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newspaper of Thursday, the 21 instant : are adroit in the use of all warlike instru" Sir J. YORKE observed, that although ments; they possess as much courage as
one great enemy of this country, Bona- their assailants; are more sober, more
parte, had been deposed, there was ano- cool, and would be animated by a thousand " thier gentleman whose deposition was also motives which have no place, and can have * necessary to our inierest, he meant Ilr. no place, in the breasts of those who would " President İladison, and with a view to be sent to fight argainst them. They must' " THAT DEPOSITION a considerable be sensible of their fute, if defeated in a “naval force inust be kept up, especially contest u in the ground said to have been “ in the Atlantic. But as to his Hon. stated by Sir Joseph Yorke, So that, if “ Friend's opinion respecting the reduc- the speech be correctly reported, here is * tion of the Navy, he wished it to be con- certainly a hopeful job cut out for us. I "sidered that a number of shipping were am disposed to believe, however, that if
employed in conveying French prisoners nothing else would prevent a war for such to France, and bringing home our own an object, a representation of clre state of
countrymen. So much for the occupa- our purse will have that desirable effect; “ tion of our navy on the home station. -- and that thus we shall, at last, once more “ But from the Mediterranean, for in- see our country at peace with all the
stance, several three deckers were order- world. I shall not, however, be surprized Red home, and he could swear, that no this is not the case.
practicable exertion would be remitted many people who feel an interest in perto reduce the expence of our Naval Dc-petuating war; the mad passions of the partment."
.. -Now, perhaps, this re- nation have been wound up to so high a port of Sir Joseph Yorke's speech might be pitch ; the revenge on account of the dean erroneous Report ; but I take it word feat of our frigates ; the implacable, the for word as I find it in the newspaper; and hereditary hatred of some persons against if it really was delivered by Sir Joseph the Americans ; the diabolical malice of Yorke, it is well calculated to excite most many in this country against every people serious and anxious thoughts on both sides enjoying any portion of real, and not shanu of the Atlantic ; but especially on this side, freedom; all these together are at work where an already well-sweated purse
had in favour of a long and bloody war with prospect, as we hoped, of being spared a America; and, as to whether they will little in future. Sir Joseph Yorke is prevail, my fears really rather outweigh one of the Lorels of the Admiralty; and, my hopes. therefore, must have spoken, in all proba
New CONSTITUTION OF FRANCE.-- This bility, not only with a thorough knowledge important document, in which is involved
the future welfare of so many millions of privity and approbation ; and it is through human beings, was submitted to the Legisthis official channel, that we learn, that lative Body of France on the 4th instant. the war has for its immediate object, 'THE As it will form the subject of reference in DEPOSITION OF THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES ! here; together with the speech of the King
future REGISTERS, I have given a copy of it --Now, then, Jonathan, stand clear; of France addressed to the Assembly on for, in case the war goes on,
the ulti21:1te ohject must be of a very
this interesting occasion :-
C GENTLEMEN-When, for the first time character indced.-I must confess, how
“ I came into this Assembly, surrounded by ever, that I am not quite so sanguine as “the great Bodies of the State, the repreSir J. Yorke appears to be as to the suc- “ sentatives of a nation which does not cess of the enterprize. The Americans cease to lavish upon me the most affecting do not like taxes, and they are in the
“ marks of its love, I congratulate myself right; but they like something still less
“ in having become the dispenser of those and that is slivery, to which they would, - deigas to grant to my people. I have made
blessings which the Divine. Providence of course, be reduced, if conquered by a “ with Austria, Russia, England, and Prusforcign enemy. They are à rabl;le of “ sia, a peace, in which are included their arned mer), compared with our troops ; Allies, that is to say, all the Princes of but they are armed, and they are free;
“ Christendom. The war was universal. and a nation of freemen in arms were
“ The reconciliation is the same. The rank “ which France has always held among
the never yet subdued. Besides, the Ame
“ nations, has not been transferred to any ricans are brave ; they are, hardy; they
other, and remains to it without parti
* tion. Every thing which the other States | laws intended to restrain the abuse of that liberty.
