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much curious intelligence respecting the destruction of Mungo Park and his party (which is confirmatory of preceding accounts), and concerning the city of Timbuctoo. A Moor, named Khalifa, told the Major that Timbuctoo was now governed by a woman (a statement confirmed by two letters received from Timbuctoo, which Major D, afterwards saw at Tripoli); and that the term wangara, hitherto supposed to be a state, is merely a title applied to gold countries : Bambara is therefore called Wangara. There is a camel-road from Sackatoo to Timbuctoo, but infested by the Kafirs of Cobee.
The most splendid discovery is that of the great lake Tchad, a vast body of fresh water, without an outlet, upwards of 200 miles from east to west, by about 150 miles, in the broadest part, from north to south. This lake is situated between the 14th and 17th eastern meridians, and between 121° and 141° of north latitude. It was explored by Major Denham, except on its eastern and north-eastern sides : the only rivers he found communicating with it were the Yeou, on the west, the course of which is very short from the south-west (running into the Tchad at the rate of three miles an hour); and the Shary, on the south, which, according to information given to Major Denham, communicates with the Kowara, which passes Timbuctoo. The Yeou is called by the Arabs the Nile, a term which, in this part of Africa, denotes all sweet running water.
The account which the inhabitants on the borders of the lake give of it is, that it once emptied itself into the Bahr-el-Ghazah by a stream which had dried up, but the bed remained ; and that it wasted itself in an immense swamp. At four days' journey was, they said, another lake, called Fittre; not still water like the Tchad, but it received a river from the south-west, forming, in fact, the lake, which was also called Darfoor water, and Shilluk.
The disturbed state of the country on the eastern borders of the lake prevented Major Denham from completing his survey of it; Barca Gana, the sheikh's general, encompassed it, however, four several times, in the course of his operations against the tribes in this quarter; and as he had a force of from 400 to 800 cavalry with him, the passage of a river or running, stream could not, as Major D. remarks, have escaped his observation.
The accessions to our geographical knowledge of Africa, which these travellers have contributed, conduct us but a little way towards a solution of the problems concerning that continent. We trust the efforts of Capt. Clapperton, now on another expedition thither, will carry us still farther.
We have been able to afford the reader but a slender and imperfect idea of this work, which is one of the most interesting of the kind we have met with for some years. The narrative is unlaboured; the travellers appear to represent things just as they saw them; and there is quite as much scientific information as could be expected, under the peculiar circumstances of the expedition. The conduct of the travellers generally appears to have been judicious, and to have made its proper impression upon the natives. We are not disposed to blame the instance of excess exhibited by Capt. Clapperton, who, on finding that Dr. Oudney's grave had been outraged by a party of Arabs, under the eye of the Governor of Murmur, sent for his excellency, and applied a horsewhip to his shoulders !
PHILOSOPHICAL, SCIENTIFIC, AND LITERARY.
ASIATIC SOCIETY OF CALCUTTA. trated by drawings of the various alphabets A meeting of the members of the Asia- employed in that country. Mr. Moortic Society was held at Chouringhee on
croft has sent at the same time some Wednesday the 2d Nov.; the Hon, stereotype line engravings of mythological J. H. Harington, Esq., President, in the and real personages, and a few pen-draw
ings executed in a similar style. These At this meeting the Hon. Sir Charles productions are to us quite surprising, as Grey, Mr. J. Paxton, Captain T. Macan, exhibiting a degree of taste and skill in the and Mr. Conolly, were unanimously art of design which could not have been elected members of the Society.
expected from Tibet. The Grand Lama, Present, for the Museum. The im- seated on a chair of state, is gracefully pression of the foot of Gautama, by Dr.
formed, and the drapery well arranged.. R. Tytler.
A figure at his feet is very happily maA live Snake, the Boa Constrictor, naged in a kneeling posture, and the two from Saugor, and a hammock, or litter, deities in the clouds, with halos round used in Nepaul, by R. Hunter, Esq.
them, equally well conceived. The draw. Six images from Hammirpore, by M. ing of a beautiful Lama is also admirably Ainslie, Esq.
executed, and the multitude of surroundA series of specimens illustrative of the ing figures, depicted with the same taste strata in the coal field of New South and spirit. But the death of the mortal Wales, by D. Ross, Esq. ; with a des- part of the Prophet Zacheeamoonee is, criptive sketch of the mineral basin as perhaps, the finest in point of composition. existing at the north-eastern end of Pon- The figures surrounding the reclining typool, Monmouthshire, referring to the Saint, are numerous, and the expression substances enumerated.
and attitudes of grief, well varied. These For the Library. Copies of all the outlines remind us of Flaxman's Homer, oriental works published under the pa- by their freedom and simplicity, but, of tronage of the College of Fort William, course, in an inferior degree. Mr. Moorsince October 1814, by the Council of the croft, however, says, that they are merely College.
the common productions of the country, A Sanscrit manuscript, the moral sen
and that those of a higher description are tences of Chanakya, with a Nevari trans- not procurable, being deposited in the Jation, by H. B. Hodgson, Esq.
temples, and in the houses of men of A coloured map of Benares, by James opulence, Prinsep, Esq.
