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service might justly be expected to strengthen the infțuence of the Resident. This event had been preceded, a few months only, by the accession of Lord Hastings (then Earl Moira) to the Government of India, whose principles of administration were of a rather different complexion from those of his pre. decessor, under whose instructions the Resident had formed and pursued his system of negociation with the ruler of Oude.
His Lordship, in his copious letter of August 15, 1815, has developed the principles adopted by him for the regulation of his policy with that state as follows :-In construing the engagements between the two parties, the most liberal sense should be given to the articles favourable to the weakest; a conclusion, he observes, agreeable to sound policy as well as to abstract equity. If the extremity of being forced to substitute our own Government for the Nawaub's (a proceeding which would be universally stigmatised) were avoided, much would be gained. The only justifiable ground for seizing the possessions of the Nawaub, would be the discovery that he had plotted, in concert with our enemies, the overthrow of our power; a case which could only occur through desperation produced by a course of indignities and provocations. His situation, therefore, should be rendered tranquil and satisfactery; an object no less incumbent on our policy than dictated by our generous feelings. The right of interference with advice or remonstrance upon subjects which might injuriously affect the British interests, clearly implied that in all other respects the Nawaub was free; and, indeed, the tenor of the treaty proved that the uninterrupted exercise of his authority was assured to him in order to qualify the strong step we had taken. The Nawaub was, consequently, to be treated as an independent prince. The Resident should consider himself as the ambassador from the British Government to an acknowledged sovereign ; he should carefully abstain from any ostentation of authority, and forbear to countenance opposition to the Nawaub, on the part of his Excellency's servants, or to recommend persons from his own household for reception in the suite of the Nawaub. The latter should be treated with deferential politeness, which 'could not deceive the Nawaub into resistance, but must rather promote his flexibility, lest he should forfeit this show of respect. (Pp. 853, 854).
We have condensed this passage in the letter for the sake of brevity; but it deserves perusal in the original terms.
His Lordship, during his tour in the Upper Provinces in 1814, had an interview with the Nawaub Vizier; and soon after this occurrence, those extraordinary transactions developed themselves, which eventually led to the removal of Col. Baillie. The details of these transactions are so multifarious, so contradictory, so embarrassed by the covert intrigues of individuals, whose names and objects are only to be guessed at; and the conduct of the Vizier himself is characterized by such avowed and degrading duplicity, that it is scarcely possible to disentangle the web into which the acts and representations of the various agents have involved them, so as to admit of their being presented in a lucid and impartial narrative. The fairest mode, in our opinion, of exhibiting the transactions themselves, and the points at issue between Lord Hastings and Col. Baillie, will be to dissect the respective statements of both parties, incorporating in our abstract the requisite explanatory matter.
The Governor-General, in his minute of 30th November 1814, states that, on his arrival at Cawnpore (8th October), he had no reason to suspect that the Resident was not in high favour with the Nawaub. At an interview with his Excellency, his Lordship remarked a want of satisfaction in the former, when he was told that the Resident possessed his Lordship's entire confidence; and
he produced (unexpectedly to Col. Baillie) a paper containing remarks upon the reform proposed for the administration of Oude, and a passage relating to the Resident, of the following equivocal import:
By your Lordship's kindness, Major Baillie loves me from his heart. Under the influence of this disposition, in consequence of my father's demise, he visits me almost every day; and agreeably to rule, I also have gone to visit him. While. Major Baillie may continue to remain here, there is no need for making any representation : after he shall have gone away, it is my wish that the practice of visiting, as observed between the Resident and my father, may be reverted to.
Lord Hastings' secretary having subsequently learned, by means of Mr. Clarke and Capt. McLeod, two English gentlemen in the service of the Nawaub Vizier, that his Excellency was in “ absolute despair” at the disappointment of his expectations of being delivered from “ the despotism of Col. Baillie,” his Lordship sent for them, and learned “that the Nawaub had mentioned many matters of grievance to them ; but that his mind was in such subjection to Col. Baillie, that he would never complain of that gentleman in his presence.” His Lordship accordingly gave him an opportunity of explain. ing himself in the absence of the Resident; the Nawaub was shy of entering into particulars," and promised to send, the following day, a paper containing the subjects of complaint, but which was not forwarded till near a fortnight after, when his Lordship had arrived at Lucknow; and, when sent, contained no reference whatever to Col. Baillie.