have acquired of security, equally en- Art. 1X. All kinds of property is inviolable,
creases hers, and consequently adds to her not excepting that which is called national, the 46 real
power. That, therefore, which she law making no kind of difference between ihem. “ does not retain of her conquests, ought
Art. X. The State may require the sacrifice not to be regarded as a retrenchment of of property, on account of any public interest her real strength. The glory of the French legally established; but with a previvus indem
nity. arms has received no stain ; the monu
Art. XI. All animadversions on opinions and “ inents of their valour subsist, and the votes given before the restoration are forbidden. chefs d'ouvres of the arts will belong to us
The same oblivion is enjoined the tribunals and “ in future, by rights more stable and more the citizeus. s sacred than those of victory. The chan- Art. XII. The conscription is abolished. The "nels of commerce, so long closed, are going mode of recruiting the land and sea forces is des to be opened. The market of France will terinined by the law.. “ be no longer the only one open to the pro
FORMS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF * ductions of its soil and its industry. Those
THE KING, 6 for which habit has created a want, or
Art. XIII. The person of the King is invio. " which are necessary to the arts which it lable and sacred. His Ministers are responsible.
exercises, will be supplied to her by the To the King belongs the Executive Power. “ Colonies which she recovers.
She will no
Art. XIV. The King is the Supreme Head of
the State ; commands the land and sea furces; longer be obliged to deprive herself of declares war ; concludes treaties of peace, al6 thein, or to obtain thern only upon ruinous liance, and commerce; appoints to all offices of “ terms. Our manufactures are about to public administration, and issues the regula“ reftourish, our maritime cities to revive, tions and ordinances necessary for the execution " and every thing promises that a long peace of the laws, and the security of the State. “ abroad, and permanent felicity at home, Art. XV. The Legislative Power is exercised “will be the happy fruits of the peace. A collectively by the King, the House of Peers, “ melancholy recollection, nevertheless, dis- and the House of the Deputies of the Depart“ turbs my joy. I was born, I flattered my. os self that I should remain my whole life
Art. XVI. The King proposes the Law. “the most faithful subject of the best of
Art. XVII. The proposition of the law is Kings, and this day I occupy bis place ! carried at the pleasure of the King, either to the “But, however, he is not entirely dead; he House of Peers or to that of the Deputies, ex “ lives again in this testament which he left first acidressed to the House of Deputies.
cepting laws relative to taxes, which must be “ for the instruction of the august and un
Art. XVIIT. Every law shall be discussed and “ forlunate child who ought to have reigned voted freely by the majority of each of the two * before me.
Il is with eyes fixed upon this Houses. “immortal work-it is penetrated with the Art. XIX. The Houses have a right to peti“ sentiments which dictated it; it is guided tion the King to propose a law on any subject “ by the experience, and seconded by the whatever, and to point out what, in their opico counsels, of several among you that have nion, the law ought to contain. “ drawn up the Constitutional Charter whichi Art. XX. Such petitions may be presented hy
is now going to be read, and which is cach of the two Houses, but not till they have * founded upon the solid bases of the
been discussed in Secret Corumittee. It shall
prosperity of the State. My Chancellor: will
not be sent to the other House by that which acquaint you in detail with my paternal
shall have proposed it till after the space of ten “ intentions.”
Art. XXI. If the proposition is adopted by PUBLIC RIGHTS OF FRANCE. the other House, it shall be submitted to the Art. 1. The French are equal before the law, King; if it be rejected, it cannot be presented whatever may be their titles and ranks.
again during the same session. Art. II. They contribute, without distinction, Art. XXII. The King exclusively sanctions in proportion to their fortune, to the expenses of and promulgates laws. the State.
Art. XXIII. The civil list is fixed for the Art. III. They are all equally admissible to whole duration of the King's reign by the firsi civil and religious employments.
legislature assembled since the King's oceession. Art. IV. Their liberty is equally secured : no OF THE HOUSE OF PEERS, person can be arrested or prosecuted except in Art. XXIV. The House of Peei's is an essen. cases provided by the law, and in the form tial part of the legislative power, Which it prescribes.
Art. XXV. It is summoned by the King at the Art. V. Every one professes his own religion same time as the House of the Deputies of the with an equal liberty, and obtains for his wor- Departments. The Session of the one conship the same protection.
mences, and finishes at the same time as that of Art. VI. However, the Catholic, Apostolic, the other. and Roman religion, is the religion of the State, Art. XXVI. Any meeting of the House of
Art. VII. The Ministers of the Catholic, Apos- Peers held out of the time of the Session of the tolic, and Roman religion, and those of the House of Deputies, or which shall not be ordered other Christian religions, only, receive main- by the King, is illegal, and null and void. tenance from the Royal Treasury.