Mr. Moorcroft has given an account of Several Burmese manuscripts, by F. P. every variety of letter used in Tibet, for Strong, Esq. in the name of Captain familiar and religious purposes, and the Wilson.
enumeration is certainly curious. The Secretary read a paper by Lieute- No. 1, Is termed the Lantsa, the letter nant-Colonel V. Blacker, on the geogra- of the Lhas, or Angels. It is used for phical boundaries of India. This paper inscriptions in the Temples, or Monasabounds with curious matter, and interest- teries, and the sacred sentence of “Om ing illustrations, but we understand, that ma nee put me hang,” is usually written its communication to the Society was with it. This character is frequently met premature on the part of the Secretary, with in a line perpendicular to its present
a the intelligent author, not having yet, in direction, accompanied by several ornahis own estimation, fully developed the mental strokes, or bars, to the right. subject. We must therefore refrain from No. 2. The Wurtoo, the letter of the citing its substance beyond adverting to a Genii (Looee) or the guardian spirits of point which we think the author has springs, rivers, mountains, &c. It is incontestibly made out, that the river found at Lhassa in some religious books, Indus cannot be considered either geo- but few persons understand it well, and it graphically or politically as the western is seldom made use of. barrier of Hindoostan.
No. 3. The · Gyager Kamáte.
The The Secretary also read a letter from first of these words is the name given by Mr. Moorcroft, dated Cashmeer, the 8th the Tibetans to Hindoostan, and the of February, 1823, but owing to the diffi- second is that of the place to which the culties of transmission from that remote letter is peculiar. quarter, it was not received before the 2d If it really exists, at present, it will of November 1825. The letter contains probably not have escaped European a sketch of the language of Tibet, illus- research.
No. 4. Is the Surchoo Pookhung cha- pears to have offered a secure asylum to racter. This also belongs to Hindoostan, refugees of different religious persuasions and it need only be observed that the first at different periods, and it is presumed word signifies East,” and that the that the Manichean and Nestorian Chrissecond is the name of the district, or tians have profited by the tranquillity of town in which it was employed.
the country, and the liberal, unpersecuting, No. 5. The Tchaklo.
spirit of its inhabitants. And from what No. 6. The Şkongkur dozhe. This and I have myself seen of the indifference with the preceding belong to Tibet, but they which all classes of Lamaists behold an are as little studied and as little used as individual, born in their faith, embracing the Wurtoo.
the doctrines of Mahomet, a suspicion is No. 7. Is the Oomet Brootsa. The first forced upon the mind, that if the missionof these words is applied to every des- aries who were domiciliated at Lassa, cription of the vulgar, or common letter, of had confined their operation merely to which this is a variety, sometimes, though making proselytes, and had not insulted not most frequently, used for works on the people by vilifying and degrading the subjects . unconnected with religion, as national religion, they would not have medicine.
been expelled from the country.
But the No. 8. The Mootaghpe Oochun. same tolerating spirit does not exist among
No. 9. The Shinpooe Oochun. These the Chinese who have now usurped the are merely the established Ecclesiastical
government of Lassa." Jetters, with the omission of a few of the
Mr. Moorcroft has been led to believe, vowel signs, and the addition of a line from what he has seen, that the libraries betwixt some of the syllables, intended, of Lassa abound with matter, which, conas it is said, to prevent the writing being sidering the insulated situation of that readily decyphered.
country, would surprise the learned in No. 10. The Sunskreet. No. 11. The Oomet Peik, more gene
Europe, were they accessible to Euro
pean research. The Kangoor, or Kaghrally used than the Brootsa.
yoor, a book found in all the principal No. 12. The Dochun, or the character monasteries, consists of one hundred and in which the Kangyoon, the Koghiur of eight folio volumes, each two feet six in Georgi, and every book treating of religion length, and six inches and three-quarters is either written or printed.
in breadth, the first volume containing No. 13. The Oomet Chookyik, the vulgar letter în general use.