Some doubt having fastened itself upon his Lordship's mind, as to his Excellency's preference of Mr. Law, or Mr. Wilson, for his physician, and Col. Baillie having asked the appointment, in the name of the Vizier, for the latter, his Lordship desired Capt. Gilbert, whom the Vizier, had invited to breakfast with him, to endeavour to ascertain the real fact. Upon the question being put to the Vizier, he exclaimed, earnestly, that it was Mr. Law, and that the Resident wished to force Mr. Wilson upon him. His Excellency then unfolded a long string of grievances against Col. Baillie, professing, that as long as the latter should remain at Lucknow he (the Nawaub) could never have an hour's comfort.
At a subsequent conference with his Lordship, the Vizier (who had previously confirmed, in the most distinct manner, to Mr. Ricketts, one of the Government-Secretaries, all he had said to Capt. Gilbert) acknowledged he had complaints against the Resident, and presented a paper which he said contained them all. These complaints were, in substance, as follows:-1st, the Resident's absence from the late Vizier's funeral ; 2dly, his extorting certain grants from his Excellency for the Moonshee Alee Nuckee Khan; 3dly, his shutting -up a high road contiguous to the Residency, and erecting a lofty gate, which overtopped the Vizier's buildings; 4thly, his stationing British guards over the treasuries and jewel rooms; 5thly, his calling one of the late Vizier's ladies into his presence, regardless of his Excellency's late father's honour ; 6thly, his bringing with himn persons not entitled to sit, and causing them to have chairs ; 7thly, his encouragement of complaints from the Vizier's dependants; 8thly, his interference with the concerns of the Vizier's family; 9thly, his placing over the Vizier the sons of Mirza Jāfer, in such a manner, that his Excellency never had a moment's privacy from them; 10thly, his suffering an attack on a horseman in the Vizier's service, which lowered his Excellency in the eyes of the people; 11thly, his perusing the accounts of the country daily, and issuing bis own orders, in answer to petitions ; nominating Ameens, as if his Excellency had no concern whatever with the Government; assigning Asiatic Journ. VOL. XXI. No. 121. С
the Muhal of Sandee, the Chowdree's right of which had been usurped by Moonshee Alee Nuckee Khan, to that person's nephew ; directing the ministers to attend him for orders, &c. The Vizier added, verbally, that the nobut, or state drum in the gateway of the palace, was not suffered to be beaten, because the sound disturbed the Resident, and asked that it might be beaten as formerly; which his Lordship directed.
Upon his Excellency's wishes being consulted as to his ministers, he desired that Hukeem Mehdee might be paishcar to his son, the nominal minister; and on his Lordship’s remarking that the Hukeem had not the confidence of the British Government, the Vizier replied that he had his confidence; but he had enemies, because he would not join with the Resident.
On the following day, an old servant of the Vizier, named Agha Meer, was deputed to invite Messrs. Swinton and Adam, the Government Secretaries (who were present at the interview just mentioned), to breakfast with, and to receive a communication from, his Excellency, who, upon their visit, retracted the complaints against Col. Baillie, and charged Capt. McLeod, Mr. Clarke, Mr. Law, and a Mr. De L'Etang (also in the Vizier's service), with having urged him to make them! The Vizier confirmed this declaration by a letter to the Governor-General, wherein he says that he had understood that an accusation against the Resident would be agreeable to his Lordship, whereas he had no cause of complaint or dissatisfaction against that gentleman; and that he had dismissed Mr. Clarke, and the other contrivers of the “ sorcery,” from his service.
