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the Allies; who, in their conduct at Paris, have recognized, on the part of all Europe, the principle, (which though true in theory, ought to be perhaps but seldom acted on) that the people have a right to dethrone and dismiss their rulers, whenever they be come tired of them, or conceive they have acted improperly. This principle, may possibly, ere long, be brought home to all concerned in such a recognition; to Alexander, the Emperor of Austria, the King of Prussia, and even to the Brunswick dynasty itself. It will, however, do much good to mankind, if it produce the effect of putting princes on their good behaviour, and making them pay proper deference and attention to public opinion, and the sentiments of those they govern.As to peace, no reasonable or thinking man can expect to see one of long continuance or duration while the bank of England exists in its present state, and goes on making such excessive issues of paper, as it has been doing. The greatest evil attending the funding system consists in this, that it is a great encourager and promoter of warfare and bloodshed, by affording the means of carrying them on with facility.
it proper, to publish the most important of them here, as they form the ground work of every thing that may be said in future respecting this new revolution, and the effects which it is calculated to produce upon the present aspect of civilized, as well as of uncivilized Europe.-When the allies obtained possession of Paris on the 31st. ult. they issued the following declaration of their views and sentiments:- "The armies of the Allied Powers have occupied the capital of France; the Allied Sovereigns receive favourably the wish of the French nation.
-They declare, that if the conditions of peace ought to contain stronger guarantees when the question was to bind down the ambition of Bonaparte, they may be more favourable, when, by a return to a wise government, France herself offers the assurance of this repose.- -The Sovereigns proclaim, in consequence, that they will no more treat with Napoleon Bonaparte, nor with any of his family.-That they respect the integrity of ancient France, as it existed under its legitimate Kings: they may even do more, because they profess it as a principle, that, for the happiness of Europe, France must be great and strong: -That they will recognise and guarantee the Constitution which France shall adopt They, COUNTER REVOLUTION IN FRANCE therefore, invite the Senate to name immeThis unexpected event which has given a diately a Provisional Government, which new turn to all political and military spe- may provide for the wants of the Adminisculations, and which promises to restore tration, and prepare the constitution which peace, for a season, to suffering Europe, has shall suit the French people-The intenbeen accomplished without bloodshed, tions which I have just expressed, are comwithout a civil war; and the Bourbons, mon to all the Allied Powers. (Signed) who, twenty years ago, were driven from ALEXANDER."---Here was an unqualified their native land by a justly incensed and avowal, made for the first time, that the indignant people, are now said to be re-allied powers would no longer respect the called by that same people as the only dynasty of Napoleon, or the integrity of family who can confer prosperity and hap- France, except under the reign of the Bourpiness upon the nation. Time, which tries bons. The Senate, which had been created all things, will probably soon determine by Bonaparte, were thus placed in a sithis great question. Meanwhile the rapi- tuation in which they had only one choice, dity of the occurrences, the multiplicity of With the sword drawn over their heads, topics which these occurrences suggest, they assembled to consider the state of detheir vast magnitude and importance, and graded France, and the following has the novel circumstances connected there-been published as the result of their deliwith, which almost every recuring day bring under notice; render it a matter of prudence to avoid, at least for the present, much discussion respecting them, until the ebulition of public feeling, has somewhat subsided, and mankind are in some degree, restored to their wanted rationality. As, however, I shall afterwards have frequent occasion to refer to the memorable documents which have appeared during this short, but momentous period, I have thought
berations, if that name can be given with propriety to acts which were the consequence of fear, while the Senate House wag surrounded by a foreign army:- -"On the 1st of April, 1814, at half-past three, the Members of the Senate met in consequence of an extraordinary convocation. His Serene Highness the Prince of Benevente, Vice-Grand Elector, President.- -His Serene Highness the Prince Vice-Elector, President, then spoke as follows:--SE
of the provisional government..
