens their minds, and drives them into the most frightful infidelity."
St was in the midst of that critical war, in which the English and French struggled for empire, that Swartz visited our army near Trichinopoly, and preached to the troops in English and German. His zeal and charity never shone more brightly than in the instruction and comfort he ministered to the distressed inhabitants of the villages devastated by the enemy.
It was about this time (1769) that he declined accepting a legacy bequeathed to him by an officer, to whom he had been eminently useful as a religious teacher, lest he should be suspected of interested motives. Peace between Hyder Ali and the Madras government being concluded, Swartz proceeded to Tanjore, where he preached two or three times daily. Here he was introduced to the Rajah Tullagee, and the favourable impression he made upon
his mind led to the confidence and kindness with which that prince ever afterwards distinguished him. The rajah was then in his prime, of good natural talents, and of mild and dignified manners. He had cul. tivated Oriental literature, and produced several poetical compositions of considerable merit. From that time, Swartz's history was interwoven with that of his royal patron. At their first interview, the conversation began by the Persian interpreter telling him that the rajah had heard a good report of him, to which Swartz replied in Persian, expressing thanks for his kindness, and wishing that God might enrich him abundantly with every blessing. The wish was omitted by the interpreter, when a per
son near bim said, “ he wishes you a blessing." At Swartz's request, the conversation was continued in Tamul :
He first inquired how it happened that some European Christians worshipped God with images, and others without them; to which Swartz answered, that the worship of images was expressly forbidden by the word of God, and that this corrupt practice originated in the neglect of the Holy Scriptures, which had in consequence been removed by such Christians from general use among the people. he rajah next inquired how man could attain to the knowledge of God. In reply to this question, the missionary pointed out, in his usual manner, the works of creation, and the bounties of divine Providence, as testifying the power, wisdom, and goodness of God, and his word as clearly revealing whatever is essential to salvation. “If it please the king,” said he, “ I will set before him briefly the principal subjects of that word.” The rajah having signified his assent, Swartz proceeded to explain the nature and divine attributes of God, one of the attendants repeating his explanation of each point very distinctly, slowly, and audibly. He then remonstrated against the worship of idols, as inconsistent with the perfections and glory of God, observing, that, before their conversion from heathenism, the European nations also made images, and adored the work of their own hands with salams and salams. The king laughed, for the expression struck him forcibly, and said, “ He speaks plain.” The pious missionary next shortly urged the corruption into which mankind had fallen, which is visible from universal and melancholy experience; and then unfolded the method of deliverance through the Mediator and Saviour, whom God has graciously provided, and his indescribable willingness to receive those who turn to him-illustrating this encouraging assurance by his favourite and appropriate parable of the prodigal son.
Upon the usual introduction of sweetmeats, of which Swartz took a little, he said, “ We Christians are in the habit, before we partake of food, of praising God for his goodness, as well as of imploring grace to use the gift to his glory;" and on being desired to offer up such a prayer, he immediately complied. With the simplicity and freedom from the apprehension of ridicule, which peculiarly characterized him, he then, at the request of the king, who had been informed that Christians were accustomed to sing in celebrating divine worship, sang some verses' of the Lutheran hymn in the Tamul translation of Mr. Fabricius, beginning,
My God, to thee this heart I bring." The rajah declared himself much pleased, apologising that he had detained him so long, and desiring him to dine with Captain Berg, who was his constant friend and companion, in the palace. “I withdrew," he adds, "repeating my wishes for his happiness.”
Not having as yet permission to enter the fort, Swartz repaired early and late to discourse with the natives on the glacis. At the end of a fortnight, he received unlimited admission there. In consequence, he visited the principal officers of the rajah, declaring to them the truths of Christianity. He was offered presents, but he refused them, saying, “I seek the good of your souls, and not gifts." :On one occasion, a Brahmin said, “ you allure the people with money." “ I replied," says this single-hearted man, fore the whole multitude, ' Prove that either I or my brethren have decoyed a single native with money, and I will hold my tongue.'” One day, when he was addressing the people, the rajah, who overheard him from a room
in the palace, observed, “ he makes our gods to be downright demons. We must keep him here to instruct this foolish people.” From this time the rajah gave him to understand, that he looked upon him as his padre. Such were the first interviews that led to his subsequent establishment and favourable reception as a missionary in the Tanjore kingdom. He then resumed his ordinary labours at Trichinopoly. As a striking specimen of Swartz's style of conference with Mussulmans, we insert the following :
The next day two Mahomedans visited him. One of them maintained himself by teaching the Persian language. In reply to a question, as to the Christian doctrine respecting the distinction of meats, Swartz observed that every creature of God was good, and desired him to read the 15th chapter of St. Matthew, from the Persian Evangelistarium. “I now see,” he said, “what it is that defiles men.” To his inquiry as to the general doctrine which he taught, he replied, " that he explained the commands of God, and proved the transgressions and corruption of mankind; that, notwithstanding, God pities sinners, and to every one who penitently confesses and renounces his sin, will, for Christ's sake, impart forgiveness; and that this grace of God should be improved as the principle of a holy life.” The man beginning to speak of Mahomed, Swartz said, “What then is a prophet ?"
prophet?” “One," he answered, “who brings an account of God.” “ How do you know that Mahomed's account of God comes from him ?" From the wonders he performed." “ But he himself denies, in his Koran, that he came to work miracles.” “He cleft the moon,” said the Mahomedan. “ Such a miracle," I replied, “must have been remarked by other nations. Besides, it is not God's method, when he sends an extraordinary prophet, to authorize him to work only one miracle, and that in secret, or only in the presence of a few friends. No. To such a prophet, he often gives power to do many wonderful works in public places, and before both friends and enemies. Here, however, Mahomed looks suspicious. Further, it is no proof of a divine mission, when one who profe.ses to be a prophet denounces all the undoubted revelations, which God had previously vouchsafed by his servants, as obsolete and superseded. Thus did not the Lord Jesus. He came to fulfil all, and to disown nothing. Moses is edifying to us, even now, for he foretold the Redeemer of the world, as did also David, and the other prophets.” Swartz then charged Mahomed with having taken from the pure word of God, by representing Christ merely as a prophet, and thus depriving mankind of their greatest consolation in him as a Saviour, and of having added to it, by his allowance of polygamy. And in reply to the Mahomedan's objection from the examples of David and Solomon, he said, “ that they had fallen into errors and sins, which David, at least, confessed, and that the rule of the gospel with respect to marriage was clear and peremptory.” “Why, then,” said he,“ did not the Jews believe in Jesus?” “Read,” I replied, John v. verse 31, to the end. Here I was obliged to leave him to attend divine worship, and he said he would also go to prayer, and so we parted.
Oh,” said he, “ that you had the whole New Testament in the Persian language !" I replied, “ If you will assist me with your knowledge of Persian, we can well make such a translation for ourselves.” He promised faithfully to assist.
Swartz, besides the Tamul, soon mastered the Hindoostanee, and made great progress in Persian. As to his employments, at this time, it seems that be devoted himself diligently to the Christian schools in the evening, his