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medium is the grand base of the universe; the equilibrium is its universal way, (law or rule). When the medium and equilibrium are in perfection, heaven and earth are tranquil; all things take their increase therefrom.*
Chap. II.-The philosopher (Confucius) said: “the wise man holds invariably (perseveres in) the medium; the vulgart violate it.”
The wise man holds invariably the medium, and always guards it by his wisdom; vulgar men have also a medium, which they hold; but, by their corruption, they fear not to violate it.
Chap. 111.-Kung-tsze (Confucius) said: “Oh, what a sublime thing is the invariable medium ! But, for a long time past, how few men have known how to retain it !”
Chap. IV.–Kung-tsze said: “I know wherefore the way (taou) of virtue is so little frequented; enlightened or instructed men overpass it; the ignorant do not reach it. I know why the way of virtue is so little illustrated; the wise overpass it, and those without strength do not reach it.”
Amongst men, there is no one who does not eat and drink; few are there who know how to discern and discriminate tastes.
Chap. V.-Kung-tsze said : “What a misfortune that the way of virtue is not more frequented !”
Chap. VI.—Kung.tsze said : “ How great was the prudence of the emperor Shun ! Shun loved to consult and examine the most trifling replies of those around him : he concealed the bad and published the good : accepting the two sorts of opinions (the extremes), he employed the middle for his people. By these means it was that he became the great Shun.”
Chap. VII.-Kung-tsze said : “ A man who says “I am enlightened (or wise);' finds himself-soon met with a rebuff; he is driven into a thousand nets, and falls into all sorts of snares which it is impossible for him to avoid. A
'I am enlightened, if he chooses the medium, cannot keep it for the space of a moon.
Chap. VIII.—Kung-tsze said: "Hwuyg was truly a man; choosing the invariable medium, when he succeeded in securing a virtue, he devoted himself to it with pertinacity, cherished it in his heart and never parted with it more.”
Chap. IX.-Kung-tsze said: “Empires and kingdoms may be governed, titles and wealth may be refused, naked swords may be trampled on-all these things are easier than to retain the invariable medium.”
Chap. X.-Tsze-looll consulted Kung-tsze on the force (yung, strength, courage, fortitude') of the soul. Kung-tsze said: “Is it the force of the soul of southern countries, of the north, or of your own (i. e. of no climate), of which you would speak ? To have capacity and docility for instruction, to be not too severe towards criminals, is the force of soul of southern countries, and to which the wise attach themselves. To sleep on iron and on the skins of beasts,** to know how to die without repugnance, is the force of soul of
* “ The' nourishment or sustentation of the thousand good things,' for the course of events in the universe,” observes M. Rémusat, “is a phrase very frequently employed by Chinese philosophers, who, though prejudice or policy, delight to represent the order of the natural universe as powerfully influenced by moral causes.”
| Seaou-jin, little men,' opposed to Keung-tsze, 'great men,' i. e. sages. In the language of the Confucian school, the former means ' vulgar.'
# The words “ What a misfortune !” do not occur in the original, which has merely “ The taou not often used !"-with a sign of an exclamation of grief.
§ A disciple of Confucius, whom he much loved, and whose premature death the philosopher never ceased to deplore. | One of the chief disciples of Confucius, celebrated for his courage and bodily strength.
Force sufficient to retain the " invariable medium.” ** The commentators understand, mats and warlike weapons.
northern countries, and to which the brave attach themselves.* But what force is that of the wise man, who can live in peace with all men, without exhibiting the mobility of waterst and to remain amongst them firin and incorruptible! What force is that of the wise man, (i. e. the fortitude independent of climate), who, when his country is flourishing and well-governed, knows how to prevent himself from becoming puffed up and corrupt; who, when his country is without laws and without virtues, knows how to continue immoveable till death !”
Chap. XI.- Kung-tsze said: “ To seek after obscure things, (i. e. to endeavour to know what cannot be known), and to do extraordinary acts in order to be distinguished in times to come, is a conduct which I should not wish to pursue. The wise man takes the path of virtue and pursues it; to tread halfway a slippery path, and then to stop, is a thing I would not do. The wise man conforms to the invariable medium : to fly the age, to suffer without regret, to be neglected and unknown by mankind, is what a saint alone can bear.”