NATORS-The letter which I have had the honour of addressing to each of you to inform you of this extraordinary convocation, acquaints you with the object of it. It is intended to lay proposals before you. This one word sufficiently paints out the liberty which each of you brings into this assembly. It gives you the means to give a generous flow (essor) to the sentiments with which the soul of each of you is filled - the desire of saving your country, and the resolution of hastening to the assistance of a forsaken people.--Senators-Circumstances, however difficult they may be, cannot be above the firm and enlightened patriotism of all the Members of this Assembly. You have, doubtless, all equally felt the necessity of a deliberation which may shut the door against all delay, and which may not let a day pass without re-establishing the action of the administration, the first of all wants, for the formation of a Government, whose authority, founded on the necessities of the moment, cannot but re-assure people's minds."---The Prince Vice-Elector having ceased speaking, several proposals were made by different Members; the question being put, the Senate decrees:-1st, That there shall be established a Provisional Government, charged to provide for the wants of the Administration, and to present to the Senate the plan of a Constitution which may suit the French people.2d, That the Government shall consist of five Members; and then proceeding to their nomination, the Senate elects for members of the Provisional Government, M. Talleyrand, Prince of Benevente; Count de Bour-ciples which are the bases of these propononville, Senator; Count de Jaucourt, Senator; Duke of Dalberg, Counsellor of State; M. de Montesquieu, ancient member of the Constituent Assembly. -They are proclaimed in this quality by the Prince Vice Grand Elector, President.- -His Serene Highness added, that as one of the first cares of the Provisional Government ought to be the drawing up of the plan of a Constitution, the Members of the Government, as soon as they shall employ themselves on this plan, will give notice of it to all the Members of the Senate who are invited to contribute by their wisdom to the perfection of so important a work.-Some Senators demand that this act shall contain an account of the motives which have determined the Senate, and rendered its meeting indispensable.--Other Members, on the contrary, demand that these motives shall form part of the address, which will be published by the members
sitions. The Senate adopts this amendment. The Senate adjourns till nine o'clock this evening, to hear and adopt the definitive redaction of the proces verbal, and to sign it individually. Senator Count Barthelemy, Ex-President of the Senate, is appointed President in the absence of the Prince Vice Grand Elector, who cannot be present at this sitting.It is decreed that the extract of the proces verbal, containing the nomination of the Members of the Provisional Government, shall be immediately made out under the signature of the President and Secretaries.- -The Senators who, for want of being informed in time, have not been able to attend this sitting, are to be again convoked for the sitting this evening.--These deliberations being finished, the Prince Vice Grand Elec tor put an end to the sitting. The same day, April the 1st, 1814. At nine in the evening the sitting is resumed; Senator
Count Barthelemy, President. The Senate hears the proces verbal of this day read; and adopts it with some amendments. -It is demanded that this process verbal shall be printed, and six copies distributed to each of the members. This proposal is adopted.--The Members then proceeded to sign the proces verbal as follows:-M. M. Abriel, Barbe de Marbois, Barthelemy, Cardinal de Bayanne, Belderbusch, Bertholet, General Beurnonville, Buonacorsi, Carbouara, General Count Chasseloup, Laubat, Cholet, General Colaud, Cornet, Davous, de Gregory Marcorengo, General Dembarrere, de Pere, Destust de Tracy, General Dharville, Daubersaert, General d'Hedonville, Dubois Debay, Emmery, Fabre-de-l'Aude, General Ferino, Fontanes, Garat, Gregoire, Herwin, de Jaucourt, Journu Aubert, General Klein le Jeas, Lambreschts, Lanjuinais, Lannoy, Le Brun de Rochemont, General Lespinasse, Le Mercier, Maleville, Meermann, Monbadon, Pastoret, Pere, Pontecoulant, Porcher, Rigal, Roger Ducos, St. Martin de Lamothe, General Sainte Suzanne, Saur, Schimmelpenninck, Marshal Serruier, General Soules, Tascher, General Valence, Marshal de Valmy, Vandeden, Vandepoll, General Vaubois, General Villetard, Vimar, Volney -The Members absent from indisposition sent their adherence."
resolved not to wait for copies of the act which deposed Napoleon; not wishing to be behind hand with the Senate, which had met twice in one day, and, probably, being previously prepared for the part they were to act, hastened to show their devotion to the magnanimous Alexander, by immediately issuing the following proclamation or address to the French army:-- Interior, Paris, April 2, 1614. Soldiers,
France has just broken the yoke under which she has groaned with you for so many years. You have never fought but for the country; you can no longer fight, unless against it, under the colours of the man who leads you.--Behold all that you have suffered from his tyranny: you were lately a million of men; nearly all have perished: they were delivered up to the sword of the enemy, without food, without hospitals; they were condemned to perish 'of misery and hunger.-Soldiers, it is full time to end the calamities of the country; peace is in your hands. Will you refuse it to desolated France? Your enemies themselves demand it of you; they regret to ravage these fine countries, and wish only to take up arms against your oppressor and ours. Shall you be deaf to the voice of the country which summons and entreats you? It addresses you by its Senate, by its capital, and, above all, by its misfortunes; you are The Provisional Government having its noblest children, and cannot belong to been nominated in this manner, the Ex-him who has ravaged it, who has delivered President Barthelemy addressed to each of its members the following letter:"Paris, April 2d.-Gentlemen, Members of the Provisional Government, The Senate commissions me to request you to sig. nify to the French people to-morrow, that the Senate, by a decree passed in its sitting this evening, has declared, that the Emperor Napoleon and his family have forfeited all right to the throne, and consequently On the 3d, the following proceedings took absolved the French people and the army place in the Senate: "The sitting from their oath of allegiance. This act which had been adjourned was resumed will be sent to you to-morrow, with the at four o'clock, when the Senator Count motives and reason of it. I have the ho-Lambrechts read the revised and adopted nour to salute you,-The President of the Senate, BARTHELEMY."