His Lordship, in these perplexing circunstances, deputed Messrs. Ricketts, Adam, and Swinton, to request of the Vizier an explanation of his contradictory statements; apprizing him that the gentlemen charged with instigating the accusation against Col. Baillie desired to attest on oath, that the subject was, spontaneously urged upon them by the Vizier ; and putting the question, in a solemn manner, to his Excellency's honour, whether (as it had been represented to be his Lordship’s wish to hear Col. Baillie criminated) his name had been used to influence his subsequent conduct.
At this conference the Vizier re-asserted, in the most serious and positive manner, his last statement; affirming that he had been deceived by the practịces. of Mr. Clarke and others, who had influenced his mind by using the Governor-General's name; that, in particular, Mr. Wilson was the physician of his choice, and not Mr. Law; that the declarations of Mr. Clarke and his confederatęs were false; that. Mr. Law first suggested the removal of Major Baillie, whose enemy he was, because he ascribed the preference of Mr. Wilson to his influence. He added, that no person had prompted his retractation ::"I passed a sleepless night," he observed, “ and the next morning I, of my own free will, determined to dismiss Mr. Clarke and the others from my service, and sent the message by Agha Meer.”. Three days after, his Excellency nominated Agha Meer his minister.
Each of the gentlemen charged by the Vizier has most distinctly and unequivocally denied the matters imputed to them; and the Governor-General has expressed his unwavering conviction of their entire innocence. Capt. McLeod declares his firm belief that Agha Meer, "acting in the interest of another or others,”, though in the service of the Nawaub, had betrayed and deceived his master, by intimidating him to make his subsequent declaration.
Lord Hastings intimates his persuasion that the Vizier had “ Aoating dissatisfaction " against the Resident ; that he had been irritated by points of behaviour in Col. Baillie, some of which (as before stated) his Lordship had
himself witnessed; and that he became apt to the purposes of Hukeem Meh. dee, whose representations he might have confounded with the names of the gentlemen referred to, His Lordship considers that the affair was an intrigue of Hukeem Mehdee, overset by some other (a branch of which was the recalling the Vizier to a sense of his obligations to Col. Baillie), the success of which intrigue was reaped by Agha Meer, a low man, who had never yet been mentioned as eligible for the appointment of minister.
The paper of complaint against Col. Baillie having been retracted by the Vizier, that gentleman's exculpation of himself from the charges seemed superfluous; he has, however, either totally denied, or satisfactorily explained, each item; obserying (p. 897) that they formed“ a tissue of the most glaring falsehoods and absurdities, and that he did not, in his conscience, suspect the Vizier of having, even for one moment, entertained the sentiments, far less of having fabricated the assertions conveyed by them.”
When, however, the minute of the Governor-General (before quoted) was communicated to the Resident (26th January 1815), and which contained expressions of slight disapprobation towards that gentleman, though accompanied by a letter commending his zeal, talents, and industry, he addressed (29th April) to the Governinent-Secretary, a letter containing copious remarks upon the preceding transactions.
Col: Baillie begins by adverting to the introduction of Hukeem Mehdee at the late Vizier's court in 1811, and ascribes to that person the obstruction of the reform, and every untoward occurrence which subsequently took place at Lucknow. One of his first devices was to excite a personal enmity in the Vizier towards the Resident, whom he desired to remove from his post. He endeavoured to intrigue, by means of agents; at Calcutta; and when Capt: McLeod arrived at Lucknow in 1811, Col. Baillie was informed that the Hukeem endeavoured to open an intercourse with him; and as Capt. McLeod was on intimate terms with the Resident, the latter cautioned him against the Hukeem. The Vizier's reconciliation with the Resident took place on the 2d October 1813, when Hukeem Mehdee had been banished froin his Excellency's councils, and treated as an enemy and traitor.