No. 14. The Thor. This name, with the addition of Po, is used to designate a
ASIATIC SOCIETY OF PARIS. race of Tartars supposed to inhabit a Meeting of February 6.— The followcountry bordering upon the north of ing persons were admitted members :Tibet, near the sources of the great Messrs. Biart; A. H. Brué, geographer ; Yangtse Kiang, and included between the Gros, professor at the Royal College of frontier of Khoten, and the tract of St. Louis ; Pacho, a traveller late from country, through which passes the great Cyrenais; P. Wynch, in the service of commercial road from Lhassa to Siling, or the English East-India Company. Siningfoo. These people are distinct from M. de Hammer communicated to the the Kalmuks, who are named Sokpo. Council, certain fragments relative to They are, perhaps, a tribe of the Eluths, Masoudi, and the origin of the Thousand but oriental research may be sufficiently and One Nights. advanced to recognise them. The cha- M. Klaproth communicated the conracter resembles that of China, in being tents of a work which he proposes to written in a line commencing at the top publish on the ancient Turkish dialect, of the page and proceeding downwards. called Coman. The Seal of the Grand Lama affords a M. Jouannin, of Constantinople, transspecimen of it.
mitted to the Council, a memoir of M. Mr. Moorcroft observes that the in- Ruffin, for insertion in the Journal Asiacorrectness of the present maps of Asia tique ; also the design of an ancient momay give rise to a suspicion that the coun- nument found in a valley near Nicomedia. try of Thor touches upon the boundary of M. César Moreau transmitted from Ladak. But the unexplored territory of London some tables relating to the comKhoten extends far to the East, along the merce of the English East-India Comface of the Mooz Tagh, connected by pany; also a donation of a Chinese celesirregular groups with Kantesee, or Kue- tial planisphere, of which M. Abel Rélas, and the line of the ancient thorough- musat will give an account at the ensuing fare, between Kashkar and India, was meeting. through its capital and Roodokh, formerly Some passages were communicated of a the summer residence of the chief of letter from Count Rzewouski, of WarLadak.
saw, relative to the labours of M. Majew“ Tibet,” says Mr. Moorcroft, “ap ski on the Sanşcrit language, and announc
4 K 2
ing the transmission of a work by the great number of monuments, in the form latter.
of chess-boards. His object in the preA passage of a letter from M. L. Van sent work is to point out the remarkable Alstin, of Ghent, to Messrs. Dondey coincidence which exists between the Dupré was communicated, offering the game of chess and the rules by which the means of making scientific researches in various combinations of hours, days, different parts of Asia.
months, and years, are arranged in the M. Abel Rémusat made a verbal report triple Egyptian calendar.” of the reasons which prevented M. Klaproth and himself from making known to the Council the means of composing a The Emperor of Austria has just purJapanese vocabulary, and on the plan of a chased a splendid collection of Egyptian work of the same kind which he proposes antiquities, now at Leghorn; the cost is to publish conjointly with M. Landresse, 25,000 francs. The collection contains after the great Chinese and Japanese 3,000 articles. There are colossal sphinxes; Dictionary recently obtained by the King's the monolith sanctuary of Philoë, a royal library.
sarcophagus, taken from a tomb at Thebes; The President delivered a report of the the famous numerical wall of the palace of presentation made to the King on the 31st Carnac, entire ; an immense bas-relief, January of the first six volumes of the
relative to the conquests of Sesostris ; Journal Asiatique. The following speech nearly eighty MSS. on papyrus, Egypwas addressed to his Majesty by the tian, Greek, Coptic, and Arabic; many President :
articles of gold, and precious stones; “ Sire: The Asiatic Society has the beautiful Greek and Egyptian inscriphonour to offer the first volumes of the tions; the entire frescos of an EgypJournal which it publishes. Founded in tian tomb at Thebes; several portraits of 1822, under the reign of the monarch who the times of the Greeks on pannel, and established amongst us, instruction in the one on canvas.-(French Paper. languages of China and India, its object is to multiply and extend our acquaintance with the countries and the people of Asia,
Few of the Hawauan females ancient and modern. No nation of Eu
without their favourite animal. It is rope has done so much as France for usually a dog. Here (at a place oriental studies. The Asiatic Society will
called Kapapala), however, we observed contribute its utmost to maintain this
a species of pet that we had not seen besuperiority. If your Majesty deigns to
fore. It was a curly-tailed pig, about a grant your august protection, it will feel
year and a half old, three or four feet assured of success, as well as obtain in long, and apparently well fed. He beadvance the most flattering recompense.
longed to two sisters of our host.- [ElThe King's Reply.
lis's Tour in the Sandwich Islands, “I will always protect with pleasure, labours like yours, gentlemen, useful to the public. I am well satisfied with The dagger with which Captain Cook them, and urge you to continue them." was killed, is in the possession of a lite
rary gentleman of the Blonde, who has LAWYERS IN CHINA.
collected many new, interesting, and cuNo attornies are authorized by law in rious particulars relative to his death, China;
those self-constituted, are thus de- and of the past history of these interesting fined and described by a Chinese classic islanders. – [Hampshire Telegraph. writer: " Villainous and perverse vagabonds, who are fond of making a stir, and
BURMESE ANTIQUITIES. who, either by fraudulent and crafty Captain Coe, late commander of the schemes, excite discord; or by disorderly squadron in the East-Indies, has presented and illegal proceedings, intimidate and to the university of Cambridge an alabasinpose upon people !"
ter statue of a Burmese idol, taken from the sacred grove, near Ava; and two re
ligious books, beautifully executed on the A work has been published at Paris, Palmyra leaf, to which none but the Burby M. Villot, keeper of the records of that mese priests are permitted to have access. city, to prove that the game of chess took its rise from the study of astronomy among
A NEW ISLAND IN THE PACIFIC. the Egyptians.