Chap. XII.—The way (taou, rule or law) of the wise is arduous and obscure.f Men and women, however ignorant (rude, uneducated), may attain to knowledge; but, be a person ever so enlightened (shing, naturally intelligent),|| he cannot reach the summit of knowledge; there will always remain something of which he is ignorant. Men and women, however weak they be, may make some progress in the path of virtue; but though we be ever so enlightened, we cannot reach the summit, and there will ever remain things we cannot accomplish. Thus, vast as are heaven and earth, there are yet in them things which man may attempt to understand. This is why we say, speaking of the greatness of the true sage, that the world cannot contain it
; and speaking of the subtlety of this virtue, that the world cannot divide it. The Book of Poetry (the She-king) says :The bird Yuen (or Fung-ying) penetrates into the heavens, and the fish plunges
into the abyss. This implies, that virtue appears in the lowest things as well as in the most sublime. The way (taou) of the wise man has its origin in the common class of men and women, whence, rising to sublimity, it manifests itself in heaven and on earth,”
Chap. XIII.-Kung-tsze said: “ The law (taou) is not removed from men: if they form a law remote from them, that should not be denominated taou. The Book of Poetry (the She-king) says :
When we cut out a sleere, the model is not far off. He who takes a sleeve, in order to cut out another by it, looks at it and examines it on all sides; it is still a little way off. Thus a wise man governs mankind after man, and confines himself to directing them to good. He who is sincere and vigilant to do nothing to others which he would not that they should do to him, is not far from the taou. What he does not wish should be done to
* By the force of soul of southern countries, the commentators understand gentleness, whereby the faults of mankind are corrected by clemency, patience and indulgence, not by firmness, which departs from severity and straightforwardness of purpose belonging to a wise man. The force of northern countries seems to be firmness and resolution.
| Literally, “ without flowing away," i. e. borne away by passion or interest.
† So, in the Lun-yu, Confucius says: “ To be unknown of men and yet not to be vexed thereat, is it not the part of a wise man ?”
§ “ Dificult,” says the gloss, “because of its extent; obscure, because of the subtlety of its nature."
|| Also used in the Confucian books to signify holy or perfectly wise. Confucius-himself is called Söenshing, the ancient saint.'
“ A law,” says the gloss (referring to an antecedent chapter), " which consisted in seeking things obscure, and doing extraordinary actions, would be remote from man."
him, let him not himself do to others.* Of the four rules of the sage, I (Confucius) cannot yet observe a single one. What we have a right to expect from a son, that he should be entirely submissive to his father, I have not yet been able to perform. What is expected from a subject, that he should serve his master faithfully, I do not yet practise. What is required of a younger brother, that he be submissive to the elder, I have not yet fulfilled. What is exacted from a friend, that he prefer his friend to everything, I have not yet sufficiently put into practice. Constant exercise of these virtues; continual circumspection in words; to fail not to use every effort when there are things not sufficiently practised; not to give way to the use of superfluous discourse; to make words correspond with actions, and actions with words,-in doing all this, how is it that the wise man cannot be solidly virtuous (sincere and perfect)?”
Chap. XIV.—The wise man acts in a manner becoming his station, and desires nothing beyond it. If rich and honoured, he acts like a rich and honoured man; if
poor and despised, he acts like a poor and despised man; if a foreigner (e.' barbarian '), he acts like a foreigner; if unfortunate and suffering, he acts like the unfortunate and the suffering. In no case and no situation is the wise man discontented with his lot. If he is exalted in dignity, he oppresses not his inferiors; if in a subordinate rank, he forgets not himself in the presence of his superiors. He regulates himself and expects nothing from others. Above himself, he never murmurs against heaven;, below himself, he is never bitter against mankind. Thus, the wise man, always the same, awaits the commands of heaven; whilst the vulgar plunge into a thousand perils in search of happiness at any cost. Kung-tsze said: “ the archer resembles the wise man; when he misses the mark, he ponders within himself what can be the cause.”
Chap. XV.—The way of the sage may be compared to that of a traveller, who begins near and then gets farther off: it may be compared to that of one mounting upon an elevated place from a low position. The Book of Poetry (the Sheking) says :A wife and children, who love each other and are mutually attached, are like the
drum, the shih and the khin. If brothers live in union, they are happy and gay through their concord.
From good order in thy family springs the happiness of thy wife and thy children. Kung-tsze said: “ Happy are the parents, who thus enjoy the piety (love and obedience) of their children !”
Chap. XVI.-Kung-tsze said : “ How sublime are the virtues of the genii and spirits! We look at them, and see them not; we listen to them, and do not understand them; united to the substance of things, they cannot be separated therefrom. They are the cause that men, throughout the universe, purify themselves, and clothe themselves in festive habits to offer sacrifices. They are diffused like waves of the ocean above us, on our right hand and on our left.The She-king says :
The presence of the spirit to whom we offer sacrifice cannot be perceived;
* This golden rule of our Saviour it is curious to find in a Chinese author who lived some centuries before him. The words “ watchful to do nothing to others which he would not that they should do to him,” is rendered with inexpressible energy, in the original, by a single character, shoo, compounded of woman, mouth, and heart.
t. This passage, as M. Rémusat remarks, comes closely to the doctrine of the entities, virtualities, and other abstractions of the metaphysical schools. Asiat. Journ. N.S. VOL.14. No.54.
This subtilty which manifests itself, this truth which cannot be concealed, are like the taou of the wise man.”