The Senators of Paris were not more prompt in their obedience to the mandates of the allied powers, than the Provisional Government was to comply with the wishes of the Senate. Barthelemy's letter was dated on the evening of the 2d, and next day, the 3d, was named when the request which it contained was expected to be complied with. But these docile ministers,
it up without arms, without defence; who wished to render your name odious to all nations, and who would have compromised your glory, could a man, who is not even a Frenchman, ever weaken the glory of our arms, or the generosity of our soldiers.- -You are no longer the soldiers of Napoleon: the Senate and all France absolve you from your oath."
plan of the decree which passed in the sitting of yesterday. It is in the following terms :- The Conservative Senate, considering that in a constitutional monarchy, the monarch exists only in virtue of the constitution or social compact:-That Napoleon Bonaparte, during a certain period of firm and prudent government, afforded to the nation reasons to calculate for the future on acts of wisdom and justice; but that afterwards he violated the compact
Government established by the Senatus Consultum of the 28th Floreal, year 12, has ceased to exist, and that the wish manifested by all Frenchmen calls for an order of things, the first result of which should be the restoration of general peace, and which should also be the æra of a solemn reconciliation of all the states of the great Eu ropean Family -The Senate declares and decrees as follows:-Art. 1. Napoleon Bonaparte has forfeited the throne, and the hereditary right established in his family is abolished.-2. The French people and the army are released from their oath of fidelity towards Napoleon Bonaparte.-3. The present decree shall be transmitted by a message to the Provisional Government of France, conveyed forthwith to all the departments and the armies, and immediately proclaimed in all thequarters of the capital."
While the Senate was thus engaged, in fulminating its decrees, the following correspondence took place betwixt Prince Schwartzenberg and the Duke of Raguza (Marmont) respecting the personal liberty and safety of Napoleon- April 3, 1814.
-Monsieur le Mareschall-I have the honour to transmit to your Excellency, by a safe person, all the public papers and documents necessary to render your Excellency perfectly acquainted with the events which have taken place since you quitted the ca
which united him to the French people, particularly in levying, imposts and establishing taxes otherwise than in virtue of the law, against the express tenor of the oath which he had taken on his ascending the throne, conformable to Article 53 of the Act of the Constitutions of the 28th Floreal, year 12;-That he committed this attack on the rights of the people, even in adjourning, without necessity, the Legislative Body, and causing to be suppressed, as criminal, a report of that body, the title of which, and its share in the national representation, he disputed;-That he un dertook a series of war in violation of article 50, of the act of the Constitutions of the 22d Frimaire, year 8; which purports, that declarations of war should be proposed, debated, decreed, and promulgated in the same manner as laws; That he issued, unconstitutionally, several decrees, inflicting the punishment of death; particularly the two decrees of the 5th of March last, tending to cause to be considered as national, a war which would not have taken place but for the interests of his boundless ambition;-That he violated the constitutional laws by his decrees respecting the prisoners of State;-That he annulled the responsibility of the Ministers, confounded all authorities, and destroyed the independence of judicial bodies.-Considering that the liberty of the press, established and conse-pital, as well as an invitation from the crated as one of the rights of the nation, has been constantly subjected to the arbitrary controul of his Police, and that at the same time he has always made use of the press to fill France and Europe with misrepresentations, false maxims, doctrines favourable to despotism, and insults on foreign governments :-That acts and reports heard by the Senate have undergone alterations in the publication;-Considering that, instead of reigning according to the terms of his oath, with a sole view to the interest, the happiness, and glory of the French People, Napoleon completed the misfortunes of his country by his refusal to treat on con ́ditions which the national interests required him to accept, and which did not compromise the French honour;-By the abuse which he made of all the means entrusted to him in men and money;-By the abandonment of the wounded without dressings, without assistance, and without subsistence;-By various measures, the consequences of which were the ruin of the towns, the depopulation of the country, famine and contagious diseases ;-Considering that, for all these causes, the Imperial
members of the Provisional Government to range yourself under the banners of the good French cause. I supplicate you in the name of your country and humanity, to listen to the proposals which will put an end to the effusion of the precious blood of the brave men whom you command. SCHWARTZENBERG.'