“ The author," says the In July last, the Pollux Dutch sloop of Révue Encyclopédique, by a series of war, Captain Eeg, discovered a new and researches which he had undertaken upon well-peopled island in the Pacific, to the subject of the astronomy of the Egyp- which the name of Nederlandich Island tians, discovered that calendars or astro- was given : its latitude and longitude laid nomical tables are to be met with on a down at no 10' S., and 177° 33' 16" E.
from Greenwich. The natives were ath- day are according to that model. They letic and fierce, great thieves, and, from allow, however, that it was during the their shewing no symptoms of fear when reign of Ming that this religion entered muskets were discharged, evidently unac- China more effectually, in consequence of quainted with the effects of fire-arms. a dream of the emperor's, in which he
saw a golden man flying about the palace. NAPOLEON WORSHIPPED BY THE CHINESE. -Dr. Morrison.
An English missionary in Java states, that in the village of Buitenzorg, in the
NEW MAP OF ASIA. vicinity of Batavia, where there is a colony
M. Klaproth, of Paris, has had a map of 2,000 Chinese, he found in one of their
of the part of Asia that lies between 210 houses a European picture of Bonaparte, and 31° north latitude and 899 and 101° in a gilt frame, to which the people offer
of east longitude, engraved for the second incense, and pay their morning and even
number of his Magazin Asiatique, which ing vows !
is about to be published in Paris. From
a specimen of this map received in LonHORSES FED ON MILK.
don, it appears, that it will be much supeMajor Denham says, that the horses of rior to any map of that part of Asia the Tibboos, in Central Africa, are fed already published, as M. Klaproth has entirely on camels' milk, corn being too availed himself of the Chinese and Manscarce and valuable an article for the
dchu maps of the countries east and north Tibboos to spare them; they drink it, he of Bengal, which are much better than observes, both sweet and sour; and ani- those compiled by European geographers. mals in higher health and condition I What makes this map and the memoir scarcely ever saw.
that will accompany it peculiarly interest
ing at the present time, is, that it lays BUDHUISM IN CHINA.
down the sources and course of the river The author of Ching-tsze-t'hung states Brahmaputra, about which there has that the religion of Fůh (or Budhu), en- lately been much speculation ; and that it tered China during the 7th year of the gives the course of the Yaru-dzangbo-tchu, reign of the Emperor Ming of the dynasty or river of Tibet, which Major Rennel Han, about A. D. 50. The compilers of has erroneously connected with the Kang-he's Dictionary deny this, and say, Brahmaputra. that some of the Sha-mun,'or priests of The courses of these rivers, as laid down Fúh, came to China during the dynasty by M. Klaproth, afford strong confirmation Tsin. The first Emperor of that dynasty, of the opinion expressed by Capt. Lachlan, Che-hwang, who reigned about 250 of the 17th Bengal regt., in a memoir on years B. C., imprisoned those priests on the Brahmaputra read before the Royal account of their being foreigners; but, Asiatic Society about eighteen months it is said, a golden man broke open the since, namely :- :-" That the Sanpoo, or prison-doors at night. In the time of river of Tibet, is not connected with the Woo-te (B. C. 150) an image of Fúh was Brahmaputra, but is probably connected obtained, and the images of the present with the Irrawaddy, or river of Ava."
abolish the appointment in question from and after the 31st Inst.
AUGMENTATION FOR THE SAPPERS AND
MEDICAL APPOINTMENT A BOLISHED. Fort William, Oct. 6, 1825.-With re
Fort William, Oct. 6, 1825.-An augference to the advertisement published in
mentation of 1 Jemadar 2 Havildars, 2 the Gov. Gazette of the 11th Sept, 1823,
Naicks and 40 privates per company,
is notifying the appointment of Mr. Surg. authorized as a temporary arrangement for W. P. Muston, to afford medical aid to the corps of sappers and miners. the native officers in the employment of government at the Presidency in the civil department, &c. Notice is hereby Fort William, Oct. 7,. 1825.-The given, that the Right Hon. the Governor Governor-General in Council is pleased General in council has been pleased in con- to sanction an allowance of Sonat Rupees formity to orders received on the subject (150) one hundred and fifty per mensem, froin the hon. the Court of Directors to and the usual allowance for one horse, to
ALLOWANCES TO OFFICERS.