Art. XXVII. The nomination of the Peers of Art. VIII. The French have a right to publish France belongs to the King. Their number is and print their opinions, conforming to the not limited; he may change their diguities, may cause to be considered necessary, caunot Art. XLVI. No amendment can be made in be effected but by a law for the purpose. any law, unless it has been proposed in Com- Art. LXVI. The penalty of the confiscation
nominate them for life, or render them heredi- | mittee by the King, and unless it has been sent tary, at pleasure.
to aud discussed in tlie bureaux. Art. XXVIII. The Peers are admitted into the Art. XLVII. The House of Deputies receives House at 25. gears of age, but have no delibera- all the propositions for taxes; and it is not till tive voice till the age of 30.
these propositions bave been admitted, that they Art. XXIX. The Chancellor of France pre- can be carried to the House of Peers. sides in the House of Peers, and in his absence Art. XLVIII. No tax can be imposed or lea Peer appointed by the King.
vied unless it has been agreed to by the two Art. XXX. The members of the Royal Family Houtses, and sanctioned by the King. and Princes of the Blood are Peers in right of Art. XLIX. The land-tax is granted for a wear their birth; they take prece lence inmediately only. The indirect tnxes n'ay be granted for after the President, but have no deliberative several
yours. voice till the age of 25 years.
Art. L. The King every year convokes the Art. XXXI. The Princes cannot take their
two Houses; he prorogues them, and may displaces in the House except by an express order solve that of the Deputies of the Departments ; from the King for each session, by a message, but in this case, he must convoke a iipon pain of all that las been done in their within the space of three months. presence being annulled.'
Art. LI. No personal restraiut shall be laid Art. XXXII. All the deliberations of the upon any member of the House during the sesIlouse of Peers are private.
sion, or within six weeks before and after it. Art. XXXII The House of Peers takes Art. LII. No member of the House can, cognizance of the crimes of high treason and during the session, be prosecuted or arrested attempis against the safety of the State, which for criminal matters, unless for a fagrant shall be defined by the law.
offence, till the House has permitted his proArt. XXXIV. No Peer can be apprehended secution. but by the authority of the House, and tried by Art. LIII. All petitions to either House must it in criminal matters.
be presented in writing. The law forbids their OF THE HOUSE OF THE DEPUTIES OF being preferred in person, and at the bar. THE DEPARTMENTS.
OF THE MINISTERS, Art. XXXV. The House of Deputies shall be Art. LIV. The Ministers may be Members of composed of deputies chosen by the Electoral the House of Peer's or of the House of Deputies. Colleges, the organization of which shall be de. They have, moreover, a right to admission into termined by the laws.
either House, and must be heard whenever they Art. XXXVI. Each department shall have desire it. the same number of deputies as it has hi- Art. LV. The House of Deputies has a right therto had.
to accuse the Ministers, and to impeach them Art. XXXVII The deputies shall be elected before the House of Peers, which alone is com for five years, and so that one-fifth of the House petent to try them. shall be annually received.
Art. LVI. They cannot be accused, except for Art. XXXVIII. No Deputy can be admitted high treason or peculation. Particular laws into the house, a aless lie be 10 years old, and shall specify this kind of criines, and determine pay a direct contribution of 1,000 francs. the mode of proceeding in respect to them. Art. XXXIX. If, however, there should not
OF THE JUDICIAL ORDER. be in the Department fisty persons of the age Art. LVII. All justice emanates from the required, paying at least 1,000 francs in direct King; it is administered in his name hy Judges, contribution, their number shall be completed whom he nominates and appoints. by those rated ille next bighest, under 1,000 Art. LVIII The Judges nominated by the francs, and these shall not be capable of offer King cannot be removed. ing themselves as candidates against the former. Art. LIX. The ordinary courts and tribuna's
Art. XL. The Electui's who .concur in the actually existing are retained. Nothing shall be nomination of the Deputies, cannot have the changed in them but by virtue of a law. right of voting unless they pay a direct con- Art. LX. The present institution of the tribution of 300 francs, and be at least 30 years Judges of Commerce is preserved. of age.
Art. LXI. The office of Justice of the Peace Ait. XLI. The Presidents of the Electoral is likewise retained. The Justices of the Peaces' Colleges shall be named by the King, and of though nominated by the King, are removable. right members of the College.
Art. LXII. No man can be taken out of the Art. XLII. One half at least of the Deputies lands of his natural judges. shall be chosen from among such persons eli- Art. LXII. There cannot, of course, be gible as have their political residence in the De- created any Extraordinary Commissions and partment.