It is here necessary to break the connexion of Col. Baillie's narrative, and examine the statement of Capt. McLeod. That officer solemnly detares, that when he proposed to take leave of the late Vizier, and embark for Calcutta; " early in the month of October 1813,” his Excellency took him aside, with tears in his eyes, and, apparently in the deepest distress, deplored his degraded situation, through the interference of Col. Baillie in every branch of his Government; entreated of Capt. McLeod to represent to the Governor-General that he was the most wretched of beings, and wished death would put an end to his miseries; that the Resident trampled on his authority, gave encouragement to his disobedient servants, &c.; and that he (the Vizier) had no means of imparting his grievances to the British Government but through the Resident, whose interest it would be to withhold the communication, &c. &c.
Col. Baillie proceeds to state that Hukeem Mehdee was soon recalled to the Vizier’s councils (about the end of November), and a more perverse conduct on the part of his Excellency was the result of this event, and of encouragement received from the presidency,” by communications from Capt, McLeod (whose acquaintance with Lady Loudon was frequently talked of), or from some native agents at Calcutta. Col. Baillie concludes it to be apparent that there existed “a diabolical intrigue, the object of which was, to frustrate the just views of our Government, by removing from the situation of Resident -the instrument of the accomplishment of those views.”
Col. Baillie intimates a strong suspicion that communications passed at this period between the Vizier and the Government of Bengal, on public subjects, to which he was not privy; and he quotes a paper of intelligence, containing a direct assertion of Hukeem Mehdee that Lord Moira had declared, that the adoption or rejection of the reform was to be totally uncontrolled by the advice of the Resident: he also concludes that the untoward proceedings from this period till the death of the Vizier were connected with the “ deputation” of Capt. McLeod and the intrigues of Hukeem Mehdee.
The death of the Vizier again destroyed the Hukeem's influence; and the new Vizier's attachment was demonstrated to be animated and ardent towards the Resident up to the moment of Lord Hastings' arrival.
Col. Baillie then details minutely the circumstances attending the appointment of Mr. Wilson as physician to the Vizier, in which he had no concern, but which drew upon him the enmity of Mr. Law, and of his friend Capt. McLeod. He then makes some remarks upon the connexion of Mr. Clarke with these gentlemen, as tending to develope the designs with which he became a party to their measures. Lastly, he vindicates himself from the sup: posed offence of obtruding the family of Mirza Jāfer upon the Vizier, which appears, he observes, as the only ground of Lord Hastings' censure of his proceedings. With respect to the general remarks of his Lordship, that “there were other particulars in the Resident's conduct which his Lordship found reason to censure, and some on which he suspected that disapprobation should rest ;” and with respect also to the points of misbehaviour towards the Vizier in his Lordship's presence; Col. Baillie solemnly disavows, on his honour, his having “ made use of any expression, far less committed any act, that could wound his Excellency's feelings, or detract from the dignity or independence of his station."
Col. Baillie then explains the origin of the charges made, and soon after retracted, by the Vizier, which he traces to an intrigue “more base and more complicated” than the former; conducted by Hukeem Mehdee and the European gentlemen already mentioned.
The grounds of the Hukeem's animosity to the Resident must be obvious : he had opposed his accession to power; he had disappointed his views of proceeding to Lord Hastings at Cawnpore, with treasure, which he designed to embezzle; and he had urged a reform which must prejudice his interests. * These, and other grounds, are assigned, or easily assignable.
A few trifling occurrences, wherein diminished attention was accidentally or unavoidably displayed by the Governor-General towards the Resident, is appealed to by Col. Baillie; he dwells, also, in a pointed manner, upon the circumstance of Capt. McLeod and Mr. Clarke being the vehicles of communication between the Vizier and the Governor-General, without the knowledge of the Resident, in violation of the express orders of Government; and upon the irregular visit of Capt. Gilbert. He observes:
To this deputation of Capt. Gilbert, and his private conference, assisted by Mr. Clarke, with the Vizier, I ascribe the maturation of the plot: a conspiracy designed by Hukeem Mehdee, most readily entered into by Capt. McLeod and Mr. Clarke, and
* Hukeem Mehdee's amilship must have been valuable; the district he farmed yielded a revenue of thirty lacs per annum.