le Mareschall-I have received the letter which your Excellency has done me the honour to address to me, as well as the papers which it inclosed. Public opinion has always been the rule of my conduct. The army and the people being exempt from the oath of allegiance towards the Emperor Napoleon by the decree of the Senate, I am disposed to concur in an union between the army and the people, which will prevent all chance of civil war, and stop the effusion of blood; consequently I am ready to quit with my troops the army of the Emperor Napoleon, on the following conditions, of which I demand from you the guarantee in writing:-Art. 1. I, Charles, Prince of Schwartzenberg, Marshal and Commander in Chief of the Allied Armies, guarantee to all the French
On the same day in which Napoleon gave the above remarkable proof of magnani
troops, who, in consequence of the decree and to give in his full and entire abdicaof the Senate of the 2d of April, shall quit tion. To-morrow I hope to have from the banners of Napoleon Bonaparte, that him the formal and authentic act, and they may retire freely to Normandy, with shall soon afterwards have the honour of their arms, baggage, and ammunition, and waiting upon your lordship. I am, &c.with the same considerations and military [ (Signed)-Prince of MOSKWA."-Fonhonours, which the allied troops recipro- tainbleau, April 5, Half-past 11 at night. cally owe to each other.-2. That, if in Next day Napoleon abdicated the thrones consequence of this movement, the events of France and Italy by the following deof the war should cause the person of Na-claration:-"The Allied Powers having poleon Bonaparte to fall into the hands of proclaimed that the Emperor Napoleon the Allies, his life shall be guaranteed to was the only obstacle to the re-establish. him, and his liberty, in a space of ground ment of the Peace of Europe, the Empeand circumscribed territory, at the choice ror Napoleon, faithful to his oath, declares of the Allied Powers and the French Go- that he renounces for himself and his heirs, vernment. RAGUSA."- "Monsieur the thrones of France and Italy, and that le Mareschall-I cannot sufficiently express there is no personal sacrifice, even that of the satisfaction which I feel in learning the life, which he is not ready to make to the eagerness with which you accept the invi- interest of France. Done at the Palace of tation of the Provisional government, to Fontainbleau, the 6th April, 1814." range yourselves conformably to the deeree of the 2d of this month, under the banners of the French cause. The distin-mity, which shows how much his passions guished services which you have rendered were under the controul of his judgment, to your country are generally acknowledg- the Senate held another meeting at which ed, but you have crowned them by restor- the following plan of a new Constitution, ing to their country, the few brave troops, prepared by the Provisional Government, who have escaped the ambition of a single was presented and approved of:-"The man. I entreat you to believe that I par- Conservative Senate deliberating upon the ticularly appreciate the delicacy of the arti- plan of a constitution presented to it by the cle which you demand, and which I accept Provisional Government in execution of the relative to the person of Napoleon. No- act of the Senate of the 1st instant;—After thing could better characterise that amia- having heard the report of the special comble generosity, which is natural to French-mission of seven members, Decrees as folmen, and which particularly distinguished low:-Art. 1. The French Government is the character of your excellency. Accept monarchical and hereditary from male to the assurance of my high consideration. male, in order of primogeniture.-2. The (Signed) SCHWARTZENBERG. At my French people call freely to the throne of head-quarters, April 4, 1814." France Louis STANISLAUS XAVIER DE The following letter of Marshal Ney, FRANCE, brother of the last King and Prince of Moskwa, was addressed to the after him the other members of the House Prince of Benevente, Chief of the Provi- of BOURBON, in the ancient order.-3. sional Government: 66 My Lord-I The ancient nobility resume their titles. proceeded to Paris yesterday with Marshal The new preserve theirs hereditarily. The the Duke of Tarentum and the Duke of legion of honour is maintained with its preVicenza, with full powers to the Emperor rogatives. The King shall fix the decora of Russia to defend the interests of the tion.-4. The executive power belongs to dynasty of the Emperor Napoleon. An the King.-5. The King, the Senate, and unforeseen event broke off the negociations the Legislative Body, concur in the making which seemed at first to promise a favour of laws.-Plans of laws may be equally ble termination. From that time I saw proposed in the Senate and in the Legislathat to save our dear country from the tive Body. Those relating to contributions frightful evils of civil war, it remained only can only be proposed in the Legislative for the French to embrace the cause of our Body. The King can invite equally ancient Kings, and I repaired to-night to the two Bodies to occupy themselves upon the Emperor Napoleon to manifest this objects which he deems proper. The sancwish.-The Emperor, convinced of the tion of the King is necessary for the comcritical situation in which he had placed pletion of a law.-6. There are 150 SenaFrance, and the impossibility of saving her tors at least, and 200 at most. Their dighimself, has appeared disposed to resign,nity is immoveable, and hereditary from