Tribunals. Under this denomination the ProArt. XLIII. The President of the House of vosts' jurisdictions are not comprehended, if Deputies is appointed by the King, ont of a their re-establishment should be judged neceslist of five Members presented by the House.
sary. Art. XLIV. The Sittings of the House are Art. LXIV. The pleadings in criminal matters public, but the requisition of five Members is shall be published, wless their publicity be dansufficient to enable it to resolve itself into a gerous to good order and morals; and in this Secret Committee.
case the tribunal shall declare it by a judgment. Art. XLV. The House divides itself into Com- Art. LXV. The institution of juries is remittees (bureaux) to discuss the projets pre- tained; the changes which a longer experience sented to it on the part of the King.
of property iş abolished, and cannot be re-estab- bear their full share of the burdens of their lished.
Art. LXVII. The King has the right of pardon, country, and if they cannot be relieved and that of commuting punishments.
from them by diminution of taxes, ineArt. LXVIII. The civil code and the laws ac- vitable ruin speedily awaits them upon any tually existing, not contrary to the present clar- great or sudden reduction in the price of ter, remain in force till they shall be legally abolished. PARTICULAR RIGUTS GUARANTEED 1792. Expenditure before the War. BY THE STATE. Rent 108. per acre.
2200 Art. LXIX. The military in active service, the Poors Rate 2s. per pound. officers and soldiers who have retired, the Tytbe 23. 6d. per acre.
50 widows, officers and soldiers, pensiones shall re Church Rate and Surveyors tain their ranks, honours and pensions.'
Rate Is. per pound. Art. LXX. The public debt is guaranteed; Land Tax.
30 all kinds of engagements contracted by the State, with its creditors, are inviolable.
491 Art. LXXI The ancient Nobility resume their titles; the new retain theirs. The King creates 1814. Expenditure at present time. Nobles at pleasure; but he confer's on them
Rent only ranks and honours, without any exemption Poors Rate 5s. per pound.
125 from the charges and duties of society. Art. LXXII. The Legion of Honour is main- Tythe 5s. per acre.
100 tained. The King will fix its interior regulations Church and Surveyors Rate
ate} 25 and decorations.
18. per pound. Art. LXXIII. The Colonies shall be governed Land Tax.
30 by particular laws and regulations.
Tenants Property Tax.
37 10s Art. LXXIV. The King and his successors Encreased payments to Labourers. 208 shall swear at the ceremony of their anointment Encrease in Wheelwrights, Black-> to the faithful observance of the present consti- smiths, Collar-makers and
80 tutional Charter.
10 Art. LXXV. The Deputies of the Departments of France, who sat in the Legislative Body at
*1,115 10. the time of the last adjournment, shall continue to sit in the House of Deputies till they are re- On inquiring into the cause of the adplaced.
vance of rents, provisions, and other neArt. LXXVI. The first renewal of one-fifth of the House of Deputies shall take place, at the cessaries, it will be found to be the opinion latest, in the year 1816, according to the order of most of our enlightened political econofixed between the classes. We order that the mists, that, in exact proportion to the present constitutional charter submitted to the weight of taxation, these articles advance Senate and Legislative Body, agrecally to our in price ; but no Author has so clearly and proclamation of the 2d of May, be furthwith sent to the House of Peers and that of te Depatics. effectually illustrated this as Soame JenGiven at Paris, in the year of grace nings, in his Polilical Disquisitions, by the 18!4, and of our reign the nine
following anecdote :-“ A sand-man, durteenth. (Signed) LOUIS.
ing the American war, raising the price of (And underneath) The Abbe dé MONTESQUIOU. his sand, was asked the reason for his so
dcing.-- Because of the war,' replied the Corn Laws.