Chap. XVII.-Kung-tsze said: “What admirable filial piety was that of Shun! His virtue was that of a saint; his dignity was the imperial throne; his wealth, whatsoever is between the four seas. He performed imperial sacrifices to his ancestors, and his posterity honoured him as their grandfather. Thus, by bis great virtue, he obtained his dignity, his wealth, his fame, and the long duration of his life. Thus heaven, in the production of things, does not fail to regulate the increase it gives by their qualities; it sustains and nourishes the tree which stands and destroys that which is thrown down. The Book of Poetry (the She-king) says:
Praise and love to the virtuous man! Glory, glory to his virtue !
And heaven multiplies its favours.
Chap. XVIII.-Kung-tsze said: “ If there was ever a man exempt from grief, it was Wan-wang ;* his father was Wang-ke, and Woo-wung was his son ; what the father began was completed by his son. Woo-wang accomplished the undertaking of Tae-wang (father of Wang-ke), Wang-ke, and Wan-wang. He put on but once the robe of war, and that was to conquer the empire. His name was never obscured in the universe ; his dignity was that of an emperor; his wealth, whatever is between the four seas. He testified his respect towards his ancestors by sacrifices, and his posterity testified their love by their attentions. Woo-wang was old when he obtained the empire.t Chowkung (younger brother and successor of Woo-wang) perfected what had been begun by the virtues of Wan-wang and Woo-wang. He conferred the title of king upon his ancestors Tae-wang and Wang-ke, and sacrificed to them according to the imperial rites. The use of these ceremonies extended amongst the tributaries and the grandees, and as far as the magistrates and people. If the father had been one of the grandees and the son was a magistrate, the latter performed funeral rites to the former as to a grandee, and then sacrificed to him as a magistrate. If the latter had been a magistrate and the son was a grandee, the latter performed funeral rites to the former as a magistrate and then sacrificed to him as a grandee. The mourning of a year extended to the grandees ; that of three years to the emperor; the mourning for a father did not differ on account of rank or baseness, but was the same for all.”
* Father of the founder of the third (Chow) dynasty.
[The remainder next month.]
HISTORICAL RECORDS OF CHINA.
The Chinese have had, from time immemorial, authentic, that is, official, historical records, which are transmitted from prince to prince. “ The manner in which these historical records are kept is as follows: ministers, who hold the office of historiographers and daily attendants on the court, write their accounts of public transactions and remarks on the conduct of the emperor and those employed by him, and place these accounts in a closely-sealed box. For the preservation of these records, they are sometimes aired and dusted, as appears by a late Imperial edict in the Pekin Gazetle, appointing four high officers to dust, and expose to the sun, the true records."
No, XII.- MONGHYR.
BEFORE our conquests in India had extended themselves throughout the whole of Hindoostan, Monghyr, which in the time of the Moghuls was considered a place of great importance, formed one of the principal military stations of the British army. While it was selected for the depôt for ammunition, since removed to Allahabad, it enjoyed all the honours of a frontier-fortress; but, in consequence of the immense portion of territory which now divides it from the boundaries of our possessions, it has been suffered to fall into decay. A few invalided soldiers garrison the dismantled citadel, which has been turned into an asylum for lunatics belonging to the native army, and a depôt for military clothing, the tailors in the neighbourhood being considered particularly expert.
Monghyr stands upon a rocky promontory abutting into the Ganges, and the walls of the fort, raised upon a sharp angle, have a fine effect: the point on which they stand, when the river is full and the current strong, renders the navigation difficult and dangerous to boats, which can only pass with a favourable wind, and run great risk of being driven against the rocks. The Ganges at this place is extremely wide, appearing almost like a sea; and vessels being often detained by contrary winds at the ghauts of Monghyr, when a change takes place, the whole surface of the water is covered with barks of every description. The distance from Calcutta is. about 270 miles, and nothing can exceed the beauty of the situation. The remains of the fort are very striking; the plain is diversified by ridges of rock richly wooded, and upon some of the most favourable sites the European residents have erected those palace-like houses, which give a regal air to the splendid landscapes of Bengal. The native town is irregular, and in many parts extremely picturesque, several of the bazaars stretching in long lines beneath the umbrageous shelter of magnificent groves. At the south and eastern gates of the fort there are streets, composed of brick houses, sufficiently wide for carriages to pass; but the remainder consists of scattered dwellings, chiefly built of mud. The place of worship in most repute amongst the Mahommedans is the monument of Peer Shah Lohauni, which is held in great reverence by all classes of the people, the Hindoos making frequent offerings at the shrine of this saint, so highly is his memory venerated throughout the district. A considerable trade is carried on at Monghyr, from the manufactories of the place; the workmen possess considerable skill, and construct palanquins, European carriages, and furniture, in a very creditable manner. Under the inspection of persons well acquainted with these arts, they can produce goods of a very superior description, and at an astonishingly low price. A well-carved, high-backed arm-chair, with a split cane seat, was obtained by the writer for six rupees (12s.). The clothing for the army is made here; and it is celebrated for its shoes, both of the native and European forms. But the most famous of its manufactures is that of the blacksmiths, who work up steel and iron into a great