sand-man. His customers scoffed at him for SIR-The encreasing ferment in the this answer, and eagerly enquired if he impublic mind, and the ill directed abuse of ported his sand from America. But, (says every species of agriculturist, induce me to
our Author) the sand-man was right; for send you the following Comparative State- the tax on leather, on hats, salt, porter, ment of the situation of farmers holding candles, and other articles necessary for farms of 400 acres in the year 1792, pre- his subsistence encreased his weekly exvious to the war with France, and the time penditure, and he had no other means of I am now writing. May I be indulged encreasing his revenue but lay advancing by its early insertion, as I am not the price of the article in which he without hope that those who give attention traded." This argument is equally applito its contents will no longer consider the cable to every class of trader and farmer farmer unreasonable and selfish, in wishing through these realms:mour list of half the price of corn to be high enough to re- yearly taxes confirms the fact.-Those munerate him for his present encrease of persons, therefore, who demand that landexpences, and to meet with sufficient en- hords should abate their rents, begin at the couragement to continue its growth. It wrong end of their route. As the cause of will appear also, that the landed interest the evil is clearly pointed out to be an
overloaded taxation, there is no other re-¡Russia, already forgotten, when in less than medy than a speedy diminution of that a month after the news arrived, the price of taxation, in proportion as that decreases corn was reduced 50s. per quar. or more, by every necessary article of life will also di- the opening the trade of the Baltic. Is not minish in price. If a landlord is asked the price of oats stated in our last week's why he cannot lower liis rent, he replies, market return, sufficient to convince us of because his expenditure is encreased by this undeniable fact, the certain and inevitaxation, and he will hold up to our view, table consequence, that importation lowers those badges of slavery, the accursed tax- the price of any article imported? does not papers. The parson will give the same the eager and anxious look of every farmer reason for not lowering his tythe, and the of the 'kingdom at the weekly Market landholder, who thinks a free importation of Herald, demonstrate the truth of this corn would suddenly and inevitably ruin opinion? I think it does; and that the utter
; him, is justified in applying to Parliament ruin of all agriculturists is most certain, if to prevent the importation of corn, and a importation were freely allowed. The contisudden and consequent reduction to the nental price of corn is such, I ain assured, price of 1792. The farmer, like the sand- that importation would reduce it even inan, has no means of paying his increased below the price of 1792.-—But I am calmly expenditure of 805). 10s. a year, if a pro- told, let things find their level; but in the portionate advance in the price of his corn finding this level, I feel destruction and, will not enable him to do it; and presuming ruin; the little account here stated, convincorn to be reduced to the price of 1792, the ces me of this. There would be as much whole of the capital he employs on his propriety in persuading the fen farmer to farm (suppose 30007.) will be wasted in take down his banks and let the water four years by reduced prices and undimi- find its level, and leave off interfering with nished taxation.-Those,' therefore, who the course of nature. It would only be clamour against agriculturists, and meet asking him to inundate his farm, drowa his to pass inflammatory Resolutions, had better cattie, and destroy bis property, perhaps petition Parliament to keep their faith with too his family into the bargain—a more the public, and let the Property Tax be paiaful sight even than this is requested of reduced at the time specified, and that all the agriculturists of this country, by the the war taxes may immediately cease. Then calm gentlemen who wish things to find may the landlord abate his rent, the par- their level—they only require that his inson his tythe, the labourer his wages, and nocent prattlers should surround their fathe price of corn will be as cheap as the ther, and inquire the reason why his cattle public micht wish it.-It will he found are seized, his farming stock and houseupon examination that the landed interest is hold furniture sold, and the earning of the one of the chief sources of taxation ; ruin industry of many years at once destroyed or distress this interést, the taxes will fail
, the only answer to be given is to satisfy and the fundhelder will be found involved the demands of the tax-gatherer ; cruel in the national bankruptcy ; convulsion, necessity : and because he wishes to avert tumult, and anarchy, their constant accon- this evil, he is to be held up to the public paniments, must inevitably follow. Of as avaricious, wishing to deny to the those, thcrefore, who petition Parliament people the bounty of Heaven--to be burnt against the Corn Bill, it may truly be said, in effigy, and treated with scorn, contume
they know what they ask."--There are ly and contempt. I conclude, therefore, those, liowever, who are of opinion that the with requesting all those towns, counties, evils I dread are only imaginary ; that a and districts, who mean to petition Parliafree importation of corn would not reduce ment against the regulations of the Corn its price; that there are persons who hold Laws, to state, in their Resolutions and Pethis opinion, excites in me the utmost titions, that an overloaded taxation puts us degree of surprise: it is no longer an affair in eminent danger, and praying their speedy of speculation or doubt, we have facts so reduction. This would be acting more like recent before us, that nothing can overturn reasonable beings, than abusing the agrithe position, that an importation of corn culturists, whose industry, economy, and would reduce its price.--Is that memorable ingenuity, nothing can surpass.
R. F. event, the death of the late Emperor of
Printed and Published by J. MORTON, No. 94, Strand,